20,296 results match your criteria hepatitis vaccines

Assessment of immunogenicity and safety across two manufacturing lots of a 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine, Sci-B-Vac®, compared with Engerix-B® in healthy Asian adults: A phase 3 randomized clinical trial.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

VBI Vaccines Inc., Cambridge, MA, United States.

Background: Sci-B-Vac®, a 3-antigen hepatitis B vaccine (3A-HBV), contains all three recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins (S, pre-S1, and pre-S2). In 2005, 3A-HBV manufacturing transferred facilities (A to B), where it continues to be manufactured.

Methods: This phase 3, single-blind, randomized study, conducted at one site in Vietnam, compared efficacy and safety among two 3A-HBV lots, lot A and lot B, and a single-antigen hepatitis B vaccine (1A-HBV), Engerix-B®. Read More

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The next generation of HCV vaccines: a focus on novel adjuvant development.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Hepatitis and AIDS, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Considerable efforts have been made to treat and prevent acute and chronic infections caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Current treatments are unable to protect people from reinfection. Hence, there is a need for development of both preventive and therapeutic HCV vaccines. Read More

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Setting a Course for Preventing Hepatitis E in Low and Lower-Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review of Burden and Risk Factors.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jun 13;8(6):ofab178. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Médecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for outbreaks of acute jaundice in Africa and Asia, many of which occur among displaced people or in crisis settings. Although an efficacious vaccine for HEV has been developed, we lack key epidemiologic data needed to understand how best to use the vaccine for hepatitis E control in endemic countries.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review of articles published on hepatitis E in low-income and lower-middle-income countries in Africa and Asia. Read More

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High-throughput quantitation of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in a single-dilution homogeneous assay.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 10;11(1):12330. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd, Atlanta, GA, 30329, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 emerged in late 2019 and has since spread around the world, causing a pandemic of the respiratory disease COVID-19. Detecting antibodies against the virus is an essential tool for tracking infections and developing vaccines. Such tests, primarily utilizing the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) principle, can be either qualitative (reporting positive/negative results) or quantitative (reporting a value representing the quantity of specific antibodies). Read More

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Inequities in childhood immunisation coverage associated with socioeconomic, geographic, maternal, child, and place of birth characteristics in Kenya.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Jun 11;21(1):553. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Background: The global Immunisation Agenda 2030 highlights coverage and equity as a strategic priority goal to reach high equitable immunisation coverage at national levels and in all districts. We estimated inequities in full immunisation coverage associated with socioeconomic, geographic, maternal, child, and place of birth characteristics among children aged 12-23 months in Kenya.

Methods: We analysed full immunisation coverage (1-dose BCG, 3-dose DTP-HepB-Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B), 3-dose polio, 1-dose measles, and 3-dose pneumococcal vaccines) of 3943 children aged 12-23 months from the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey. Read More

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Vaccination and Immunoprotection in People with HIV.

Steven C Johnson

Top Antivir Med 2020 Dec-Jan;28(3):465-468

University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.

Vaccines play an important role in HIV primary care and are available for several sexually transmitted infections, including those caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human papillomavirus (HPV). HAV vaccination is increasingly important, given recent hepatitis A outbreaks and lack of immunity in many adults. A novel formulation of the hepatitis B vaccine shows promise in increasing rates of seroprotection. Read More

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Recommendation for use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine in infants.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

In April 2020, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to tetanus protein, and hepatitis B (HepB) (recombinant DNA) vaccine, DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB (Hexaxim®; Sanofi Pasteur), for use as a three-dose primary series in infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months. The DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and provides a long-term immune response based on studies performed in a variety of settings in many countries, including Korea. This report summarizes the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society guidelines for the use of this newly introduced hexavalent combination vaccine. Read More

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Open reading frame 3 protein of hepatitis E virus: Multi-function protein with endless potential.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 May;27(20):2458-2473

Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi Province, China.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen, causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E outbreaks worldwide. Since the identification of HEV as a zoonotic agent, this virus has been isolated from a variety of hosts with an ever-expanding host range. HEV-open reading frame (ORF) 3, the smallest ORF in HEV genomes, initially had been perceived as an unremarkable HEV accessory protein. Read More

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Serum Sickness-Like Reaction Associated With Acute Hepatitis B in a Previously Vaccinated Adult Male.

Cureus 2021 Apr 28;13(4):e14742. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Infectious Disease, Michigan State University/Hurley Medical Center, Flint, USA.

Serum sickness is a well-known immune complex deposition phenomenon, occurring as a reaction to proteins in antiserum from a non-human animal source. Serum sickness-like reaction (SSLR), typically associated with drugs and vaccines, sometimes occurs with acute hepatitis B infection and poses a diagnostic dilemma for clinicians, as other viral syndromes, vasculitic processes, and autoimmune conditions can have similar presentations. We present a 36-year-old intravenous drug user, with confirmed records of hepatitis B immunization, who presented with multi-joint pain, joint swelling, and a skin rash. Read More

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[Vaccination and sleep].

M G Poluektov

Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2021 ;121(4. Vyp. 2)

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia.

The current worldwide pandemic of a new coronavirus infection has posed new challenges for medicine and the human community. In particular, the issue of widespread mass vaccination and improving its effectiveness has become acute. In this regard, the contribution of sleep to innate and acquired immunity has attracted the attention of researchers. Read More

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The different replication between nonenveloped and quasi-enveloped hepatitis E virus.

J Med Virol 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Medical Faculty, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, PR China.

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the major pathogen of viral hepatitis. However, the understanding of the HEV life cycle is limited. In the present study, cells were separately infected with nonenveloped HEV (derived from feces or bile) or quasi-enveloped HEV (derived from the cell culture after serial passages, eHEV) and observed by confocal fluorescence microscopy to investigate the life cycle of HEV. Read More

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Population (Antibody) Testing for COVID-19-Technical Challenges, Application and Relevance, an English Perspective.

Peter A C Maple

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 24;9(6). Epub 2021 May 24.

Clinical Neurology Research Group, Department of Neurology, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham School of Medicine, Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK.

In the UK, population virus or antibody testing using virus swabs, serum samples, blood spots or oral fluids has been performed to a limited extent for several diseases including measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis and HIV. The collection of population-based infection and immunity data is key to the monitoring of disease prevalence and assessing the effectiveness of interventions such as behavioural modifications and vaccination. In particular, the biological properties of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its interaction with the human host have presented several challenges towards the development of population-based immunity testing. Read More

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Immunopathology of Chronic Hepatitis B Infection: Role of Innate and Adaptive Immune Response in Disease Progression.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 23;22(11). Epub 2021 May 23.

Division of Clinical Care and Research, Institute of Human Virology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA.

More than 250 million people are living with chronic hepatitis B despite the availability of highly effective vaccines and oral antivirals. Although innate and adaptive immune cells play crucial roles in controlling hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, they are also accountable for inflammation and subsequently cause liver pathologies. During the initial phase of HBV infection, innate immunity is triggered leading to antiviral cytokines production, followed by activation and intrahepatic recruitment of the adaptive immune system resulting in successful virus elimination. Read More

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Immunopotentiating and Delivery Systems for HCV Vaccines.

Viruses 2021 May 25;13(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland, Rockville, MD 20850, USA.

Development of preventive vaccines against hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains one of the main strategies in achieving global elimination of the disease. The effort is focused on the quest for vaccines capable of inducing protective cross-neutralizing humoral and cellular immune responses, which in turn dictate the need for rationally designed cross-genotype vaccine antigens and potent immunoadjuvants systems. This review provides an assessment of the current state of knowledge on immunopotentiating compounds and vaccine delivery systems capable of enhancing HCV antigen-specific immune responses, while focusing on the synergy and interplay of two modalities. Read More

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The Costs of Introducing the Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccine into the National Immunization Programme in Senegal (NéoVac Study).

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 18;9(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale, ISSPAM, 13385 Marseille, France.

Some African countries are still reluctant to introduce the hepatitis B vaccine birth dose (HepB-BD) into their expanded program of immunization (EPI), partly because of logistical, economic, and cost information constraints. To assist decision-makers in these countries, we assessed the economic and financial costs of HepB-BD introduction in Senegal in 2016. We performed a micro-costing study in a representative sample of Senegal's EPI sites at all levels in 2018. Read More

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Mechanisms of Hepatocellular Injury in Hepatitis A.

Viruses 2021 May 8;13(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Center for Vaccines and Immunity, The Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH 43205, USA.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a common cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Despite decades of research, the pathogenic mechanisms of hepatitis A remain incompletely understood. As the replication of HAV is noncytopathic in vitro, a widely accepted concept has been that virus-specific cytotoxic T cells are responsible for liver injury. Read More

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Hepatitis B Vaccination in Senegalese Children: Coverage, Timeliness, and Sociodemographic Determinants of Non-Adherence to Immunisation Schedules (ANRS 12356 AmBASS Survey).

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 15;9(5). Epub 2021 May 15.

Inserm, IRD, SESSTIM, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale, ISSPAM, Aix Marseille University, 13385 Marseille, France.

Detailed knowledge about hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination coverage and timeliness for sub-Saharan Africa is scarce. We used data from a community-based cross-sectional survey conducted in 2018-2019 in the area of Niakhar, Senegal, to estimate coverage, timeliness, and factors associated with non-adherence to the World Health Organisation-recommended vaccination schedules in children born in 2016 (year of the birth dose (BD) introduction in Senegal) and 2017-2018. Vaccination status was assessed from vaccination cards, surveillance data, and healthcare post vaccination records. Read More

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Changing trends in seroprevalence rates of transfusion-transmitted diseases among blood donors in Jordan.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 May 31;21(1):508. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Pathology Laboratory Medicine, King Hussein Cancer Center, Al-Jubeiha, Amman, Jordan.

Background: Hepatitis B and C infections and transmission are a serious challenge to all healthcare systems. We studied seroprevalence rates of Transfusion Transmitted Diseases (TTD) among blood bank donors in Jordan from 2014 to 2019 as a follow-up study of our previously published work. In addition, we wanted to explore the efficacy of the mandatory vaccination of infants against hepatitis B virus (HBV) which was implemented by the Ministry of Health since 1995 for the eradication of HBV infection in Jordan. Read More

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Immunogenicity and safety of a high-dose and prolonged-schedule hepatitis B vaccine among chronic kidney disease patients: a randomized, parallel-controlled trial.

Expert Rev Vaccines 2021 May 31:1-9. Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Public Health, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, China.

: The immunogenicity against hepatitis B vaccine is unsatisfactory in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and studies evaluating augmented vaccine regimens to enhance immunogenicity have been inconclusive.: To evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of four-standard-dose and four-triple-dose regimens hepatitis B vaccine among CKD patients in China.: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, parallel-controlled trial including 273 patients with CKD who were randomly allocated to receive 3 or 4 doses of 20 or 60 µg of recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Read More

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Anti-viral treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection: A race against time amidst the ongoing pandemic.

Metabol Open 2021 06 25;10:100096. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Biological Chemistry, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 11527, Athens, Greece.

Remdesivir (GS-5734), a drug initially developed to treat hepatitis C and Ebola virus disease, was the first approved treatment for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, apart from remdesivir, there is a paucity of other specific anti-viral agents against SARS-CoV-2 infection. In 2017, researchers had documented the anti-coronavirus potential of remdesivir in animal models. Read More

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Repurposing Infectious Diseases Vaccines Against Cancer.

Front Oncol 2021 13;11:688755. Epub 2021 May 13.

The Anticancer Fund, Strombeek-Bever, Belgium.

Vaccines used to prevent infections have long been known to stimulate immune responses to cancer as illustrated by the approval of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to treat bladder cancer since the 1970s. The recent approval of immunotherapies has rejuvenated this research area with reports of anti-tumor responses with existing infectious diseases vaccines used as such, either alone or in combination with immune checkpoint inhibitors. Here, we have reviewed and summarized research activities using approved vaccines to treat cancer. Read More

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Reply to: Optimal hepatitis B vaccination schedule for cirrhotic patients: a still unanswered question.

J Viral Hepat 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

We read the letter of Giráldez-Gallego et al. Our data show that hepatitis B vaccination in patients with advanced cirrhosis leads to a poor response despite the implementation of a double dose accelerated schedule (starting at the hospital admission) and the nursing effort to reinforce the vaccination compliance after discharge . The reasons for a lower response to vaccination in liver transplantation (LT) candidates were not clear, as we explained in our discussion. Read More

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Intradermal Vaccination: A Potential Tool in the Battle Against the COVID-19 Pandemic?

Risk Manag Healthc Policy 2021 20;14:2079-2087. Epub 2021 May 20.

Primary Care Unit ASL RM 1, Rome, Italy.

This narrative review is the final output of an initiative of the SIM (Italian Society of Mesotherapy). A narrative review of scientific literature on the efficacy of fractional intradermal vaccination in comparison with full doses has been conducted for the following pathogens: influenza virus, rabies virus, poliovirus (PV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis A virus (HAV), diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis bacterias (DTP), human papillomavirus (HPV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JE), meningococcus, varicella zoster virus (VZV) and yellow fever virus. The findings suggest that the use of the intradermal route represents a valid strategy in terms of efficacy and efficiency for influenza, rabies and HBV vaccines. Read More

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Vaccine wastage at primary, secondary, and tertiary level of healthcare system-A study from Northern India.

J Family Med Prim Care 2021 Feb 27;10(2):877-882. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Community Medicine, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

Background: High vaccine wastage results in escalation of budget of immunization program.

Objective: To analyze vaccine wastage at three levels of service delivery under public sector, such as at district level, community health Centre (CHC), and sub center (SC).

Study Design: A retrospective cross-sectional record based study in a north Indian state. Read More

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February 2021

Vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion amongst men who have sex with men: A systematic review, meta-analysis and theoretical framework.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 24;39(27):3565-3581. Epub 2021 May 24.

Brighton & Sussex Medical School, University of Sussex, Falmer, United Kingdom.

Background: Due to an increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) have been recommended to receive vaccinations against human papillomavirus, meningitis C and hepatitis A/B. This review aimed to compare the rates of vaccine acceptability, uptake and completion, and to identify determinants of vaccine outcomes specific to MSM to inform a theoretical framework.

Methods: In January 2020 four databases were explored to identify vaccination behaviours and associated factors among MSM. Read More

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A Review of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Immunizations for Elderly Adults.

J Prim Care Community Health 2021 Jan-Dec;12:21501327211014071

Howard University College of Pharmacy, Washington, DC, USA.

Vaccine preventable diseases are responsible for a substantial degree of morbidity in the United States as over 18 million annual cases of vaccine preventable disease occur in the U.S. annually. Read More

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The metabolic hormone leptin promotes the function of T cells and supports vaccine responses.

Nat Commun 2021 05 24;12(1):3073. Epub 2021 May 24.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Follicular helper T (T) cells control antibody responses by supporting antibody affinity maturation and memory formation. Inadequate T function has been found in individuals with ineffective responses to vaccines, but the mechanism underlying T regulation in vaccination is not understood. Here, we report that lower serum levels of the metabolic hormone leptin associate with reduced vaccine responses to influenza or hepatitis B virus vaccines in healthy populations. Read More

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Identification of potent epitopes on hexon capsid protein and their evaluation as vaccine candidates against infections caused by members of Adenoviridae family.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 22;39(27):3560-3564. Epub 2021 May 22.

Drug Discovery and Structural Biology group, Health Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan; Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences (PIEAS), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad, Pakistan; School of Biological Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Adenoviruses cause economically important diseases in vertebrates. Effective vaccines against adenoviral diseases are currently lacking. Here, we report a highly conserved epitopic region on hexon proteins of adenoviruses that generate a strong immune response when used as a virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccine, produced by inserting the epitopic region into the core protein of hepatitis B virus. Read More

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Corilagin prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection by targeting RBD-ACE2 binding.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 5;87:153591. Epub 2021 May 5.

Dr. Neher's Biophysics Laboratory for Innovative Drug Discovery, State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenida Wai Long, Taipa, Macau, China. Electronic address:

Background: The outbreak of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease caused more than 100,000,000 people get infected and over 2,200,000 people being killed worldwide. However, the current developed vaccines or drugs may be not effective in preventing the pandemic of COVID-19 due to the mutations of coronavirus and the severe side effects of the newly developed vaccines. Chinese herbal medicines and their active components play important antiviral activities. Read More

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