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Discriminative Validity of Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening in Identifying Concussion Among Collegiate Athletes: A National Collegiate Athletic Association-Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 May 12:3635465211012359. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Vestibular and ocular motor screening tools, such as the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), are recognized as important components of a multifaceted evaluation of sport-related concussion. Previous research has supported the predictive utility of the VOMS in identifying concussion, but researchers have yet to examine the predictive utility of the VOMS among collegiate athletes in the first few days after injury.

Purpose: To determine the discriminative validity of individual VOMS item scores and an overall VOMS score for identifying collegiate athletes with an acute sport-related concussion (≤72 hours) from healthy controls matched by age, sex, and concussion history. Read More

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Coping With Tinnitus During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Audiol 2021 May 12:1-9. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted normal operations of health care services, broad sectors of the economy, and the ability to socialize freely. For those with tinnitus, such changes can be factors in exacerbating tinnitus. The purpose of this study was to determine tinnitus help-seeking behavior, which resources individuals utilized to cope during the pandemic, and what additional support is desired. Read More

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Empathy-based tolerance towards poor norm violators in third-party punishment.

Exp Brain Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Psychology and Cognitive Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China.

Third-party punishment (TPP) plays an important role in fairness norm enforcement. This study investigated how the economic status of proposers could modulate third parties' behavioural and neural responses to unfairness. Participants played a TPP game as third parties deciding whether to punish proposers after observing the offers from proposers while behavioural and electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. Read More

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Incorporating Present-on-Admission Indicators in Medicare Claims to Inform Hospital Quality Measure Risk Adjustment Models.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 May 3;4(5):e218512. Epub 2021 May 3.

Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Present-on-admission (POA) indicators in administrative claims data allow researchers to distinguish between preexisting conditions and those acquired during a hospital stay. The impact of adding POA information to claims-based measures of hospital quality has not yet been investigated to better understand patient underlying risk factors in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision setting.

Objective: To assess POA indicator use on Medicare claims and to assess the hospital- and patient-level outcomes associated with incorporating POA indicators in identifying risk factors for publicly reported outcome measures used by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). Read More

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Virtual Overdose Response for People Who Use Opioids Alone: Protocol for a Feasibility and Clinical Trial Study.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 12;10(5):e20183. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background: A recent quarterly report released by Alberta Health reports that on average 2.5 Albertans die every day from accidental overdose deaths, and that between April 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020, the province lost a total of 301 people. In Canada, between January 2016 and March 2020, a total of 16,364 people died due to opioid-related overdose. Read More

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Using a Multisectoral Approach to Advance Health Equity in Rural Arizona: Community-Engaged Survey Development and Implementation Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 12;5(5):e25577. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Health Equity Research, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, United States.

Background: Over the past decade, public health research and practice sectors have shifted their focus away from identifying health disparities and toward addressing the social, environmental, and economic determinants of health equity. Given the complex and interrelated nature of these determinants, developing policies that will advance health equity requires collaboration across sectors outside of health. However, engaging various stakeholder groups, tapping into their unique knowledge systems, and identifying common objectives across sectors is difficult and time consuming and can impede collaborative efforts. Read More

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Perception of post-stroke patients on case management conducted by nurses.

Rev Esc Enferm USP 2021 10;55:e03703. Epub 2021 May 10.

Secretaria Municipal de Saúde, Cascavel, PR, Brazil.

Objective: To identify the perception of post-stroke patients on the case management conducted by nurses.

Method: Qualitative descriptive study with 13 post-stroke patients, followed-up with case management conducted by a nurse for six months, and interviewed at home one month after the end of the follow-up. The interviews were recorded, transcribed in full and analyzed with the help of a software. Read More

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Minimal interplay between explicit knowledge, dynamics of learning and temporal expectations in different, complex uni- and multisensory contexts.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Biological Psychology, Faculty of Natural Science, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, PO Box 4120, 39106, Magdeburg, Germany.

While temporal expectations (TE) generally improve reactions to temporally predictable events, it remains unknown how the learning of temporal regularities (one time point more likely than another time point) and explicit knowledge about temporal regularities contribute to performance improvements; and whether any contributions generalise across modalities. Here, participants discriminated the frequency of diverging auditory, visual or audio-visual targets embedded in auditory, visual or audio-visual distractor sequences. Temporal regularities were manipulated run-wise (early vs. Read More

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Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Among Saudi Pilots.

Nat Sci Sleep 2021 4;13:537-545. Epub 2021 May 4.

Somnogen Canada Inc., Toronto, Ontario, M6H 1C5, Canada.

Purpose: To evaluate the presence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), using home sleep testing in pilots and first officers in Saudi-based airlines. This will allow for proper diagnosis and management of OSA in that group which can help in minimizing any possible aviation accidents related to sleep disturbances secondary to OSA.

Materials And Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted through Saudi-based aviation among pilots and first officers who were in service, active, and flying short- to medium-haul flights. Read More

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Phenotypical predictors of pregnancy-related restless legs syndrome and their association with basal ganglia and the limbic circuits.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9996. Epub 2021 May 11.

Parietal Team, INRIA, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 3 rue Joliot-Curie, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) in pregnancy is a common disorder with a multifactorial etiology. A neurological and obstetrical cohort of 308 postpartum women was screened for RLS within 1 to 6 days of childbirth and 12 weeks postpartum. Of the 308 young mothers, 57 (prevalence rate 19%) were identified as having been affected by RLS symptoms in the recently completed pregnancy. Read More

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Binding moral values gain importance in the presence of close others.

Nat Commun 2021 May 11;12(1):2718. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of People Management and Organisation, Universitat Ramon Llull, ESADE, Sant Cugat, Spain.

A key function of morality is to regulate social behavior. Research suggests moral values may be divided into two types: binding values, which govern behavior in groups, and individualizing values, which promote personal rights and freedoms. Because people tend to mentally activate concepts in situations in which they may prove useful, the importance they afford moral values may vary according to whom they are with in the moment. Read More

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Psychometric Properties of the Food Environment Assessment Survey Tool (FEAST) in People with Mobility Impairment.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 12:1-27. Epub 2021 May 12.

Rural Institute for Inclusive Communities, University of Montana, 32 Campus Dr., Missoula, Montana, USA, 59812.

Objective: Approximately one in ten adults under the age of 65 in the U.S. has a mobility impairing disability. Read More

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Prevalence of acute diarrhea and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) associated factors among children under five in Woldia Town, Amhara Region, northeastern Ethiopia.

BMC Pediatr 2021 May 11;21(1):227. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University, Dessie, Ethiopia.

Background: Diarrhea among children under five is one of the significant public health concerns in developing countries, such as Ethiopia that is mainly attributed to inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services. Lack of data on the prevalence and factors associated with acute diarrhea in Woldia Town impedes the effectiveness of WASH programs in the area. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and WASH-associated factors of acute diarrhea among under-five children in this area. Read More

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Adverse childhood experiences and future self-rated health: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 May 12;21(1):895. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Occupational Medicine, Danish Ramazzini Centre, University Research Clinic, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Gl. Landevej 61, 7400, Herning, Denmark.

Background: Negative life events (re) occurring during childhood is often described as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and may have long-lasting negative effects on health. Previous studies on the association between ACEs and self-rated health (SRH) have primarily been focusing on chronic diseases in elderly, non-Scandinavian populations using a cross-sectional design. The aim of the study was to examine the associations between ACEs and SRH in early adulthood and to investigate if disadvantageous health-behavioral strategies explain the association between ACEs and SRH. Read More

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Explaining the facilitators of quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study.

BMC Neurol 2021 May 11;21(1):193. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Tobacco and Health Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: In patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), the disease's complications and manifestations affect a person's ability to function normally and leads to further disruptions in their education, family life, job opportunities, and daily life activities, thereby reduce their quality of life. Different factors as facilitators or inhibitors affect the quality of life in patients with MS. This study aimed to explain the facilitators of quality of life in patients with MS. Read More

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How to specify healthcare process improvements collaboratively using rapid, remote consensus-building: a framework and a case study of its application.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 May 11;21(1):103. Epub 2021 May 11.

THIS Institute (The Healthcare Improvement Studies Institute), Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Clifford Allbutt Building, Cambridge, CB2 0AH, UK.

Background: Practical methods for facilitating process improvement are needed to support high quality, safe care. How best to specify (identify and define) process improvements - the changes that need to be made in a healthcare process - remains a key question. Methods for doing so collaboratively, rapidly and remotely offer much potential, but are under-developed. Read More

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Asset map in a Chilean Health Promoting University: 'a strategy for revitalization'.

Health Promot Int 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Public Health Research Group, University of Alicante, Campus San Vicente del Raspeig, Alicante 03690, Spain.

Health Promoting Universities (HPUs) are more likely to perform actions intended to change habits and increase personal empowerment, than they are to develop community actions. The objective of this research is to create an asset map to visualize collective actions in a Chilean HPU. A qualitative study, based on the ABCD model was conducted. Read More

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A Phenomenological Exploration of the Voices Reported by Borderline Personality and Schizophrenia Patients.

Psychopathology 2021 May 11:1-9. Epub 2021 May 11.

Complex Needs Service, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Over time, there have been different views regarding the verbal auditory hallucinations (VAHs) reported by borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizophrenia patients. More recently, their similarity has been emphasized, a view that undoubtedly has significant implications in terms of differential diagnosis and management. To explore this important issue, we undertook a detailed phenomenological assessment of persistent VAH reported by BPD and schizophrenia DSM-IV participants. Read More

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Building optimization into the process for decommissioning, remediation of legacy sites and facilities, and management of the wastes arising: Results of an international workshop.

J Radiol Prot 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Osteras, NORWAY.

The coordinated organisation of decommissioning, remediation of legacy sites and facilities and management of the resultant waste materials has long been recognized as complex, involving technical challenges, safety and security issues, and a wide range of stakeholder interests. To help address these matters, an international workshop was held in November 2019 in Tromsø, jointly organized by the Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority and the Nuclear Energy Agency, in cooperation with the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The workshop was the third in series hosted by DSA. Read More

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Towards tailored psychosocial intervention for BD-II: Lived experience perspectives on current and future management options.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 27;289:110-116. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC, Australia.

Background: Despite its significant morbidity and mortality, very little is known about how those with lived experience of bipolar II disorder (BD-II) manage their condition. This study sought to understand unmet needs in currently available psychosocial treatments, explore self-management strategies (SMS) that individuals with BD-II currently use, and determine the potential role of digital mental health interventions in this space.

Methods: Individuals (aged 18-65) confirming they had received a diagnosis of BD-II from a mental health professional were invited to complete an online survey about treatments trialled, coping strategies used to manage their condition and perspectives on the role of digital mental interventions. Read More

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Supervised machine learning-based prediction for in-hospital pressure injury development using electronic health records: A retrospective observational cohort study in a university hospital in Japan.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Mar 26;119:103932. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Gerontological Nursing/Wound Care Management, Graduate School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Building 5, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033, Japan; Global Nursing Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 1130033, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: In hospitals, nurses are responsible for pressure injury risk assessment using several kinds of risk assessment scales. However, their predictive validity is insufficient to initiate targeted preventive strategy for each patient. The use of electronic health records with machine learning technique is a promising strategy to provide automated clinical decision-making aid. Read More

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Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health among local residents in South of Brazil: during pandemic times, youth sleep matters.

Trends Psychiatry Psychother 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia, Departamento de Psicologia do Desenvolvimento e da Personalidade, Instituto de Psicologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

Introduction: Social isolation has been associated with poor sleep quality and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, most studies included a heterogeneous sample with variances in social disruption policies and did not focus on a local profile with homogeneous prevention policies.

Objectives: Thus, the present study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health and sleep quality in a specific region in South of Brazil with similar culture and social distance policies adopted by the local governments. Read More

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Factors explaining the fear of being infected with COVID-19.

Health Expect 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Talca, Talca, Chile.

Background: The prevalence of COVID-19 has a social and economic impact on people, leaving them distressed and fearful of getting infected.

Objective: To determine the variables attributable to the fear of contracting COVID-19.

Design: This is a quantitative study based on an online cross-sectional self-administered survey in Chile between 10 July 2020 and 10 August 2020. Read More

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Post-outbreak serological screening for SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers at a Swedish University Hospital.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2021 May 11:1-6. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Faculty of Medicine, Division of Infection Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Nosocomial outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can have devastating consequences from both a resource cost and patient healthcare perspective. Relying on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for identifying infected individuals may result in missed cases. Screening for antibodies after an outbreak can help to find missed cases and better illuminate routes of transmission. Read More

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Promoting the Mental Health of University Students in China: Protocol for Contextual Assessment to Inform Intervention Design and Adaptation.

JMIR Res Protoc 2021 May 11;10(5):e25009. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Chinese students are extremely vulnerable to developing mental illness. The stigma associated with mental illness presents a barrier to seeking help for their mental health.

Objective: The Linking Hearts-Linking Youth and 'Xin' (hearts) project is an implementation science project that seeks to reduce mental illness stigma and promote the mental health of university students in Jinan, China. Read More

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Evidence of Human-Level Bonds Established With a Digital Conversational Agent: Cross-sectional, Retrospective Observational Study.

JMIR Form Res 2021 May 11;5(5):e27868. Epub 2021 May 11.

Woebot Health, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: There are far more patients in mental distress than there is time available for mental health professionals to support them. Although digital tools may help mitigate this issue, critics have suggested that technological solutions that lack human empathy will prevent a bond or therapeutic alliance from being formed, thereby narrowing these solutions' efficacy.

Objective: We aimed to investigate whether users of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)-based conversational agent would report therapeutic bond levels that are similar to those in literature about other CBT modalities, including face-to-face therapy, group CBT, and other digital interventions that do not use a conversational agent. Read More

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Using Critical Race Theory to Understand Trial Participation Among Black Individuals with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Qualitative Study of Patients and Caregivers.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation and Immunity, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Objective: Black patients with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) experience greater disease incidence and severity than White patients yet are underrepresented in SLE clinical trials. We applied Critical Race Theory to qualitatively explore the influence of racism on the underrepresentation of Black patients in SLE clinical trials and to develop a framework for future intervention.

Methods: We conducted groups in Chicago and Boston with Black adults (age ≥18 years) with SLE and their caregivers. Read More

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Disordered eating and self-harm as risk factors for poorer mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic: A population-based cohort study.

medRxiv 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Background: Young adults and especially those with pre-existing mental health conditions, such as disordered eating and self-harm, appear to be at greater risk of developing metal health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, it is unclear whether this increased risk is affected by any changes in lockdown restrictions, and whether any lifestyle changes could moderate this increased risk.

Methods: In a longitudinal UK population-based cohort (The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC) we assessed the relationship between pre-pandemic measures of disordered eating and self-harm and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2,657 young adults. Read More

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The Efficacy of Herbal Supplements and Nutraceuticals for Prevention of Migraine: Can They Help?

Cureus 2021 May 6;13(5):e14868. Epub 2021 May 6.

Research, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology, Fairfield, USA.

Migraine is a common neurological disorder associated with or without aura. Although the pathophysiology of migraine is not very well understood, pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress biomarkers are found to be increased in migraine. Multiple studies have been done to see if alternative medicine such as herbal supplements and nutraceuticals are effective in the prevention and treatment of migraine headaches. Read More

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Capturing the clinical decision-making processes of expert and novice diabetic retinal graders using a 'think-aloud' approach.

Eye (Lond) 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Queens University Belfast, Centre for Public Health, Belfast, UK.

Background: Diabetic eye screening programmes have been developed worldwide based on evidence that early detection and treatment of diabetic retinopathy are crucial to preventing sight loss. However, little is known about the decision-making processes and training needs of diabetic retinal graders, particularly in low- and middle-income countries.

Objectives: To provide data for improving evidence-based diabetic retinopathy training to help novice graders process fundus images more like experts. Read More

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