1,831 results match your criteria hemisphere experiments

Modality-Dependent Brain Activation Changes Induced by Acquiring a Second Language Abroad.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 26;15:631957. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Basic Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The dynamic nature of cortical activation changes during language acquisition, including second-language learning, has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we administered two sets of reading and listening tests (Pre and Post) to participants who had begun to learn Japanese abroad. The two sets were separated by an interval of about 2 months of Japanese language training. Read More

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging Group Analysis Using Tract Profiling and Directional Statistics.

Front Neurosci 2021 22;15:625473. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Health Informatics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Group analysis in diffusion tensor imaging is challenging. Comparisons of tensor morphology across groups have typically been performed on scalar measures of diffusivity, such as fractional anisotropy (FA), disregarding the complex three-dimensional morphologies of diffusion tensors. Scalar measures consider only the magnitude of the diffusion but not directions. Read More

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Improvement of phonemic fluency following leftward prism adaptation.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 31;11(1):7313. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychology, Educational Sciences and Human Movement, University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 15, 90128, Palermo, Italy.

Anatomo functional studies of prism adaptation (PA) have been shown to modulate a brain frontal-parieto-temporal network, increasing activation of this network in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the side of prism deviation. This effect raises the hypothesis that left prism adaptation, modulating frontal areas of the left hemisphere, could modify subjects' performance on linguistic tasks that map on those areas. To test this hypothesis, 51 healthy subjects participated in experiments in which leftward or rightward prism adaptation were applied before the execution of a phonemic fluency task, i. Read More

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The transcriptional landscape of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (TC-83) infection.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Mar 31;15(3):e0009306. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Geographic Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus (VEEV) is a major biothreat agent that naturally causes outbreaks in humans and horses particularly in tropical areas of the western hemisphere, for which no antiviral therapy is currently available. The host response to VEEV and the cellular factors this alphavirus hijacks to support its effective replication or evade cellular immune responses are largely uncharacterized. We have previously demonstrated tremendous cell-to-cell heterogeneity in viral RNA (vRNA) and cellular transcript levels during flaviviral infection using a novel virus-inclusive single-cell RNA-Seq approach. Read More

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Hearing Better with the Right Eye? The Lateralization of Multisensory Processing Affects Auditory Learning in Northern Bobwhite Quail () Chicks.

Appl Anim Behav Sci 2021 Mar 23;236. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Psychology, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199.

Precocial avian species exhibit a high degree of lateralization of perceptual and motor abilities, including preferential eye use for tasks such as social recognition and predator detection. Such lateralization has been related, in part, to differential experience prior to hatch. That is, due to spatial and resulting postural constraints late in incubation, one eye and hemisphere-generally the right eye / left hemisphere-receive greater amounts of stimulation than the contralateral eye / hemisphere. Read More

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Superior colliculus controls the activity of the rostromedial tegmental nuclei in an asymmetrical manner.

J Neurosci 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurophysiology and Chronobiology, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, 9 Gronostajowa street, 30-387 Krakow, Poland

Dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the midbrain are involved in controlling animals' orienting and approach toward relevant external stimuli. The firing of DA neurons is regulated by many brain structures; however, the sensory input is provided predominantly by the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC). It is suggested that SC also innervates the contralateral rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg)-the main inhibitory input to DA neurons. Read More

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Antarctic Peninsula warm winters influenced by Tasman Sea temperatures.

Nat Commun 2021 03 8;12(1):1497. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Earth Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

The Antarctic Peninsula of West Antarctica was one of the most rapidly warming regions on the Earth during the second half of the 20th century. Changes in the atmospheric circulation associated with remote tropical climate variabilities have been considered as leading drivers of the change in surface conditions in the region. However, the impacts of climate variabilities over the mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere on this Antarctic warming have yet to be quantified. Read More

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Effects of carnosine and hypothermia combination therapy on hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Feb 24. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea.

Background: Carnosine has antioxidative and neuroprotective properties against hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Hypothermia is used as a therapeutic tool for HI encephalopathy in newborn infants with perinatal asphyxia. However, the combined effects of these therapies are unknown. Read More

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February 2021

Cognitive benefits of exercise interventions: an fMRI activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis.

Brain Struct Funct 2021 Apr 6;226(3):601-619. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Exercise and Mental Health Laboratory, School of Psychology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, 518060, China.

Despite a growing number of functional MRI studies reporting exercise-induced changes during cognitive processing, a systematic determination of the underlying neurobiological pathways is currently lacking. To this end, our neuroimaging meta-analysis included 20 studies and investigated the influence of physical exercise on cognition-related functional brain activation. The overall meta-analysis encompassing all experiments revealed physical exercise-induced changes in the left parietal lobe during cognitive processing. Read More

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Anodal tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces Stroop errors. A comparison of different tasks and designs.

Behav Brain Res 2021 May 1;405:113215. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

University "Niccolò Cusano", Italy; Dept. of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome "Foro Italico", Rome, Italy.

In the present work, we evaluated the possibility to induce changes in the inhibitory control through non-invasive excitatory stimulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). To this aim, different montages of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were adopted in three separate experiments, wherein different cognitive tasks were performed before and after the stimulation. In the first experiment, participants performed a visual Go/no-go task, and a bilateral anodic or sham stimulation was provided over the scalp area corresponding to the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Read More

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Comparative Phylogeography of and (Plantaginaceae) Across Europe: Integrating Hybridization and Polyploidy in Phylogeography.

Front Plant Sci 2020 1;11:588354. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute for Biology and Environmental Sciences, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Oldenburg, Germany.

Climatic fluctuations in the Pleistocene caused glacial expansion-contraction cycles in Eurasia and other parts of the world. Consequences of these cycles, such as population expansion and subsequent subdivision, have been studied in many taxa at intraspecific population level across much of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the consequences for the potential of hybridization and polyploidization are poorly understood. Read More

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February 2021

Crumpling an elastoplastic thin sphere.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):012209

Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, Republic of China.

The phenomenon of crumpling is common in nature and our daily life. However, most of its properties, such as the power-law relation for pressure versus density and the ratio of bending and stretching energies, as well as the interesting statistical properties, were obtained by using flat sheets. This is in contrast to the fact that the majority of crumpled objects in the real world are three-dimensional. Read More

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January 2021

GaitSet: Cross-view Gait Recognition through Utilizing Gait as a Deep Set.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Feb 9;PP. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Gait is a unique biometric feature recognized at a distance and has broad applications in crime prevention, forensic identification and social security. To portray a gait, existing gait recognition methods utilize either a gait template, which makes it difficult to preserve temporal information, or a gait sequence, which maintain unnecessary sequential constraints and loses the flexibility of gait recognition. In this paper we present a novel perspective that utilizes gait as a deep set, meaning that a set of gait frames are integrated by a global-local fused deep network inspired by the way our left- and right-hemisphere processes information to learn information that can be used in identification. Read More

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February 2021

Gelation of amphiphilic janus particles in an apolar medium.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 20;590:12-18. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: The anisotropic nature of colloidal particles results in orientation-dependent interactions that organize the particles into peculiar structures different from those formed by isotropic colloids. Particles with a hydrophilic hemisphere are expected to assemble in hydrophobic solvents due to the contribution of hydrophobic interactions as observed for molecular amphiphiles.

Experiments: Asymmetrically decorated silica-based Janus particles are dispersed in an apolar solvent, chloroform, and their structure and dynamics are studied by light scattering and compared with computer simulations. Read More

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Basolateral amygdala CB1 receptors gate HPA axis activation and context-cocaine memory strength during reconsolidation.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Integrative Physiology and Neuroscience, Washington State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Pullman, WA, USA.

Re-exposure to a cocaine-associated context triggers craving and relapse through the retrieval of salient context-drug memories. Upon retrieval, context-drug memories become labile and temporarily sensitive to modification before they are reconsolidated into long-term memory stores. The effects of systemic cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) antagonism indicate that CB1R signaling is necessary for cocaine-memory reconsolidation and associated glutamatergic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA); however, the contribution of BLA CB1R signaling to cocaine-memory reconsolidation is unknown. Read More

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January 2021

The role of the superior parietal lobule in lexical processing of sign language: Insights from fMRI and TMS.

Cortex 2021 Feb 8;135:240-254. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address:

There is strong evidence that neuronal bases for language processing are remarkably similar for sign and spoken languages. However, as meanings and linguistic structures of sign languages are coded in movement and space and decoded through vision, differences are also present, predominantly in occipitotemporal and parietal areas, such as superior parietal lobule (SPL). Whether the involvement of SPL reflects domain-general visuospatial attention or processes specific to sign language comprehension remains an open question. Read More

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February 2021

Sample chamber for synchrotron based in-situ X-ray diffraction experiments under electric fields and temperatures between 100 K and 1250 K.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 Jan 1;28(Pt 1):158-168. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 09596 Freiberg, Germany.

Many scientific questions require X-ray experiments conducted at varying temperatures, sometimes combined with the application of electric fields. Here, a customized sample chamber developed for beamlines P23 and P24 of PETRA III at DESY to suit these demands is presented. The chamber body consists mainly of standard vacuum parts housing the heater/cooler assembly supplying a temperature range of 100 K to 1250 K and an xyz manipulator holding an electric contact needle for electric measurements at both high voltage and low current. Read More

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January 2021

Responses of the Eelgrass L. to Water Depth and Light Availability in the Context of Increasing Coastal Water Turbidity: Implications for Conservation and Restoration.

Front Plant Sci 2020 15;11:582557. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Marine Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao, China.

Accelerating losses of seagrass meadows has led to efforts to restore these highly productive and beneficial ecosystems globally. Depth and light availability are critical determinants of seagrass restoration success. Eelgrass ( L. Read More

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December 2020

Single-hemisphere photoelectron momentum microscope with time-of-flight recording.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Dec;91(12):123110

Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Institut für Physik, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Photoelectron momentum microscopy is an emerging powerful method for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES), especially in combination with imaging spin filters. These instruments record k-k images, typically exceeding a full Brillouin zone. As energy filters, double-hemispherical or time-of-flight (ToF) devices are in use. Read More

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December 2020

Encoding and control of orientation to airflow by a set of fan-shaped body neurons.

Elife 2020 12 30;9. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Neuroscience Institute, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, United States.

The insect central complex (CX) is thought to underlie goal-oriented navigation but its functional organization is not fully understood. We recorded from genetically-identified CX cell types in and presented directional visual, olfactory, and airflow cues known to elicit orienting behavior. We found that a group of neurons targeting the ventral fan-shaped body (ventral P-FNs) are robustly tuned for airflow direction. Read More

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December 2020

Windbreak and airflow performance of different synthetic shrub designs based on wind tunnel experiments.

PLoS One 2020 28;15(12):e0244213. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

College of Desert Control Science and Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

Wind erosion has gained increasing attention as one of the most serious global ecological and environmental threats. Windbreaks are effective at decreasing wind erosion by reducing wind speed to protect crops, livestock, and farmsteads, while providing wildlife habitats. Synthetic shrubs can act as novel windbreaks; however, there is limited knowledge on how their design affects wind speed. Read More

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Optimization and validation of diffusion MRI-based fiber tracking with neural tracer data as a reference.

Sci Rep 2020 12 18;10(1):21285. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Neural Computation Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Okinawa, Japan.

Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) allows non-invasive investigation of whole-brain connectivity, which can reveal the brain's global network architecture and also abnormalities involved in neurological and mental disorders. However, the reliability of connection inferences from dMRI-based fiber tracking is still debated, due to low sensitivity, dominance of false positives, and inaccurate and incomplete reconstruction of long-range connections. Furthermore, parameters of tracking algorithms are typically tuned in a heuristic way, which leaves room for manipulation of an intended result. Read More

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December 2020

Return to different climate states by reducing sulphate aerosols under future CO concentrations.

Sci Rep 2020 12 10;10(1):21748. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

It is generally believed that anthropogenic aerosols cool the atmosphere; therefore, they offset the global warming resulting from greenhouse gases to some extent. Reduction in sulphate, a primary anthropogenic aerosol, is necessary for mitigating air pollution, which causes atmospheric warming. Here, the changes in the surface air temperature under various anthropogenic emission amounts of sulphur dioxide (SO), which is a precursor of sulphate aerosol, are simulated under both present and doubled carbon dioxide (CO) concentrations with a climate model. Read More

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December 2020

The effects of tropospheric ozone on oaks: A global meta-analysis.

Lorenzo Cotrozzi

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 27;756:143795. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Agriculture, Food and Environment, University of Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

Tropospheric ozone (O) levels are still elevated in many regions of the world including Northern Hemisphere forests areas, and are predicted to increase further due to anthropogenic activities and climate change. Oaks are major woody angiosperms in the Northern Hemisphere in terms of biodiversity, ecological dominance, and economic values. This meta-analysis shows overwhelming evidence of the O effects on 51 growth, anatomical, biomass, physiological and biochemical parameters of 14 deciduous or evergreen oak species distributed all around the Northern Hemisphere. Read More

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February 2021

Right visual field advantage for lexical decision dependent on stimulus size and visibility: Evidence for an early processing account of hemispheric asymmetry.

Blaine Tomkins

Laterality 2020 Dec 9:1-25. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Psychology, DePaul University, Chicago, IL, USA.

Previous research suggests that the right visual field advantage on the lexical decision task occurs independent of the visual quality of stimuli [Chiarello, C., Senehi, J., & Soulier, M. Read More

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December 2020

Synthesis and Autoradiography of Novel F-18 Labeled Reversible Radioligands for Detection of Monoamine Oxidase B.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 12 7;11(24):4398-4404. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Center for Psychiatry Research, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm County Council, Stockholm 17176, Sweden.

Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) is an important enzyme regulating the levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. Selective MAO-B inhibitors have been labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 to visualize the localization of MAO-B by positron emission tomography (PET) and thereby have been useful for studying neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to develop promising fluorine-18 labeled reversible MAO-B PET radioligands and their biological evaluation by autoradiography. Read More

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December 2020

An Enriched Environment Enhances Angiogenesis Surrounding the Cingulum in Ischaemic Stroke Rats.

Neural Plast 2020 12;2020:8840319. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200041, China.

An enriched environment (EE) has been demonstrated to improve functional recovery in animal models of ischaemic stroke through enhancing vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF-) mediated neuroprotection accompanied by angiogenesis in the ischaemic hemisphere. Whether EEs also promote VEGF-mediated neuroprotection and angiogenesis in the contralateral hemisphere remains unclear. Here, we explored the effect of EEs on VEGF expression and angiogenesis within the contralateral cerebral cortex in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/r) model. Read More

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November 2020

A flexible self-recovery finger joint for a tendon-driven robot hand.

Rev Sci Instrum 2020 Nov;91(11):115002

School of Mechanical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, South Korea.

This paper presents a new biomimetic soft finger joint with elastic ligaments for enhanced restoration capability. A hemisphere-shaped flexible finger joint is designed to secure omnidirectional restoration and guarantee a reliable recovery function. Joint design comparative studies for enhancing restoration are presented with joint mechanisms and potential energy formulation analyses. Read More

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November 2020

Thermal Deactivation of Pd/CeO-ZrO Three-Way Catalysts during Real Engine Aging: Analysis by a Surface plus Peripheral Site Model.

ACS Omega 2020 Nov 28;5(44):28897-28906. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Division of Materials Science and Chemistry, Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Chuo, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan.

The thermal deactivation of Pd/CeO-ZrO (Pd/CZ) three-way catalysts was studied via nanoscale structural characterization and catalytic kinetic analysis to obtain a fundamental modeling concept for predicting the real catalyst lifetime. The catalysts were engine-aged at 600-1100 °C and used for chassis dynamometer driving test cycles. Observations using an electron microscope and chemisorption experiments showed that the Pd particle size significantly changed in the range of 10-550 nm as a function of aging temperatures. Read More

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November 2020

The importance of long-term studies on wildlife diseases and their interfaces with humans and domestic animals: A review.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Grupo Sanidad y Biotecnología (SaBio), Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC, CSIC-UCLM-JCCM), Ciudad Real, Spain.

Long-term wildlife disease research (LTWDR) and its interfaces with humans and domestic animals provide perspective to understand the diseases' main drivers and how they operate. In a systematic review, we analysed the temporal trend of the studies on LTWDR, their aims, and the hosts, pathogens and geographic areas studied. We also evaluated the added value that such studies provide. Read More

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November 2020