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Comparison of First Nations and non-First Nations children's profiles with bronchiectasis over two five-year periods from the Northern Territory, Australia.

Chest 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia; Australian Centre for Health Services Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Queensland Children's Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.

Background: Although the burden of bronchiectasis is globally recognised, there is limited paediatric data particularly on trends over the years. There is also no published data on whether vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection, both found to relate with severe bronchiectasis in First Nations adults, is also important in children with bronchiectasis.

Research Question: Among children with bronchiectasis, has (a) the clinical and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) profiles changed between two 5-year periods (period-1=2007-11, period-2=2012-16); and (b) is vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and/or HTLV-1 infection associated with radiological severity of bronchiectasis?

Study Design And Methods: We analysed the data from children with bronchiectasis prospectively enrolled at Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia at their first diagnosis i. Read More

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Cryptosporidium infection in humans and animals from Iraq: a review.

Acta Trop 2021 May 5:105946. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan. Electronic address:

The apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium causes serious diarrheal disease in humans and animals worldwide. The present review summarizes epidemiological and molecular studies as well as the clinical disease burden of natural Cryptosporidium infections in humans and animals from Iraq. Retrieved reports regarding cryptosporidiosis in Iraq indicated that the disease is highly prevalent in humans and animals, but the results extracted from these reports are confusing and mostly employed traditional methodologies for the detection of Cryptosporidium infective stage, the oocysts, in clinical samples. Read More

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Identifying urban hotspots of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika transmission in Mexico to support risk stratification efforts: a spatial analysis.

Lancet Planet Health 2021 May;5(5):e277-e285

Department of Environmental Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Effective Aedes aegypti control is limited, in part, by the difficulty in achieving sufficient intervention coverage. To maximise the effect of vector control, areas with persistently high numbers of Aedes-borne disease cases could be identified and prioritised for preventive interventions. We aimed to identify persistent Aedes-borne disease hotspots in cities across southern Mexico. Read More

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Impact of intravenous alteplase on sub-angiographic emboli in high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging following successful thrombectomy.

Eur Radiol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistrasse 52, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: Thrombus microfragmentation causing peripheral emboli (PE) during mechanical thrombectomy (MT) may modulate treatment effects, even in cases with successful reperfusion. This study aims to investigate whether intravenous alteplase is of potential benefit in reducing PE after successful MT.

Methods: Patients from a prospective study treated at a tertiary care stroke center between 08/2017 and 12/2019 were analyzed. Read More

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Temperature-sensitive morbidity indicator: consequence from the increased ambulance dispatches associated with heat and cold exposure.

Int J Biometeorol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Zhongshan Road #2, Guangzhou, 510080, China.

Current development of temperature-related health early warning systems mainly arises from knowledge of temperature-related mortality or hospital-based morbidity. However, due to the delay in data reporting and limits in hospital capacity, these indicators cannot be used in health risk assessments timely. In this study, we examine temperature impacts on emergency ambulance and discuss the benefits of using this near real-time indicator for risk assessment and early warning. Read More

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Silk Fibroin Scaffold Architecture Regulates Inflammatory Responses and Engraftment of Bone Marrow-Mononuclear Cells.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 7:e2100615. Epub 2021 May 7.

School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006, Australia.

Despite being one of the most clinically trialed cell therapies, bone marrow-mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) infusion has largely failed to fulfill its clinical promise. Implanting biomimetic scaffolds at sites of injury prior to BM-MNC infusion is a promising approach to enhance BM-MNC engraftment and therapeutic function. Here, it is demonstrated that scaffold architecture can be leveraged to regulate the immune responses that drive BM-MNC engraftment. Read More

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Endogenous memory T cells with donor-reactivity: Early post-transplant mediators of acute graft injury in unsensitized recipients.

Transpl Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

The pre-transplant presence of endogenous donor-reactive memory T cells is an established risk factor for acute rejection and poorer transplant outcomes. A major source of these memory T cells in unsensitized recipients is heterologously generated memory T cells expressing reactivity to donor allogeneic MHC molecules. Multiple clinical studies have shown that the pre-transplant presence of high numbers of circulating endogenous donor-reactive memory T cells correlates with higher incidence of acute rejection and decreased graft function during the first year post-transplant. Read More

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Therapeutic Antibodies Targeting Potassium Ion Channels.

Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

TetraGenetics Inc, Arlington, MA, USA.

Monoclonal antibodies combine specificity and high affinity binding with excellent pharmacokinetic properties and are rapidly being developed for a wide range of drug targets including clinically important potassium ion channels. Nonetheless, while therapeutic antibodies come with great promise, K channels represent particularly difficult targets for biologics development for a variety of reasons that include their dynamic structures and relatively small extracellular loops, their high degree of sequence conservation (leading to immune tolerance), and their generally low-level expression in vivo. The process is made all the more difficult when large numbers of antibody candidates must be screened for a given target, or when lead candidates fail to cross-react with orthologous channels in animal disease models due to their highly selective binding properties. Read More

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Inter-laboratory comparison of gene expression biodosimetry for protracted radiation exposures as part of the RENEB and EURADOS WG10 2019 exercise.

Sci Rep 2021 May 7;11(1):9756. Epub 2021 May 7.

Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology Affiliated to University Ulm, Neuherbergstr. 11, 80937, Munich, Germany.

Large-scale radiation emergency scenarios involving protracted low dose rate radiation exposure (e.g. a hidden radioactive source in a train) necessitate the development of high throughput methods for providing rapid individual dose estimates. Read More

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Prevalence of Venous Thromboembolism Following Acute Spinal Cord Injury in an Urban Inner City Hospital.

Int J Spine Surg 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Temple University Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is known to occur at high rates in patients who suffer spinal cord injury (SCI). Large population studies in the United States have shown a prevalence of approximately 4-5%, with some studies suggesting higher prevalence. While the specific mechanism behind increased VTE incidence in the SCI population is unknown, it is likely tied to immobility and functional decline. Read More

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Persistence of SARS-CoV-2 virus and viral RNA in relation to surface type and contamination concentration.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Public Health England, National Infection Service, Porton Down, Wiltshire, UK

The transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is likely to occur through a number of routes, including contact with contaminated surfaces. Many studies have used RT-PCR analysis to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA on surfaces but seldom has viable virus been detected. This paper investigates the viability over time of SARS-CoV-2 dried onto a range of materials and compares viability of the virus to RNA copies recovered, and whether virus viability is concentration dependant. Read More

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Mobile Apps for Drug-Drug Interaction (DDI) Check in Chinese App Stores: A Systematic Review and Content Analysis.

JMIR Mhealth Uhealth 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Pharmacy, Minhang Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 201203, PR China., 826 Zhangheng Road,, Shanghai, CN.

Background: As the computerized drug-drug interaction (DDI) alert system is not widely implemented in China, healthcare providers are relying on mobile health (mHealth) apps as references for checking drug information such as DDI.

Objective: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of mHealth apps supporting DDI checking in Chinese App stores.

Methods: A systematical review was carried out in November 2020, to identify mHealth apps providing DDI checking in both Chinese iOS and Android platforms. Read More

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A North-South-South partnership in higher education to develop health research capacity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo: the challenge of finding a common language.

Health Res Policy Syst 2021 May 7;19(1):79. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.

Background: Globally, increasing numbers of higher education institutions (HEIs) in non-English-speaking countries have adopted English as a medium of instruction (EMI), because of the perception that this provides opportunities to attract high-calibre students and academic staff, and engage with the international research community. We report an evaluation of a North-South-South collaboration to develop health research capacity in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by establishing a postgraduate programme in nutritional epidemiology at the Kinshasa School of Public Health (KSPH), where EMI was adopted. We report experiences and perceptions of stakeholders, facilitators and students about using EMI. Read More

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An automated approach to determine antibody endpoint titers for COVID-19 by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Immunohematology 2021 Mar;37(1):33-43

Center for Transfusion Medicine and Cellular Therapies, and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine , 201 Dowman Drive, Atlanta, GA 30322 , and Joint Program in Transfusion Medicine, Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School , 630E New Research Building, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA 02115.

While a variety of therapeutic options continue to emerge for COVID-19 treatment, convalescent plasma (CP) has been used as a possible treatment option early in the pandemic. One of the most significant challenges with CP therapy, however, both when defining its efficacy and implementing its approach clinically, is accurately and efficiently characterizing an otherwise heterogenous therapeutic treatment. Given current limitations, our goal is to leverage a SARS antibody testing platform with a newly developed automated endpoint titer analysis program to rapidly define SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels in CP donors and hospitalized patients. Read More

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Genetic diversity and population structure of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L.) in Ethiopia using microsatellite markers.

J Genet Eng Biotechnol 2021 May 7;19(1):64. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University of Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a perennial monocotyledonous plant belonging to the Arecaceae family, a special plant with extraordinary nature that gives eminent contributions in agricultural sustainability and huge socio-economic value in many countries of the world including Ethiopia. Evaluation of genetic diversity across date palms at DNA level is very important for breeding and conservation. Read More

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Studies of aging nonhuman primates illuminate the etiology of early-stage Alzheimer's-like neuropathology: An evolutionary perspective.

Am J Primatol 2021 May 7:e23254. Epub 2021 May 7.

Division of Neuropharmacology and Neurologic Diseases, Department of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially afflicts the limbic and recently enlarged association cortices, causing a progression of mnemonic and cognitive deficits. Although genetic mouse models have helped reveal mechanisms underlying the rare, autosomal-dominant forms of AD, the etiology of the more common, sporadic form of AD remains unknown, and is challenging to study in mice due to their limited association cortex and lifespan. It is also difficult to study in human brains, as early-stage tau phosphorylation can degrade postmortem. Read More

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Enhancing Visible-Light Photocatalysis Endohedral Functionalization of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Organic Dyes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Organic Chemistry Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain.

The encapsulation of an organic dye, 10-phenylphenothiazine (), in the inner cavity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a breaking heterogenization strategy is presented. The material was microscopically and spectroscopically characterized, showing intense photoemission when illuminated with visible light at the nanoscale. Thus, was employed as a heterogeneous photocatalyst in single electron transfer dehalogenation reactions under visible light irradiation. Read More

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Enhanced UnaG With Minimal Labeling Artifact for Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:647590. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Molecular Spectroscopy and Dynamics, Institute of Basic Science, Seoul, South Korea.

We introduced enhanced UnaG (eUnaG), a ligand-activatable fluorescent protein, for conventional and super-resolution imaging of subcellular structures in the mammalian cells. eUnaG is a V2L mutant of UnaG with twice brighter bulk fluorescence. We previously discovered the reversible fluorescence switching behavior of UnaG and demonstrated the high photon outputs and high localization numbers in single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM). Read More

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Virus Detection: A Review of the Current and Emerging Molecular and Immunological Methods.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 20;8:637559. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

Viruses are ubiquitous in the environment. While many impart no deleterious effects on their hosts, several are major pathogens. This risk of pathogenicity, alongside the fact that many viruses can rapidly mutate highlights the need for suitable, rapid diagnostic measures. Read More

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Quantifying the risk of vector-borne disease transmission attributable to genetically modified vectors.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Mar 3;8(3):201525. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Data61, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.

The relative risk of disease transmission caused by the potential release of transgenic vectors, such as through sterile insect technique or gene drive systems, is assessed with comparison with wild-type vectors. The probabilistic risk framework is demonstrated with an assessment of the relative risk of lymphatic filariasis, malaria and o'nyong'nyong arbovirus transmission by mosquito vectors to human hosts given a released transgenic strain of carrying a dominant sterile male gene construct. Harm is quantified by a logarithmic loss function that depends on the causal risk ratio, which is a quotient of basic reproduction numbers derived from mathematical models of disease transmission. Read More

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Population Genetic Analyses of Isolates From Michigan Vineyards Using a High-Throughput Marker System Approach.

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:660874. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Small Fruit and Hop Pathology Laboratory, Department of Plant, Soil and Microbial Sciences, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States.

As sequencing costs continue to decrease, new tools are being developed for assessing pathogen diversity and population structure. Traditional marker types, such as microsatellites, are often more cost effective than single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panels when working with small numbers of individuals, but may not allow for fine scale evaluation of low or moderate structure in populations. is a necrotrophic plant pathogen with high genetic variability that can infect more than 200 plant species worldwide. Read More

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First-Order Learning Models With the GDINA: Estimation With the EM Algorithm and Applications.

Appl Psychol Meas 2021 May 15;45(3):143-158. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA.

In learning environments, understanding the longitudinal path of learning is one of the main goals. Cognitive diagnostic models (CDMs) for measurement combined with a transition model for mastery may be beneficial for providing fine-grained information about students' knowledge profiles over time. An efficient algorithm to estimate model parameters would augment the practicality of this combination. Read More

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Community surveillance of COVID-19 by village health volunteers, Thailand.

Bull World Health Organ 2021 May 2;99(5):393-397. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Graduate School of Health Innovation, Kanagawa University of Human Services, 3-25-10 Tonomchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 210-0821, Japan.

Problem: To control the increasing spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the government of Thailand enforced the closure of public and business areas in Bangkok on 22 March 2020. As a result, large numbers of unemployed workers returned to their hometowns during April 2020, increasing the risk of spreading the virus across the entire country.

Approach: In anticipation of the large-scale movement of unemployed workers, the Thai government trained existing village health volunteers to recognize the symptoms of COVID-19 and educate members of their communities. Read More

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Impact of sandwiched strain periodic multilayer AlN/GaN on strain and crystalline quality of a-plane GaN.

Sci Rep 2021 May 6;11(1):9724. Epub 2021 May 6.

Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

We demonstrated high-quality single crystalline a-plane undoped-gallium nitride grown on a nonpatterned r-plane sapphire substrate via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The effect of four different numbers of sandwiched strain-periodic AlN/GaN multilayers on the strain state, crystal quality, optical and electrical properties was investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the surface morphology was improved upon insertion of 120 pairs of AlN/GaN thin layers with a root-mean-square roughness of 2. Read More

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Laboratory-based evaluation of a simplified point-of-care test intended to support treatment decisions in non-severe bovine clinical mastitis.

J Dairy Res 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health and Food Safety, School of Veterinary Medicine, College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Bearsden Road, GlasgowG61 1QH, UK.

To limit the use of antimicrobials in dairy cattle, farmers are increasingly encouraged to adopt targeted treatment decisions based on knowledge of the pathogens causing clinical mastitis (CM), whereby treatment of non-severe CM is generally recommended for gram-positive mastitis but not for gram-negative or culture-negative mastitis. The objectives of this study were to conduct a laboratory-based evaluation of the performance of a simplified slide test as a tool to differentiate gram-positive CM from other cases of CM, and to compare its performance against a commercially available on-farm test that is commonly used in our area (VétoRapid). Test outcomes after 24-48 h incubation were compared to results from bacteriological culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS). Read More

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Evaluation of Nosocomial Infection Control Measures to Minimize the Risk of Dispersion During Major Demolition Work: A Case Study of a Japanese University Hospital.

HERD 2021 May 7:19375867211009979. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Public Health, Health Management and Policy, 12967Nara Medical University, Japan.

Objectives: To verify the effectiveness of our infection control measures based on the infection control risk assessment (ICRA) to minimize the risk of dispersion before, during, and after demolition work in a university hospital.

Background: It is widely accepted that invasive aspergillosis is associated with construction, renovation, and demolition activities within or close to hospital sites. However, the risk is underestimated, and only limited preventive measures are taken in Japanese hospitals. Read More

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Learning During Crisis: The Impact of COVID-19 on Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury Incidence.

J Healthc Qual 2021 May-Jun 01;43(3):137-144

Abstract: The impact of COVID-19, on the health and safety of patients, staff, and healthcare organizations, has yet to be fully uncovered. Patient adverse events, such as hospital-acquired pressure injuries (HAPIs), have been problematic for decades. The introduction of a pandemic to an environment that is potentially at-risk for adverse events may result in unintended patient safety and quality concerns. Read More

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Soluble thrombomodulin and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese children.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2021 Jun;32(4):273-277

Department of Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.

This study aimed to establish standard reference values for soluble thrombomodulin in healthy prepubertal school-aged children and elucidate the relationship between soluble thrombomodulin levels and obesity, metabolic syndrome-associated indices, and other markers of vascular endothelial damage. The participants in this study were healthy Japanese children aged 9-10 years (315 boys and 267 girls). Blood tests for soluble thrombomodulin, leptin, fibrinogen, and general biochemical markers were performed, and the mean and 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles for each marker were determined. Read More

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A Comparison Between Self-Reported and Investigator-Measured Cardiovascular Risk-Related Biometric Numbers.

West J Nurs Res 2021 May 6:1939459211013580. Epub 2021 May 6.

School of Nursing, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine individuals' knowledge of cardiovascular risk-related biometric numbers and to compare self-reported and investigator-measured numbers in a convenience sample of adults in the Midwest region. Sociodemographic data and personal knowledge of cardiovascular risk-related biometric numbers were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. Investigators conducted health assessments to obtain biometric numbers. Read More

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High-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise results in acute and prolonged cellular stress more pronounced in type I than in type II fibers.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Center for Health and Performance, Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Myocellular stress with high-frequency blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFRRE) was investigated by measures of heat shock protein (HSP) responses, glycogen content and inflammatory markers. Thirteen participants (24±2 years [mean±SD], 9 males) completed two 5-day-blocks of 7 BFRRE sessions, separated by 10 days. Four sets of unilateral knee extensions to failure at 20% of 1RM were performed. Read More

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