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County-level demographic, social, economic, and lifestyle correlates of COVID-19 infection and death trajectories during the first wave of the pandemic in the United States.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147495. Epub 2021 May 3.

University of Louisville School of Public Health and Information Sciences, Department of Health Management and System Sciences, United States of America.

Background: The US COVID-19 epidemic impacted counties differently across space and time, though large-scale transmission dynamics are unclear. The study's objective was to group counties with similar trajectories of COVID-19 cases and deaths and identify county-level correlates of the distinct trajectory groups.

Methods: Daily COVID-19 cases and deaths were obtained from 3141 US counties from January through June 2020. Read More

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Examining the correlation between intercultural sensitivity and individualized care perception of nursing students.

Nurse Educ Today 2021 Apr 26;102:104937. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Akyaka District Integrated Public Hospital, Department of Nursing, Kars, Turkey. Electronic address:

Background: Intercultural sensitivity is accepting the existence of cultural differences and similarities between individuals without attributing a value to them. In order to provide individualized nursing care, it is required to train nurses who can respond to cultural needs of society, have cultural knowledge and skills regarding society and show a high intercultural sensitivity.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between intercultural sensitivity and individualized care perception of nursing students, who will become a member of professional health discipline. Read More

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The impact of food insecurity on mental health in Africa: A systematic review.

Soc Sci Med 2021 Apr 20;278:113953. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Geography, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada; Environment Health and Hazards Lab, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7, Canada.

In 2018, 676.1 million people in Africa (52.5% of the population) were moderately or severely food insecure. Read More

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How much leeway is there to relax COVID-19 control measures?

Epidemics 2021 Mar 18;35:100453. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Mathematics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada; Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Following successful non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) aiming to control COVID-19, many jurisdictions reopened their economies and borders. As little immunity had developed in most populations, re-establishing higher contact carried substantial risks, and therefore many locations began to see resurgence in COVID-19 cases. We present a Bayesian method to estimate the leeway to reopen, or alternatively the strength of change required to re-establish COVID-19 control, in a range of jurisdictions experiencing different COVID-19 epidemics. Read More

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Beta-lactam resistance development during the treatment processes of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

Chemosphere 2021 May 3;280:130749. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Biology and Ecology, Faculty of Science, University of Ostrava, Chittussiho 10, CZ-710 00, Ostrava, Czech Republic.

This work monitored the effect of a municipal and a village wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) technology on the fate of beta-lactam resistance genes in bacterial populations in different phases of the wastewater treatment process. In case of the municipal WWTP1, the bacteria possessing a high ampicillin resistance (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 20 mg/mL) accumulated in the sedimentation tank, which was accompanied with a higher concentration of ampicillin in the wastewater samples (28.09 ng/L) and an increase in the relative abundance of the blaTEM gene in the bacterial population. Read More

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Dengue in pregnancy: Review article.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2021 Apr 30;261:205-210. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Sidra Medicine, Education City, Al Luqta Street, Doha, Qatar.

Dengue is the most common viral mosquito- borne disease. It is a major public health problem, especially in tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 40% of the world's population (over 2. Read More

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B cells modulate the expression of MHC-II on cardiac CCR2 macrophages.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21210, USA. Electronic address:

The uninjured murine heart contains a heterogeneous population of macrophages with disparate ontogenies and functions. These macrophages are often associated with blood vessels and can be subclassified based on the expression of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II). The biological cues that modulate these macrophage pool subpopulations have not been completely identified. Read More

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Levels and trends in Chagas disease-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2019.

Acta Trop 2021 May 7:105948. Epub 2021 May 7.

Institute of Studies in Public Health, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Horácio Macedo, S/N, Ilha do Fundão - Cidade Universitária, 21941-598 Rio de Janeiro, Rio deJaneiro, Brazil; Department of Epidemiology, Social Medicine Institute, State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Chagas disease remains an important public health problem with high morbidity and mortality in several Latin American countries. This nationwide population-based ecological study analyzes the epidemiological characteristics and time trends of Chagas disease-related mortality in Brazil, 2000-2019. We included all deaths reported in Brazil in which Chagas disease was mentioned in the death certificate either as an underlying or associated cause of death (multiple causes of death). Read More

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Socioeconomic factors and adherence to CPAP - the population-based DISCOVERY study.

Chest 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Lund University, Box 188, SE-221 00, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Early identification of poor adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is of major clinical importance to optimize treatment outcomes in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).

Research Question: How does socioeconomic factors influence CPAP adherence?

Study Design And Methods: Nationwide, population-based cohort study on patients with OSA on CPAP reported to the Swedish quality registry Swedevox between 2010 and 2018 was cross-linked with individual socioeconomic data from Statistics Sweden. Socioeconomic factors associated with CPAP adherence were identified using a multivariable linear regression model, adjusted for age and gender. Read More

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Benzodiazepine Use in Opioid Maintenance Treatment Programme: Risks and Clinical Outcomes.

Acta Med Port 2021 Mar 1;34(3):209-216. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Drug Addiction Treatment Centre. Agualva-Cacém. Cacém. Portugal.

Introduction: The co-association of benzodiazepines and opioids is associated with an increased risk of overdose, death, and poorer psychosocial prognosis. The aim of this study is to characterize the prevalence, pattern of use, and primary clinical outcomes in benzodiazepines users in a public opioid maintenance treatment unit.

Material And Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving 236 patients treated with opioid substitutes (methadone and buprenorphine). Read More

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Peak atrial longitudinal strain is predictive of atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary artery disease.

Echocardiography 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

UO Cardiologia, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy.

Background: The peak atrial longitudinal strain (PALS) has been validated in the prediction of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the general population. If this finding can be applied to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and concomitant coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown.

Methods And Results: We analyzed two different study populations of patients with COPD and acute CAD in SCAP trial (Clinical trial. Read More

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Function and disability status among women with fistula using WHODAS2.0: A descriptive study from Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Objective: To assess function and disability among women in Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo living with fistula and identify characteristics associated with higher disability scores.

Methods: Women presenting for fistula care were recruited. Eligible participants underwent a physical examination to classify fistula type and completed WHODAS 2. Read More

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Self-reported medication adherence among patients with diabetes or hypertension, Médecins Sans Frontières Shatila refugee camp, Beirut, Lebanon: A mixed-methods study.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251316. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Introduction: Low adherence to medications, specifically in patients with Diabetes (DM) and Hypertension (HTN), and more so in refugee settings, remains a major challenge to achieving optimum clinical control in these patients. We aimed at determining the self-reported medication adherence prevalence and its predictors and exploring reasons for low adherence among these patients.

Methods: A mixed-methods study was conducted at Médecins Sans Frontières non-communicable diseases primary care center in the Shatila refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon in October 2018. Read More

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Virus shedding kinetics and unconventional virulence tradeoffs.

PLoS Pathog 2021 May 10;17(5):e1009528. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, United States of America.

Tradeoff theory, which postulates that virulence provides both transmission costs and benefits for pathogens, has become widely adopted by the scientific community. Although theoretical literature exploring virulence-tradeoffs is vast, empirical studies validating various assumptions still remain sparse. In particular, truncation of transmission duration as a cost of virulence has been difficult to quantify with robust controlled in vivo studies. Read More

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Dental wear patterns reveal dietary ecology and season of death in a historical chimpanzee population.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251309. Epub 2021 May 10.

Max Planck Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.

Dental wear analyses have been widely used to interpret the dietary ecology in primates. However, it remains unclear to what extent a combination of wear analyses acting at distinct temporal scales can be beneficial in interpreting the tooth use of primates with a high variation in their intraspecific dietary ecology. Here, we combine macroscopic tooth wear (occlusal fingerprint analysis, long-term signals) with microscopic 3D surface textures (short-term signals) exploring the tooth use of a historical western chimpanzee population from northeastern Liberia with no detailed dietary records. Read More

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Association between Chlamydia and routine place for healthcare in the United States: NHANES 1999-2016.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0251113. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Family Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.

Background: The United States is experiencing a surge in Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections representing a critical need to improve sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening and treatment programs. To understand where patients with STIs seek healthcare, we evaluated the relationship between CT infections and the place where individuals report usually receiving healthcare.

Methods: Our study used a nationally representative sample from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2016. Read More

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Environmentally triggered shifts in steelhead migration behavior and consequences for survival in the mid-Columbia River.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(5):e0250831. Epub 2021 May 10.

Ocean Associates, Under Contract to the Northwest Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

The majority of Columbia River summer-run steelhead encounter high river temperatures (near or > 20°C) during their spawning migration. While some steelhead pass through the mid-Columbia River in a matter of days, others use tributary habitats as temperature refuges for periods that can last months. Using PIT tag detection data from adult return years 2004-2016, we fit 3-component mixture models to differentiate between "fast", "slow", and "overwintering" migration behaviors in five aggregated population groups. Read More

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Parenting interventions to promote early child development in the first three years of life: A global systematic review and meta-analysis.

PLoS Med 2021 May 10;18(5):e1003602. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Parents are the primary caregivers of young children. Responsive parent-child relationships and parental support for learning during the earliest years of life are crucial for promoting early child development (ECD). We conducted a global systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting interventions on ECD and parenting outcomes. Read More

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The effect of recombinant human interferon alpha nasal drops to prevent COVID-19 pneumonia for medical staff in an epidemic area.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Prevention and Control Team, Taihe Hospital, Hubei University of Medicine. 442000, Shiyan, Hubei, China.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) known as Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has caused the sixth world public health emergency. Healthcare staff as frontline population fighting the pandemic are exposed to high risk of infection. Therefore, developing protective intervention for medical staff is of significant importance. Read More

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Semantic Adaptation and Validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, in the Chilean Population.

Int J Clin Exp Hypn 2021 May 10:1-8. Epub 2021 May 10.

Carrera de Enfermería, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile.

One of the difficulties of evaluating hypnotizability in Chile is the limited existence of validated instruments. In this study, the Mexican version of Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C, was semantically adapted and validated. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 102 Chilean university students. Read More

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Cohort profile: Four early uranium processing facilities in the US and Canada.

Int J Radiat Biol 2021 May 10:1-33. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, U.S.A.

Purpose: Risks of occupational radiation exposures of workers involved in uranium refining and processing ("") may be different from risks of other workers from the nuclear fuel cycle. Pooling of individual-level data from published studies and analysis using similar dosimetry and statistical methods might provide valuable insights into risks from occupational uranium and external ionizing radiation exposures.

Methods: We pooled the data for workers from four uranium processing facilities (Fernald Feed Materials Production Center, Ohio; Mallinckrodt Chemical Works Uranium Division, Missouri; Middlesex Sampling Plant, New Jersey; and the Port Hope Radium and Uranium Refining and Processing Plant, Canada). Read More

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Limiting Television to Reduce Childhood Obesity: Cost-Effectiveness of Five Population Strategies.

Child Obes 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.

To quantify the potential population-wide costs, number of individuals reached, and impact on obesity of five effective interventions to reduce children's television viewing if implemented nationally. Utilizing evidence from systematic reviews, the Childhood Obesity Intervention Cost Effectiveness Study (CHOICES) microsimulation model estimated the cost, population reach, and impact on childhood obesity from 2020 to 2030 of five hypothetical policy strategies to reduce the negative impact of children's TV exposure: (1) eliminating the tax deductibility of food and beverage advertising; (2) targeting TV reduction during home visiting programs; (3) motivational interviewing to reduce home television time at Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic visits; (4) adoption of a television-reduction curriculum in child care; and (5) limiting noneducational television in licensed child care settings. Eliminating the tax deductibility of food advertising could reach the most children [106 million, 95% uncertainty interval (UI): 105-107 million], prevent the most cases of obesity (78,700, 95% UI: 30,200-130,000), and save more in health care costs than it costs to implement. Read More

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Integration of Patient-reported Outcomes in a Total Joint Arthroplasty Program at a High-volume Academic Medical Center.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 May;4(5):e2000034

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Ms. Bhatt, Dr. Manning, Dr. Peabody), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine; the Northwestern Memorial HealthCare (Ms. Davis, Dr. Barnard), Northwestern University Center for Healthcare Studies; the Department of Medical Social Sciences (Dr. Rothrock), Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine; and the Department of Surgery (Dr. Barnard), Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL.

Introduction: Despite widely appreciated barriers to successful clinical implementation, the literature regarding how to operationalize electronic health record-integrated patient-reported outcomes (PROs) remains sparse. We offer a detailed summary of the implementation of PROs into the standard of care at a major tertiary academic medical center.

Methods: Collection of four Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computer adaptive tests was piloted in a large academic orthopaedic surgery ambulatory clinic starting in October 2016. Read More

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Using community-led development to build health communication about rheumatic heart disease in Aboriginal children: a developmental evaluation.

Aust N Z J Public Health 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Northern Territory.

Objective: A high prevalence of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) among Aboriginal children in northern Australia is coupled with low understanding among families. This has negative impacts on children's health, limits opportunities for prevention and suggests that better health communication is needed.

Methods: During an RHD echocardiography screening project, Aboriginal teachers in a remote community school created lessons to teach children about RHD in their home languages, drawing on principles of community-led development. Read More

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Multitask Learning Based Three-Dimensional Striatal Segmentation of MRI: fMRI and PET Objective Assessments.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York, USA.

Background: Recent studies have established a clear topographical and functional organization of projections to and from complex subdivisions of the striatum. Manual segmentation of these functional subdivisions is labor-intensive and time-consuming, and automated methods are not as reliable as manual segmentation.

Purpose: To utilize multitask learning (MTL) as a method to segment subregions of the striatum consisting of pre-commissural putamen (prePU), pre-commissural caudate (preCA), post-commissural putamen (postPU), post-commissural caudate (postCA), and ventral striatum (VST). Read More

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Stigmatization of people with alcohol use disorders: An updated systematic review of population studies.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Medical Faculty, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Background: We summarize research on the public stigmatization of persons with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in comparison with other mental health conditions and embed the results into a conceptual framework of the stigma process.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search using Embase, MEDLINE, PubMed and PsycINFO (via Ovid), and Web of Science for population-based studies on the public stigma in AUD and at least 1 other mental health condition, published between October 1, 2010 and December 20, 2020, thus including all studies published since the last systematic review on this topic. The study is registered with PROSPERO (registration number: CRD42020173054). Read More

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Sailing the 7C's: Starfield Revisited as a Foundation of Family Medicine Residency Redesign.

Fam Med 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Nevada-Reno School of Medicine, Reno, NV.

Amidst a pandemic that has acutely highlighted longstanding failings of the US health care system and the graduate medical education (GME) enterprise that serves it, educators prepare to embark on another revision of the program requirements for family medicine GME. We propose in this article a conceptual framework to guide this endeavor, built on a foundation of the core functions that Barbara Starfield suggested might explain primary care's salutary effects. We first revisit these "4C's"-first Contact, Continuity, Comprehensiveness, and Coordination-and how they might inform design thinking in primary care GME guideline revision. Read More

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Cost-of-Illness Progression Before and After Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis: A Nationwide Register-Based Cohort Study in Sweden of People Newly Diagnosed with Multiple Sclerosis and a Population-Based Matched Reference Group.

Pharmacoeconomics 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Insurance Medicine, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171-77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease associated with increased healthcare utilisation and productivity losses.

Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the progression of healthcare costs and productivity losses before and after diagnosis of MS in comparison to that of a population-based matched reference group.

Methods: We conducted a nationwide, Swedish register-based cohort study of working-aged people with MS diagnosed in 2010-12 (n = 1988) and population-based matched references without MS (n = 7981). Read More

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Cannabis and Cannabinoids in Reproduction and Fertility: Where We Stand.

Reprod Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

UCIBIO, REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Bioquímica, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Faculdade de Farmácia da Universidade do Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira n° 228, 4050-313, Porto, Portugal.

Although cannabis use is increasing in general population, their prevalence among young adults is remarkably high. In recent years, their medical use gained a renewed interest. However, it can underline the reputation of cannabis being a harmless drug. Read More

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A multi-stage stochastic programming approach to epidemic resource allocation with equity considerations.

Health Care Manag Sci 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Center, 200 Central Ave #204, Newark, NJ, 07114, USA.

Existing compartmental models in epidemiology are limited in terms of optimizing the resource allocation to control an epidemic outbreak under disease growth uncertainty. In this study, we address this core limitation by presenting a multi-stage stochastic programming compartmental model, which integrates the uncertain disease progression and resource allocation to control an infectious disease outbreak. The proposed multi-stage stochastic program involves various disease growth scenarios and optimizes the distribution of treatment centers and resources while minimizing the total expected number of new infections and funerals. Read More

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