90,803 results match your criteria hepatic steatosis


Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Disease: Overlapping Mechanisms.

Semin Liver Dis 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) denotes a condition with excess fat in the liver. The prevalence of NAFLD is increasing, averaging > 25% of the Western population. In 25% of the patients, NAFLD progresses to its more severe form: nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and >25% of these progress to cirrhosis following activation of inflammatory and fibrotic processes. Read More

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Dual-energy CT of the liver: True noncontrast vs. virtual noncontrast images derived from multiple phases for the diagnosis of fatty liver.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Apr 29;140:109741. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Siemens Healthineers Ltd., 23 Chungjeong-ro, Seoul, 03737, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the difference in liver density and to compare the performance to diagnose fatty liver between true noncontrast (TNC) images and virtual noncontrast (VNC) images generated from dual-energy CT (DECT).

Materials And Methods: Patients who underwent liver dynamic DECT and MRI were included (n = 49). Two observers measured the liver and spleen densities on TNC images and three VNC images from the arterial, portal and delayed phases of DECT (VNCa, VNCp and VNCd, respectively). Read More

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Anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin is related to the changes in the gut microbiota and contributes to preventing the progression from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 5;112:104966. Epub 2021 May 5.

Institute of Biomedical Research, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China; Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Zibo Key Laboratory of New Drug Development of Neurodegenerative Diseases, School of Life Sciences, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, Shandong, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Increasing intestinal barrier function is one of the basic methods to suppress inflammation in the progression from simple steatosis (SS) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Luteolin exists widely in vegetables, fruits and natural herbs and has various biological activities, including benefits on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its regulatory effects on the gut microbiota and involvement in its biological activities remain to be investigated. Read More

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Diagnostic accuracy of elastography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with NAFLD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Hepatol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Translational Gastroenterology Unit, Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Vibration-controlled transient elastography (VCTE), point shear wave elastography (pSWE), two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2DSWE), magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are proposed as non-invasive tests for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study evaluated their diagnostic accuracy for liver fibrosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

Methods: PubMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for studies examining the diagnostic accuracy of these index tests against histology as the reference standard, in adult patients with NAFLD. Read More

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Secretory Galectin-3 promotes hepatic steatosis via regulation of the PPARγ/CD36 signaling pathway.

Cell Signal 2021 May 12:110043. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Department of Gerontology, Huadong Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Clinical Geriatric Medicine, Shanghai, China; Research Center on Aging and Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Galectin-3 (Gal3) is an essential regulator of a number of metabolic disorders. Previous studies have established that Gal3 is a positive regulator of inflammation, fibrosis, and insulin resistance. However, its function in the early pathogenesis of hepatic lipid accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remains unresolved. Read More

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Myosteatosis in NAFLD patients correlates with plasma Cathepsin D.

Biomol Concepts 2021 May 15;12(1):27-35. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Molecular Genetics, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Universiteitssingel 50, 6229ERMaastricht, the Netherlands.

Previously, we have shown that hepatic lipid accumulation induces the secretion of cathepsin D (CTSD), and that plasma CTSD levels are associated with increased inflammation and disease severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although it is clear that the liver is a major source of plasma CTSD, it is unknown whether other metabolically active organs such as the muscle, also associate with plasma CTSD levels in NAFLD patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the relation between lipid accumulation in the muscle (myosteatosis) and plasma CTSD levels in forty-five NAFLD patients. Read More

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Prevention of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by long-term exercise via the induction of phenotypic changes in Kupffer cells of hyperphagic obese mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14859

Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki, Japan.

Exercise ameliorates nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by inducing phenotypic changes in Kupffer cells (KCs). p62/Sqstm1-knockout (p62-KO) mice develop NAFLD alongside hyperphagia-induced obesity. We evaluated (1) the effects of long-term exercise on the foreign-body phagocytic capacity of KCs, their surface marker expression, and the production of steroid hormones in p62-KO mice; and (2) whether long-term exercise prevented the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in p62-KO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Read More

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Antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of Mpzl3 attenuates the negative metabolic effects of diet-induced obesity in mice.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14853

Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative Medicine, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USA.

Previously, we demonstrated that global knockout (KO) of the gene encoding myelin protein zero-like 3 (Mpzl3) results in reduced body weight and adiposity, increased energy expenditure, and reduced hepatic lipid synthesis in mice. These mice also exhibit cyclic and progressive alopecia which may contribute to the observed hypermetabolic phenotype. The goal of the current study was to determine if acute and peripherally restricted knockdown of Mpzl3 could ameliorate the negative metabolic effects of exposure to a high-fat and sucrose, energy-dense (HED) diet similar to what was observed in global Mpzl3 KO mice in the absence of a skin phenotype. Read More

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The therapeutic effects and mechanisms of salidroside on cardiovascular and metabolic diseases: An updated review.

Chem Biodivers 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Ethnic Medicine, Liutai Avenue 1166, Wenjiang District, 611137, Chengdu, CHINA.

Salidroside (SAL)  is the main active ingredient of the plateau plant Rhodiola. So far, many animal experiments proved that SAL has good biological activity against some metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, most of these reports are scattered. Read More

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Assessment of Imaging Modalities Against Liver Biopsy in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: The Amsterdam NAFLD-NASH Cohort.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Internal and Vascular Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Noninvasive diagnostic methods are urgently required in disease stratification and monitoring in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a promising technique to assess hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis, potentially enabling noninvasive identification of individuals with active and advanced stages of NAFLD.

Purpose: To examine the diagnostic performance of multiparametric MRI for the assessment of disease severity along the NAFLD disease spectrum with comparison to histological scores. Read More

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Increased systemic exposure of once daily tacrolimus in renal transplant recipients on marine omega-3 fatty acid supplementation.

Transpl Int 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Renal Medicine, Division of Medicine, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway.

High daily doses of marine omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) from fish and seafood may have beneficial cardiovascular effects in renal transplant recipients (RTRs) (1, 2). A recent randomized clinical trial demonstrated that daily supplementation with high-dose marine omega-3 FAs lowered plasma triglyceride and C-reactive protein levels (1). In some parts of the world, high intake of marine omega-3 FAs is recommended for the general population and it is likely that RTRs use omega-3 FA supplements without consulting a transplant physician (2). Read More

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Blueberry-derived exosomes-like nanoparticles ameliorate nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress.

Acta Pharmacol Sin 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Chongqing Key Lab of Medicinal Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054, China.

Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we found that blueberry-derived exosomes-like nanoparticles (BELNs) could ameliorate oxidative stress in rotenone-induced HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice. Preincubation with BELNs decreased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and prevented cell apoptosis by inducing the expression of Bcl-2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and decreasing the content of Bax in rotenone-treated HepG2 cells. Read More

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Epigenome-wide association meta-analysis of DNA methylation with coffee and tea consumption.

Nat Commun 2021 May 14;12(1):2830. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

Coffee and tea are extensively consumed beverages worldwide which have received considerable attention regarding health. Intake of these beverages is consistently linked to, among others, reduced risk of diabetes and liver diseases; however, the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Epigenetics is suggested as a mechanism mediating the effects of dietary and lifestyle factors on disease onset. Read More

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Fifteen-minute consultation: Child with an incidental finding of a fatty liver.

Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Paediatric Hepatology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, UK

The incidental finding of a fatty liver on an abdominal ultrasound scan performed for an unrelated reason in an overweight child is an increasingly common phenomenon in paediatric practice. This article will explain the steps to be taken when receiving such an ultrasound report. Read More

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Subclinical atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: A case-control study in Algerian population.

J Med Vasc 2021 May 20;46(3):129-138. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Internal medecine department, CHU de Douera, University of Blida 1, Algiers, Algeria.

Background & Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was described for the first time in 1980, and became within a few years one of the most frequent causes of chronic liver disease. However, during the last decade, many studies suggested a strong relationship between NAFLD and cardiovascular diseases including carotid atherosclerosis evoking the hypothesis that NAFLD is a factor or a marker of cardiovascular risk. In Algeria, data on this subject are rare or inexistent. Read More

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Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibits hepatic steatosis by stimulating liver kinase B1 and insulin-induced gene.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Center for Fatty Liver, Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China;; Shanghai Key Lab of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Shanghai 200092, China;. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Butyric acid is an intestinal microbiota-produced short-chain fatty acid, which exerts salutary effects on alleviating nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism of butyrate on regulating hepatic lipid metabolism is largely unexplored.

Methods: A mouse model of NAFLD was induced with HFD feeding, and sodium butyrate (NaB) intervention was initiated at the 8th week and lasted for eight weeks. Read More

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Senolytics and Senomorphics: natural and synthetic therapeutics in the treatment of aging and chronic diseases.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Chemical Biology, National Hellenic Research Foundation, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Ave., Athens 11635, Greece. Electronic address:

Cellular senescence is a heterogeneous process guided by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, characterizing many types of somatic cells. It has been suggested as an aging hallmark that is believed to contribute to aging and chronic diseases. Senescent cells (SC) exhibit a specific senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), mainly characterized by the production of proinflammatory and matrix-degrading molecules. Read More

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Long-term statin treatment for hepatic fibrosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: is it time to give the emperor a statin robe?

Metabolism 2021 May 11:154796. Epub 2021 May 11.

Section of Endocrinology, Boston VA Healthcare System and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

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Mechanisms and disease consequences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Cell 2021 May;184(10):2537-2564

Departments of Internal Medicine and Cellular & Molecular Physiology, Yale Diabetes Research Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA. Electronic address:

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the leading chronic liver disease worldwide. Its more advanced subtype, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), connotes progressive liver injury that can lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we provide an in-depth discussion of the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms that lead to progressive liver injury, including the metabolic origins of NAFLD, the effect of NAFLD on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, bile acid toxicity, macrophage dysfunction, and hepatic stellate cell activation, and consider the role of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors that promote fibrosis progression and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in NASH. Read More

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Is there a role for neuregulin 4 in human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

PLoS One 2021 14;16(5):e0251822. Epub 2021 May 14.

Laboratory of Hepatology, Department Chronic Diseases, Metabolism & Ageing (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a novel adipokine enriched in brown adipose tissue has been observed to negatively regulate de novo hepatic lipogenesis and limit nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) progression to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rodents. However, the role of Nrg4 in human NAFLD remains unclear to date. We analysed Nrg4 plasma levels and its association with liver disease severity together with the transcriptional profile of the Nrg4 pathway in liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of NAFLD patients. Read More

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Knockdown of insulin-like growth factor 2 gene disrupts mitochondrial functions in the liver.

J Mol Cell Biol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Endocrinology, the Affiliated Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Even though insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) has been reported to be overexpressed in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), its role in the progression of NAFLD and the potential mechanism remain largely unclear. Using in vitro models, we found that IGF2 was the key overexpressed gene in steatosis, suggesting a possible association between IGF2 and NAFLD. Interestingly, loss-of-function experiments revealed that inhibition of IGF2 protein impaired mitochondrial biogenesis and respiration. Read More

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Application of Q-TOF-MS based metabonomics techniques to analyze the plasma metabolic profile changes on rats following death due to acute intoxication of phorate.

Int J Legal Med 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Forensic Medicine, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, 030001, People's Republic of China.

Organophosphorus pesticides (OP) are widely used in the world, and many poisoning cases were caused by them. Phorate intoxication is especially common in China. However, there are currently few methods for discriminating phorate poisoning death from phorate exposure after death and interpretation of false-positive results due to the lack of effective biomarkers. Read More

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Polar and neutral lipid composition of the copepod Lernaeocera lusci and its host Merluccius merluccius in relationship with the parasite intensity.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Center of Urgent Medical Assistance of Tunis, Laboratory of Toxicology and Environment LR12SP07, University Tunis El Manar, Montfleury, 1008, Tunis, Tunisia.

Parasitic copepod Lernaeocera lusci is a common mesoparasite of the hake Merluccius merluccius. Although widely distributed throughout the Mediterranean, little is known about this pathogen. The current study was designed to assess the impact of different L. Read More

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Dairy consumption and hepatocellular carcinoma risk.

Authors:
Bodo C Melnik

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):736

Department of Dermatology, Environmental Medicine and Health Theory, University of Osnabrück, Osnabrück, Germany.

This review provides epidemiological and translational evidence for milk and dairy intake as critical risk factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Large epidemiological studies in the United States and Europe identified total dairy, milk and butter intake with the exception of yogurt as independent risk factors of HCC. Enhanced activity of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a hallmark of HCC promoted by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Read More

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Exosomes as therapeutic vehicles in liver diseases.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):735

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

The diagnosis and treatment of various liver diseases have progressed greatly over the years, but clinical outcomes are still not satisfying. New research on the mechanisms and application thereof may effectuate positive changes. Exosomes are membrane-derived nanovesicles ranging in size from 40 to 160 nm and are released by a diversity of cells. Read More

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related liver fibrosis: mechanisms, treatment and prevention.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):729

Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry (IFMPEGKC), RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Liver fibrosis is the excessive expression and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the liver. Fibrotic scarring occurs as the consequence of chronic injury and inflammation. While the successful treatment of hepatitis B and C reduced the burden of liver disease related to viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are nowadays the leading causes of hepatic fibrosis worldwide. Read More

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It's all about the spaces between cells: role of extracellular matrix in liver fibrosis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):728

Institute of Molecular Pathobiochemistry, Experimental Gene Therapy and Clinical Chemistry (IFMPEGKC), RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Aachen, Germany.

Liver fibrosis is one of the leading complications of a variety of chronic liver disorders, including the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver failure. The progression of liver fibrosis is driven by chronic inflammation, which activates the secretory fibroblasts to the myofibroblast phenotype. These specialized liver cells are called as hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Read More

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Diagnostic management of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a transformational period in the development of diagnostic and predictive tools-a narrative review.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):727

Fondazione Italiana Fegato, ONLUS Area Science Park Basovizza, Trieste, Italy.

NAFLD is an emerging healthcare epidemic that is causing predictable adverse consequences for healthcare systems, societies and individuals. Whilst NAFLD is recognized as a multi-system disease with compound pathways that are both benign and pernicious in their unfolding; NASH is generally understood as a deleterious follow-on condition with path-specific tendencies that progress to cirrhosis, HCC and liver transplantation. Recent evidence is beginning to challenge this interpretation demanding more attention to the personalized nature of the disease and its pathogenesis across multiple different cohorts. Read More

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Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases: current challenges and future directions.

Authors:
Elke Roeb

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):726

Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, University Hospital UKGM, Giessen, Germany.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Western Countries, and a similar trend is expected in Eastern Countries within the next years. This review focusses on the definition of NAFLD and NASH, possible screening mechanisms and the question who should be screened. Still there is a need for non-invasive diagnostic tools and biomarkers for NASH that can quickly and easily diagnose the severity of NAFLD, monitor liver changes, and identify high risk patients. Read More

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The effects of S-nitrosylation-induced PPARγ/SFRP5 pathway inhibition on the conversion of non-alcoholic fatty liver to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(8):684

Gastroenterology Department, Shanxi Provincial People's Hospital, Taiyuan, China.

Background: Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) and secreted frizzled related protein 5 (SFRP5) are abnormally expressed in liver cells. But their role in the transformation of non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remains to be studied. We aimed to explore the role of S-nitrosylation (SNO) in the conversion of NAFL to NASH via the peroxisome PPARγ/SFRP5 pathway. Read More

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