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Switching from Insulin to Dulaglutide Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Real-World Data Study.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Aim: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who require injectable therapy have been conventionally treated with insulin. A glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist was recently recommended as first line injectable treatment, but few studies have investigated the effects of switching from insulin to dulaglutide. This study investigated the clinical efficacy and parameters affecting responses to dulaglutide as an alternative to insulin in patients with T2DM in a real-world clinical setting. Read More

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Incorporation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System to assess quality of life among patients with breast cancer initiating care at an academic center.

Cancer 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Symptom burden and reduced quality of life (QOL) are considerable hurdles in oncology. The authors used the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS), which assesses physical and psychosocial health, to establish a mean symptom burden, examine potential drivers, and characterize severe symptom burden in breast cancer patient subgroups with the goal of characterizing stage IV patient QOL and triaging patients to individualized supportive care services.

Methods: New patients at the University of California San Francisco Breast Care Center received questionnaires with 8 PROMIS domains: depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleep-related impairment, sleep disturbance, cognitive function, cognitive abilities, and physical function. Read More

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Brain dysfunction of methamphetamine-associated psychosis in resting state: Approaching schizophrenia and critical role of right superior temporal deficit.

Addict Biol 2021 May 6:e13044. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shenzhen Mental Health Center, Shenzhen Kangning Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Methamphetamine (MA)-associated psychosis (MAP) is highly debilitating and common among individuals who use the drug, yet the underlying neural mechanism is not clear. This study compared brain functions between patients with MAP and those with schizophrenia during resting state and investigated the effect of brain alteration on the association between MA use and psychosis in patients with MAP. Three groups, including 24 patients with MAP, 17 with schizophrenia in first-episode (SCZ) and 31 healthy controls (HCs), were included after receiving a resting-state functional MRI scan. Read More

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A Proposal Towards a Rational Classification of the Antimicrobial Activity of Acetone Tree Leaf Extracts in a Search for New Antimicrobials.

Planta Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Phytomedicine Programme, Department of Paraclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.

Many scientists investigate the potential of finding new antibiotics from plants, leading to more than a thousand publications per year. Many different minimum inhibitory concentrations of extracts have been proposed to decide if an extract has interesting activity that could lead to the discovery of a new antibiotic. To date, no rational explanation has been given for the selection criteria different authors have used. Read More

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Performance and Diagnostic Value of Genome-Wide Noninvasive Prenatal Testing in Multiple Gestations.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Human Genetics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, the Center for Human Genetics and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Leuven, Leuven, the Center for Medical Genetics, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gent, Ghent, the Center for Medical Genetics, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, Antwerp, the Center for Medical Genetics, Universiteit Antwerpen, Antwerp, the Center for Medical Genetics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège, the Center for Human Genetics, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, the Center for Human Genetics, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, the Center for Medical Genetics, Institut de Pathologie et de Génétique Gosselies, Charleroi, the Center for Medical Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, and the Department of Obstetrics, Women's Clinic, Universitair Ziekenhuis Gent, Ghent, Belgium.

Objective: To evaluate the accuracy and diagnostic value of genome-wide noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for the detection of fetal aneuploidies in multiple gestations, with a focus on dichorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study including data from pregnant women with a twin or higher-order gestation who underwent genome-wide NIPT at one of the eight Belgian genetic centers between November 1, 2013, and March 1, 2020. Chorionicity and amnionicity were determined by ultrasonography. Read More

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Chorioamnionitis and Risk for Maternal and Neonatal Sepsis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania; and Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois.

Objective: To estimate the risk of maternal and neonatal sepsis associated with chorioamnionitis.

Data Sources: PubMed, BIOSIS, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were systematically searched for full-text articles in English from inception until May 11, 2020. Read More

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Surgical Management of Symptomatic Apical Pelvic Organ Prolapse: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McGill University, and St. Mary's Research Centre, Montreal, Québec, and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To systematically review objective and subjective success and complications of apical suspensions for symptomatic uterine or vaginal vault pelvic organ prolapse (POP).

Data Sources: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ClinicalTrials.gov, and EMBASE (2002-2019) were searched using multiple terms for apical POP surgeries, including comparative studies in French and English. Read More

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Topical Imiquimod for the Treatment of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Cervix: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Prevention, the Department of Gynecological Oncology, the Department of Pathology, and the Research and Teaching Institute, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil; the Department of Gynecologic Oncology and Reproductive Medicine, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas; the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal University of Health Sciences of Porto Alegre/Santa Casa de Misericordia de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, Brazil; and the Teaching Superintendence, A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: To evaluate the histologic response rate of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) of the cervix after topical application of 5% imiquimod cream.

Methods: In this phase II trial, women with cervical HSIL (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2-3) were randomly assigned to 250 mg of 5% imiquimod cream applied to the cervix weekly for 12 weeks, followed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) without preceding treatment. The sample size was calculated based on the HSIL regression rates previously reported by Grimm et al. Read More

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Differentiating Acute Rejection From Preeclampsia After Kidney Transplantation.

Obstet Gynecol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California; Transplant Pregnancy Registry International, Gift of Life Institute, and the Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Surgery, Lehigh Valley Health Network, Allentown, Pennsylvania; and the Department of Surgery, Morsani College of Medicine, Tampa, Florida.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and laboratory characteristics in pregnancy that differentiate preeclampsia from acute renal allograft rejection and to investigate the maternal, neonatal, and graft sequelae of these diagnoses.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective case-controlled registry study of data abstracted from Transplant Pregnancy Registry International deliveries between 1968 and 2019. All adult kidney transplant recipients with singleton pregnancies of at least 20 weeks of gestation were included. Read More

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Optical Coherence Tomography and Microdialysis for Microneedle-Mediated Penetration Enhancement Study of Paeoniflorin-Loaded Ethosomes.

Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2021 May 6:1-11. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: To understand the cumulative effect of topical formulations after medication, evaluate the therapeutic effect of microneedle-assisted (MN-assisted) paeoniflorin-loaded ethosomes (TGP-E), and explore the potential for deep penetration of drugs, this paper uses microdialysis to systematically study the percutaneous pharmacokinetics of TGP-E.

Methods: First, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to study the effectiveness of microneedle puncture. Second, a microdialysis method and a UPLC-MS method for determining the amount of paeoniflorin (Pae) in dialysate were established. Read More

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Comparison of Pre-Amputation Evaluation in Patients with and without Chronic Kidney Disease.

Am J Nephrol 2021 May 6:1-8. Epub 2021 May 6.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, USA.

Introduction: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and peripheral artery disease (PAD) are more likely to undergo lower extremity amputation than patients with preserved kidney function. We sought to determine whether patients with CKD were less likely to receive pre-amputation care in the 1-year prior to lower extremity amputation compared to patients without CKD.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of patients with PAD-related lower extremity amputation between January 2014 and December 2017 using a large commercial insurance database. Read More

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EEG-based auditory attention decoding using speech-level-based segmented computational models.

J Neural Eng 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Southern University of Science and Technology, No.1088 Xueyuan Blvd., Shenzhen, Shenzhen, 518055, CHINA.

Objective: Auditory attention in complex scenarios can be decoded by electroencephalography (EEG)-based cortical speech-envelope tracking. The relative root-mean-square (RMS) intensity is a valuable cue for the decomposition of speech into distinct characteristic segments. To improve auditory attention decoding (AAD) performance, this work proposed a novel segmented AAD approach to decode target speech envelopes from different RMS-level-based speech segments. Read More

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Appraising the quality of meta-analysis for breast cancer treatment in the adjuvant setting: A systematic review.

Cancer Treat Res Commun 2021 Mar 19;27:100358. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Argentine Association of Clinical Oncology, Gorostiaga 2450, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, CP1426, Argentina; Instituto Alexander Fleming, Cramer 1180, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, CP1426, Argentina.

Introduction: Breast cancer is the tumor with highest incidence in women worldwide and adjuvant treatment is extremely important to achieve disease control. Given the relevance of systematic reviews, their rigor should be warranted to avoid biased conclusions. Our objective was to investigate the methodological quality of meta-analysis of early breast cancer adjuvant treatment. Read More

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Hydrological contraction patterns and duration of drying period shape microbial-mediated litter decomposition.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;785:147312. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Centre for Functional Ecology, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Calçada Martim de Freitas, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

The length and number of streams experiencing intermittency is expected to increase in response to human population growth, associated water use, and climate change. In these streams, habitat contraction may occur at distinct rates giving rise to drying periods of distinct duration. To date, the impact of drought installation rate and duration have been mostly overlooked. Read More

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Potential biotransformation pathways and efficiencies of ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin by an activated sludge consortium.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 27;785:147379. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Frontiers Science Center for Synthetic Biology and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Yaguan Road 135, Jinnan District, Tianjin 300350, PR China; SynBio Research Platform, Collaborative Innovation Centre of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Yaguan Road 135, Jinnan District, Tianjin 300350, PR China. Electronic address:

Fluoroquinolones (FQs), such as ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR), are types of emerging trace pollutants that have attracted great attention. In this study, an activated sludge (AS) consortium with high bio-removal capability to CIP and NOR was obtained by acclimating with CIP and NOR for 10 d. Meanwhile, a CIP- and NOR- transforming bacterial strain (S5), which is highly homologous to the 16S rRNA gene sequence of Enterobacter sp. Read More

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Shrubs magnify soil phosphorus depletion in Tibetan meadows: Conclusions from C:N:P stoichiometry and deep soil profiles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 24;785:147320. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Department of Soil Science of Temperate Ecosystems, Department of Agricultural Soil Science, University of Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Globally, the proliferation of shrubs within grasslands stimulates soil phosphorus (P) cycling and increases topsoil P storage beneath their canopies. However, little is known regarding the impact of shrub encroachment on subsoil P storage, and whether shrubs mediate changes in soil stoichiometry, like increasing P cycling. In grazed meadows on the Tibetan Plateau, soil and roots were sampled to 1 m depth in shrubby Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. Read More

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Low levels of PAHs and organotin compounds in surface sediment samples from a broad marine area of 25 de Mayo (King George) Island, South Shetland Islands.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 20;785:147206. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Instituto Antártico Argentino, 25 de Mayo 1143, San Martín B1650HMK, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina; Universidad de Buenos Aires, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Instituto NANOBIOTEC UBA-CONICET, Junín 956 6to piso, CABA, Argentina.. Electronic address:

The Northern region of the Antarctic Peninsula constitutes the area with the highest human presence in West Antarctica. The human presence, with all the activities associated such as logistic, scientific and tourism operations, represents a potential risk of chemical pollution with both, organic and inorganic contaminants. Under these conditions knowledge about the presence and levels of the main persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is essential to evaluate the environmental status of this ecologically relevant and sensitive area. Read More

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In situ electrokinetic (EK) remediation of the total and plant available cadmium (Cd) in paddy agricultural soil using low voltage gradients at pilot and full scales.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 23;785:147277. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Ecosystems and Environment Research Programme, University of Helsinki, Niemenkatu 73, FI-15140 Lahti, Finland; Natural Resources Institute Finland Luke, Itäinen Pitkäkatu 4A, 20520 Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Electrokinetic (EK) remediation has been widely studied at laboratory scales. However, field-scale research is far less. In this study, a 14-day EK remediation was carried out, in a field pilot (4 m) test and a full-scale (200 m) application for the first time, in a cadmium (Cd) contaminated paddy agricultural field near a mining area. Read More

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Eusocial insect declines: Insecticide impairs sperm and feeding glands in bumblebees.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 10;785:146955. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Bee Health, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Agroscope, Swiss Bee Research Centre, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Insecticides are contributing to global insect declines, thereby creating demand to understand the mechanisms underlying reduced fitness. In the eusocial Hymenoptera, inclusive fitness depends on successful mating of male sexuals (drones) and efficient collaborative brood care by female workers. Therefore, sublethal insecticide effects on sperm and glands used in larval feeding (hypopharyngeal glands (HPG)) would provide key mechanisms for population declines in eusocial insects. Read More

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A 3D personalized cardiac myocyte aggregate orientation model using MRI data-driven low-rank basis functions.

Med Image Anal 2021 Apr 9;71:102064. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Cardiac myocyte aggregate orientation has a strong impact on cardiac electrophysiology and mechanics. Studying the link between structural characteristics, strain, and stresses over the cardiac cycle and cardiac function requires a full volumetric representation of the microstructure. In this work, we exploit the structural similarity across hearts to extract a low-rank representation of predominant myocyte orientation in the left ventricle from high-resolution magnetic resonance ex-vivo cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (cDTI) in porcine hearts. Read More

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Default mode network connectivity and cognition in the aging brain: the effects of age, sex, and APOE genotype.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Apr 2;104:10-23. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Laboratory of Behavioral Neuroscience, National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

The default mode network (DMN) overlaps with regions showing early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) pathology. Age, sex, and apolipoprotein E ɛ4 are the predominant risk factors for developing AD. How these risk factors interact to influence DMN connectivity and connectivity-cognition relationships before the onset of impairment remains unknown. Read More

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Ovine β-globin gene: A new qPCR for rapid haplotype identification and association with susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus infection.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Apr 27;294:109434. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Embrapa Pecuária Sudeste, Rodovia Washington Luiz, Km 234 s/n, Fazenda Canchim, PO Box 339, 13560-970, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

Two β-globin allelic haplotypes (A and B) were identified in domestic sheep, wherein animals which are homozygous for β allele (BB haplotype) have a deletion of pre-adult β-globin and consequently are less tolerant to anemia and hypoxia. Since Haemonchus contortus infection, is associated with severe anemia, studies performed from 1960s to 1990s investigated the association between β-globin haplotype and resistance against this parasite. However, the findings were controversial, pointing out from increased resistance in animals harboring the β allele to inexistence of association. Read More

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Metanalysis of alloplastic materials versus autologous fat for injection augmentation pharyngoplasty treatment of velopharyngeal insufficiency.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Apr 28;146:110738. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) can cause resonance, speech and feeding problems. While reconstructive palatoplasty and surgical pharyngoplasty techniques are the mainstay of treatment for severe VPI, injection augmentation pharyngoplasty offers a minimally invasive approach in patients with mild-to-moderate VPI.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of the literature available on PubMed and Embase from 1990 to 2019 including studies that addressed VPI, incompetence, or dysfunction managed with injection augmentation. Read More

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Laryngeal cleft: A literature review.

Am J Otolaryngol 2021 Apr 20;42(6):103072. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Drexel University College of Medicine, United States of America; Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Laryngeal cleft is a congenital condition in which an opening in the posterior laryngotracheal wall allows food and liquid to pass from the esophageal lumen to the airway and causes aspiration. The severity of a laryngeal cleft is measured using the Benjamin-Inglis system, and can be managed conservatively or with a variety of surgical options With increased awareness, higher suspicion among primary physicians, advanced technology and improved intensive neonatal care services, more babies with laryngeal clefts survive in the modern era. Therefore, the focus has shifted from infant survival to treatment of laryngeal clefts and the challenging, complex medical conditions they create. Read More

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Distal Metatarsal Minimally Invasive Osteotomy (DMMO): Surgical technique, variants, indications, and treatment decision-tree.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Apr 8;47:101801. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre ostéo-articulaire des Cèdres, 5, rue des Tropiques, Parc Galaxie-Sud, 38130 Échirolles, France.

Background: Metatarsal osteotomy is a major means of treating mechanical metatarsalgia. Open techniques are widely used, and notably that described by Weil. They have, however, certain drawbacks, and new types of osteotomy have been developed. Read More

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Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy versus lateral column lengthening to treat stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction, a prospective randomized controlled study.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 Apr 7;47:101798. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Orthopedic Department, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt. Electronic address:

Purpose: Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) requires optimum planning that often requires several procedures for deformity correction. The objective of this study was to detect the difference between MDCO versus LCL in the management of AAFD with stage II tibialis posterior tendon dysfunction regarding functional, radiographic outcomes, efficacy in correction maintenance, and the incidence of complications.

Patient And Methods: 42 Patients (21 males and 21 females) with a mean age of 49. Read More

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Qualitative study of musculoskeletal tissues and their radiographic correlates in diabetic neuropathic foot deformity.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 May 3;47:101777. Epub 2021 May 3.

Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO 63110, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) with peripheral neuropathy (PN) results in foot deformity increasing ulceration, joint dislocation, and amputation risk. This study describes the frequency and severity of foot and ankle musculoskeletal abnormalities and their relationship to radiographic alignment in people with DMPN with (DMPN + MCD) and without (DMPN - MCD) medial column deformity (MCD) compared to age- and body mass index-matched controls without DMPN or MDC.

Methods: DMPN + MCD (n = 11), DMPN - MCD (n = 12), and controls (n = 12) were studied. Read More

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The Covid 19 outbreak: Maternal Mental Health and Associated Factors.

Midwifery 2021 Apr 15;99:103013. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Maternity and Gynecology Nursing, Balıkesir University. Electronic address:

Objective: Evaluation of the mental health of pregnant women during the early and peak stages of the Covid-19 outbreak DESIGN: Online survey PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women over the age of 18 years with no mental disorder during the pre-pregnancy period (N = 729).

Measurements And Findings: Mental disorders were assessed using the "Depression Anxiety Stress Scale" and social support was determined using the "Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale." Pregnant women had moderate levels of anxiety and depression and mild levels of stress. Read More

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Fate and budget of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in three common garden plants after experimental additions with contaminated river water.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 26;285:117115. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, 125 Resources Road, MP9 3V6, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have become ubiquitous contaminants in the environment. Contamination of the terrestrial ecosystem can occur from the release of aqueous film forming foams (AFFF) used in firefighting operations. Following soil contamination with AFFF, studies report root uptake and translocation of PFAS to other plant organs, typically favouring the short chain moiety. Read More

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