1,482 results match your criteria high-speed direct

Contactless Method for Electrocoalescence of Water in Oil.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 28;6(22):14298-14308. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Mechanical, Industrial, and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio 43606, United States.

This paper discusses an experimental approach to study the effects of a contactless method on electrocoalescence of water-in-oil mixture/emulsion. A positive corona discharge is utilized using a sharp conductive needle without direct contact with the mixture/solution to avoid potential corrosion of the electrode. This creates a nonuniform electric field, which is further used for the coalescence of water droplets in the range of micro to macro in oil. Read More

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Continuous downstream processing of milled electrospun fibers to tablets monitored by near-infrared and Raman spectroscopy.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Jun 9;164:105907. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Organic Chemistry and Technology, Budapest University of Technology and Economics (BME), H-1111, Budapest, Műegyetem rakpart 3, Hungary. Electronic address:

Electrospinning is a technology for manufacture of nano- and micro-sized fibers, which can enhance the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. Tableting of electrospun fibers have been demonstrated in several studies, however, continuous manufacturing of tablets have not been realized yet. This research presents the first integrated continuous processing of milled drug-loaded electrospun materials to tablet form supplemented by process analytical tools for monitoring the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content. Read More

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Dural Tear During Thoracic Laminectomy Using Craniotome With Footplate Attachment.

Cureus 2021 May 7;13(5):e14893. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neurosurgery, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, USA.

Laminectomy can be accomplished using the craniotome with a footplate attachment, and the technique has been advanced as a superior alternative to using a high-speed drill-driven burr and Kerrison rongeurs. Laminectomy can be accomplished more rapidly and with less bone destruction, an advantage when planning laminoplasty. There is, however, scant literature describing complications of dural laceration using this technique. Read More

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Fluid Dynamics of the Open Port Interface for High-Speed Nanoliter Volume Sampling Mass Spectrometry.

Anal Chem 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

SCIEX, 71 Four Valley Drive, Concord, Ontario L4K 4V8, Canada.

The open port interface (OPI) coupled to an atmospheric pressure ion source is used to capture, dilute, focus, and transport nanoliter volume sample droplets for high-speed mass spectrometric analysis. For typical applications, the system has been optimized to achieve 1 Hz nanoliter volume sample transfer rates while simultaneously diluting the sample >1000-fold to minimize sample matrix-induced ionization suppression. Geometric, flow, and dispensing alterations to the system presented here demonstrate that sample transfer rates for the OPI of at least 15 Hz are possible. Read More

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Mixing during Trapping Enabled a Continuous-Flow Microfluidic Smartphone Immunoassay Using Acoustic Streaming.

ACS Sens 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology & Instruments and College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China.

Smartphone-enabled microfluidic chemiluminescence immunoassay is a promising portable system for point-of-care (POC) biosensing applications. However, due to the rather faint emitted light in such a limited sample volume, it is still difficult to reach the clinically accepted range when the smartphone serves as a standalone detector. Besides, the multiple separation and washing steps during sample preparation hinder the immunoassay's applications for POC usage. Read More

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Nanoscale Magnetization and Current Imaging Using Time-Resolved Scanning-Probe Magnetothermal Microscopy.

Nano Lett 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, United States.

Magnetic microscopy that combines nanoscale spatial resolution with picosecond scale temporal resolution uniquely enables direct observation of the spatiotemporal magnetic phenomena that are relevant to future high-speed, high-density magnetic storage and logic technologies. Magnetic microscopes that combine these metrics has been limited to facility-level instruments. To address this gap in lab-accessible spatiotemporal imaging, we develop a time-resolved near-field magnetic microscope based on magnetothermal interactions. Read More

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Tracking interfacial single-molecule pH and binding dynamics via vibrational spectroscopy.

Sci Adv 2021 Jun 4;7(23). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

NanoPhotonics Centre, Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, JJ Thompson Avenue, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK.

Understanding single-molecule chemical dynamics of surface ligands is of critical importance to reveal their individual pathways and, hence, roles in catalysis, which ensemble measurements cannot see. Here, we use a cascaded nano-optics approach that provides sufficient enhancement to enable direct tracking of chemical trajectories of single surface-bound molecules via vibrational spectroscopy. Atomic protrusions are laser-induced within plasmonic nanojunctions to concentrate light to atomic length scales, optically isolating individual molecules. Read More

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Folding RNA-Protein Complex into Designed Nanostructures.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2323:221-232

Center for iPS Cell Research and Application (CiRA), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

RNA-protein (RNP) complexes are promising biomaterials for the fields of nanotechnology and synthetic biology. Protein-responsive RNA sequences (RNP motifs) can be integrated into various RNAs, such as messenger RNA, short-hairpin RNA, and synthetic RNA nanoobjects for a variety of purposes. Direct observation of RNP interaction in solution at high resolution is important in the design and construction of RNP-mediated nanostructures. Read More

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January 2021

Biplanar High-Speed Fluoroscopy of Pony Superficial Digital Flexor Tendon (SDFT)-An In Vivo Pilot Study.

Vet Sci 2021 May 27;8(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

Institute of Veterinary Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Leipzig University, An den Tierkliniken 43, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) is the most frequently injured structure of the musculoskeletal system in sport horses and a common cause for early retirement. This project's aim was to visualize and measure the strain of the sound, injured, and healing SDFTs in a pony during walk and trot. For this purpose, biplanar high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography (FluoKin), as a high precision X-ray movement analysis tool, was used for the first time in vivo with equine tendons. Read More

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Energetic-Materials-Driven Synthesis of Graphene-Encapsulated Tin Oxide Nanoparticles for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 14;14(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China.

By evenly mixing polytetrafluoroethylene-silicon energetic materials (PTFE-Si EMs) with tin oxide (SnO) particles, we demonstrate a direct synthesis of graphene-encapsulated SnO (Gr-SnO) nanoparticles through the self-propagated exothermic reaction of the EMs. The highly exothermic reaction of the PTFE-Si EMs released a huge amount of heat that induced an instantaneous temperature rise at the reaction zone, and the rapid expansion of the gaseous SiF product provided a high-speed gas flow for dispersing the molten particles into finer nanoscale particles. Furthermore, the reaction of the PTFE-NPs with Si resulted in a simultaneous synthesis of graphene that encapsulated the SnO nanoparticles in order to form the core-shell nanostructure. Read More

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Gas Metal Arc Welding Modes in Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 10;14(9). Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Lightweight Materials and Structures, Institute of Machinery, Materials, and Transport, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, 29 Polytechnicheskaya St., 195251 St. Petersburg, Russia.

In wire arc additive manufacturing of Ti-alloy parts (Ti-WAAM) gas metal arc welding (GMAW) can be applied for complex parts printing. However, due to the specific properties of Ti, GMAW of Ti-alloys is complicated. In this work, three different types of metal transfer modes during Ti-WAAM were investigated: Cold Metal Transfer, controlled short circuiting metal transfer, and self-regulated metal transfer at a direct current with a negative electrode. Read More

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Structural dynamics of channels and transporters by high-speed atomic force microscopy.

Methods Enzymol 2021 24;652:127-159. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Anesthesiology, New York, NY, United States; Weill Cornell Medicine, Department of Physiology and Biophysics, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Channels and transporters are vital for transmembrane transport of ions and solutes, and also of larger compounds such as lipids and macromolecules. Therefore, they are crucial in many biological processes such as sensing, signal transduction, and the regulation of the distribution of molecules. Dysfunctions of these membrane proteins are associated to numerous diseases, and their interaction with drugs is critical in medicine. Read More

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Frequency domain measurements of melt pool recoil force using modal analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 May 26;11(1):10959. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA.

Recoil pressure is a critical factor affecting the melt pool dynamics during Laser Powder Bed Fusion (LPBF) processes. Recoil pressure depresses the melt pool. When the recoil pressure is low, thermal conduction and capillary forces may be inadequate to provide proper fusion between layers. Read More

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py4DSTEM: A Software Package for Four-Dimensional Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy Data Analysis.

Microsc Microanal 2021 May 21:1-32. Epub 2021 May 21.

National Center for Electron Microscopy, Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA94720, USA.

Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) allows for imaging, diffraction, and spectroscopy of materials on length scales ranging from microns to atoms. By using a high-speed, direct electron detector, it is now possible to record a full two-dimensional (2D) image of the diffracted electron beam at each probe position, typically a 2D grid of probe positions. These 4D-STEM datasets are rich in information, including signatures of the local structure, orientation, deformation, electromagnetic fields, and other sample-dependent properties. Read More

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Role of solution reconstruction in hypersonic viscous computations using a sharp interface immersed boundary method.

Phys Rev E 2021 Apr;103(4-1):043302

Aerodynamics and Aerothermal Group, Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Indian Space Research Organisation, Thiruvananthapuram 695022, India.

This work discusses the development of a sharp interface immersed boundary (IB) method for viscous compressible flows and its assessment for accurate computations of wall shear and heat fluxes in hypersonic flows. The IB method is implemented in an unstructured Cartesian finite-volume (FV) framework and resolves the geometric interface sharply on the nonconformal mesh through direct imposition of boundary conditions employing a local reconstruction approach. The efficacy of the IB-FV solver is investigated for canonical high-speed viscous flows over a range of Mach numbers. Read More

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Full-Endoscopic Decompression with the Application of an Endoscopic-Matched Ultrasonic Osteotome for Removal of Ossification of the Thoracic Ligamentum Flavum.

Pain Physician 2021 May;24(3):275-281

Department of Orthopaedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Background: Resection of the ossification of the thoracic ligamentum flavum (OTLF) with a high-speed burr may cause a high rate of perioperative complications, such as dural laceration and/or iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of the endoscopic-matched ultrasonic osteotome in full-endoscopic spinal surgery for direct removal of OTLF.

Study Design: Retrospective study. Read More

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Millimeter-wave radio-over-fiber system using optical phase modulation and photonic downconversion for uplink fronthaul transmission.

Opt Lett 2021 May;46(10):2493-2496

This Letter proposes a high-performance radio-over-fiber (RoF) system for high-speed and high-fidelity analog waveform transmission of radio signals in the millimeter-wave band in the uplink direction. At the antenna site, the system utilizes a newly fabricated low half-wave voltage broadband phase modulator to convert a millimeter-wave radio signal into an optical signal. At the receiver, by using photonic downconversion and optical filtering technology, a simple direct detection and downconversion of the signal to the microwave band can be achieved simultaneously. Read More

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H O-Built Proton Transfer Bridge Enhances Continuous Methane Oxidation to Methanol over Cu-BEA Zeolite.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Environment and Life, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, 100124, P. R. China.

Direct oxidation of methane to methanol (DMTM) is a big challenge in C chemistry. We present a continuous N O-DMTM investigation by simultaneously introducing 10 vol % H O into the reaction system over Cu-BEA zeolites. Combining a D O isotopic tracer technique and ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation, we for the first time demonstrate that the H O molecules can participate in the reaction through a proton transfer route, wherein the H O molecules can build a high-speed proton transfer bridge between the generated moieties of CH and OH over the evolved mono(μ-oxo) dicopper ([Cu-O-Cu] ) active site, thereby pronouncedly boosting the CH OH selectivity (3. Read More

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Direct Visualization of the Earliest Stages of Crystallization.

Microsc Microanal 2021 May 11:1-7. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT06269, USA.

Investigating the earliest stages of crystallization requires the transmission electron microscope (TEM) and is particularly challenging for materials which can be affected by the electron beam. Typically, when imaging at magnifications high enough to observe local crystallinity, the electron beam's current density must be high to produce adequate image contrast. Yet, minimizing the electron dose is necessary to reduce the changes caused by the beam. Read More

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Preparation of loratadine nanocrystal tablets to improve the solubility and dissolution for enhanced oral bioavailability.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Jun;73(7):937-946

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Objectives: Loratadine is a selective H1 receptor inhibitor that has been widely used in the clinical treatment of allergic diseases. Here we aimed to develop a novel solid loratadine nanocrystal to increase the low and pH-dependent water solubility for bioavailability enhancement.

Methods: Loratadine solid nanocrystal was developed through high-speed shear-high pressure homogenization followed by freeze-drying, which was further prepared into tablets through direct compression. Read More

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Resection of ruptured spinal pial arteriovenous fistula under ultrasound control: how I do it.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Neurosurgical Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Geneva University Hospitals, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Spinal pial arteriovenous fistulae are rare intradural superficial vascular lesion consisting in a direct shunt between spinal pial arteries and veins. The presentation of pial arteriovenous fistula is caused by venous congestion with spinal cord ischemia, mass effect, or hemorrhage. The treatment is surgery or endovascular procedure. Read More

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Hierarchical Microtextures Embossed on PET from Laser-Patterned Stamps.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;14(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Institut für Fertigungstechnik, Technische Universität Dresden, George-Baehr-Str. 3c, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

Nowadays, the demand for surface functionalized plastics is constantly rising. To address this demand with an industry compatible solution, here a strategy is developed for producing hierarchical microstructures on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by hot embossing using a stainless steel stamp. The master was structured using three laser-based processing steps. Read More

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Ultraprecision Imaging and Manipulation of Plasmonic Nanostructures by Integrated Nanoscopic Correction.

Small 2021 May 15;17(21):e2007610. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biointerfaces Institute, Applied Physics, Macromolecular Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, USA.

Optical manipulation and imaging of nano-objects with nanometer precision is highly desirable for nanomaterial and biological studies due to inherent noninvasiveness. However, time constraints and current segregated experimental systems for nanoimaging and nanomanipulation limits real-time super-resolution imaging with spatially enhanced manipulation. Here, an integrated nanoscopic correction (iNC) method to enable multimodal nanomanipulation-nanoimaging is reported. Read More

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High-Speed Atomic Force Microscopy Reveals Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Histone Protein H2A Involution by DNA Inchworming.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Apr 14;12(15):3837-3846. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Nano Life Science in the Graduate School of Frontier Science Initiative, WISE Program for Nano-Precision Medicine, Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192, Japan.

DNA-histone interaction is always perturbed by epigenetic regulators to regulate gene expression. Direct visualization of this interaction is yet to be achieved. By using high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), we have observed the dynamic DNA-histone H2A interaction. Read More

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Running Speed Estimation Using Shoe-Worn Inertial Sensors: Direct Integration, Linear, and Personalized Model.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 18;3:585809. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Laboratory of Movement Analysis and Measurement, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The overground speed is a key component of running analysis. Today, most speed estimation wearable systems are based on GNSS technology. However, these devices can suffer from sparse communication with the satellites and have a high-power consumption. Read More

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The development of miniSTRs as a method for high-speed direct PCR.

Electrophoresis 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Chemistry, Florida International University (FIU), Miami, Florida, USA.

There are situations in which it would be very valuable to have a DNA profile within a short time; for example, in mass disasters or airport security. In previous work, we have promoted reduced size STR amplicons for the analysis of degraded DNA. We also noticed that shorter amplicons are more robust during amplification, making them inhibition resistant, and potentially applicable to high-speed direct PCR. Read More

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Cutting Force Prediction Models by FEA and RSM When Machining X56 Steel with Single Diamond Grit.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 Mar 19;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

College of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Nantong Ave 145, Harbin 150001, China.

In the field of underwater emergency maintenance, submarine pipeline cutting is generally performed by a diamond wire saw. The process, in essence, involves diamond grits distributed on the surface of the beads cutting X56 pipeline steel bit by bit at high speed. To find the effect of the different parameters (cutting speed, coefficient of friction and depth of cut) on cutting force, the finite element (FEA) method and response surface method (RSM) were adopted to obtain cutting force prediction models. Read More

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Kinematic Analysis of Water Polo Player in the Vertical Thrust Performance to Determine the Force-Velocity and Power-Velocity Relationships in Water: A Preliminary Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 5;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Sport Engineering Lab, Department of Industrial Engineering, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, via del Politecnico 1, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Background: To date, studies on muscle force and power-velocity (F-v and P-v) relationships performed in water are absent.

Aim: The goal of this study is to derive the F-v and P-v regression models of water polo players in water vertical thrust performance at increasing load.

Methods: After use of a control object for direct linear transformation, displacement over the water and elapsed time was measured, by using a high-speed 2D-videoanalysis system, on 14 players involved in the study. Read More

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LightSpeed: a compact, high-speed optical-link-based 3D optoacoustic imager.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2021 Apr 2;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Wide-scale adoption of optoacoustic imaging in biology and medicine critically depends on availability of affordable scanners combining ease of operation with optimal imaging performance. Here we introduce LightSpeed: a low-cost real-time volumetric handheld optoacoustic imager based on a new compact software-defined ultrasound digital acquisition platform and a pulsed laser diode. It supports the simultaneous signal acquisition from up to 192 ultrasound channels and provides a higbandwidth direct optical link (2x 100G Ethernet) to the host-PC for ultra-high frame rate image acquisitions. Read More

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The Aerodynamics and Power Requirements of Forward Flapping Flight in the Mango Stem Borer Beetle ().

Integr Org Biol 2020 8;2(1):obaa026. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

School of Zoology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 6997801, Israel.

The need for long dispersal flights can drive selection for behavioral, physiological, and biomechanical mechanisms to reduce the energy spent flying. However, some energy loss during the transfer of momentum from the wing to the fluid is inevitable, and inherent to the fluid-wing interaction. Here, we analyzed these losses during the forward flight of the mango stem borer (). Read More

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September 2020