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A multi-motion bionic soft hexapod robot driven by self-sensing controlled twisted artificial muscles.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Robotics and System, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001, Heilongjiang Province, Harbin, 150001, CHINA.

Artificial muscles have unique advantages for driving bionic robots because their driving mode is similar to biological muscles. However, there is still a big gap between the existing artificial muscle and biological muscle in performance. The twisted artificial muscles (TAMs) from nylon 6,6 provides a low-cost, high integration, low hysteresis driving method. Read More

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A fast MR-thermometry method for quantitative assessment of temperature increase near an implanted wire.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0250636. Epub 2021 May 13.

IHU Liryc, Electrophysiology and Heart Modeling Institute, Fondation Bordeaux Université, Pessac-Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: To propose a MR-thermometry method and associated data processing technique to predict the maximal RF-induced temperature increase near an implanted wire for any other MRI sequence.

Methods: A dynamic single shot echo planar imaging sequence was implemented that interleaves acquisition of several slices every second and an energy deposition module with adjustable parameters. Temperature images were processed in real time and compared to invasive fiber-optic measurements to assess accuracy of the method. Read More

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In Situ TEM Studies of Sodium Polysulfides Electrochemistry in High Temperature Na-S Nanobatteries.

Small 2021 May 13:e2100846. Epub 2021 May 13.

Clean Nano Energy Center, State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, 066004, P. R. China.

Understanding polysulfide electrochemistry in high temperature sodium-sulfur (HT-Na-S) batteries is crucial for their practical applications. Currently the discharge capacity of commercial HT-Na-S battery achieves only one third of its theoretical capacity due to polysulfides formation, understanding of which is limited due to technical difficulty in direct imaging polysulfides. Herein, in situ transmission electron microscopy implemented with a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) heating device is used to investigate the electrochemical reactions of HT-Na-S batteries. Read More

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High sensitivity temperature sensor based on a side-hole fiber.

Appl Opt 2021 Apr;60(12):3474-3481

This paper proposes a temperature sensor based on a side-hole fiber (SHF). The sensor is formed by single-mode fiber (SMF)-coreless fiber (CLF)-SHF-CLF-SMF fusion splicing. The SHF adopts the dislocation fusion splicing method to ensure that one air hole is exposed. Read More

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Thermal Hysteresis Involving Reversible Self-Catalytic Reactions.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China.

ConspectusHysteresis is ubiquitous in nature and biology. It appears in ferromagnetism, ferroelectrism, traffic congestion, river sedimentation, electronics, thermoresponses, cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis. Hysteresis phenomena are beyond equilibrium and involve nonlinear, bistable, time delay, and memory events, which are described in input/output profiles by different outputs during continuous decreases and increases in input intensity. Read More

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A finger-jointing model for describing ultrastructures of cellulose microfibrils.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10055. Epub 2021 May 12.

Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano, 380-8553, Japan.

In this paper, we propose a finger-jointing model to describe the possible ultrastructures of cellulose microfibrils based on new observations obtained through heating of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) in saturated water vapor. We heated the micrometers-long TEMPO-CNFs in saturated water vapor (≥ 120 °C, ≥ 0.2 MPa) and observed a surprising fact that the long TEMPO-CNFs unzipped into short (100 s of nanometers long) fibers. Read More

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Electrical features, liquid composition and toxicant emissions from 'pod-mod'-like disposable electronic cigarettes.

Tob Control 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Introduction: Use of flavoured pod-mod-like disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has grown rapidly, particularly among cost-sensitive youth and young adults. To date, little is known about their design characteristics and toxicant emissions. In this study, we analysed the electrical and chemical characteristics and nicotine and pulmonary toxicant emission profiles of five commonly available flavoured disposable e-cigarettes and compared these data with those of a JUUL, a cartridge-based e-cigarette device that pod-mod-like disposables emulate in size and shape. Read More

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Folded-end dipole transceiver array for human whole-brain imaging at 7 T.

NMR Biomed 2021 May 12:e4541. Epub 2021 May 12.

High-Field MR Center, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany.

The advancement of clinical applications of ultrahigh field (UHF) MRI depends heavily on advances in technology, including the development of new radiofrequency (RF) coil designs. Currently, the number of commercially available 7 T head RF coils is rather limited, implying a need to develop novel RF head coil designs that offer superior transmit and receive performance. RF coils to be used for clinical applications must be robust and reliable. Read More

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Integrating the Essence of a Metal-Organic Framework with Electrospinning: A New Approach for Making a Metal Nanoparticle Confined N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes/Porous Carbon Nanofibrous Membrane for Energy Storage and Conversion.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Nano Convergence Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Republic of Korea.

The fabrication of an economic and efficient multifunctional advanced nanomaterial with a rational composition and configuration by a facile methodology is a crucial challenge. Herein, we are the first to report the growth of Co nanoparticle-integrated nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) on porous carbon nanofibers by simply heating in the situ-developed metal-organic framework (MOF)-based electrospun nanofibrous membrane with no need for an external supply of any additional precursors and reducing gases. The long and entangled N-CNTs originating from highly porous and graphitic carbon nanofibers offer good flexibility, large surface area, high porosity, high conductivity, the homogeneous incorporation of heteroatoms and metallic constituents, and an abundant exposure of active nanocatalytic sites. Read More

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Pre-treatment of blood samples reveal normal blood hypocretin/orexin signal in narcolepsy type 1.

Brain Commun 2021 22;3(2):fcab050. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

The hypocretin/orexin system regulates arousal through central nervous system mechanisms and plays an important role in sleep, wakefulness and energy homeostasis. It is unclear whether hypocretin peptides are also present in blood due to difficulties in measuring reliable and reproducible levels of the peptides in blood samples. Lack of hypocretin signalling causes the sleep disorder narcolepsy type 1, and low concentration of cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1/orexin-A peptide is a hallmark of the disease. Read More

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Reaching Deeper: Absolute In Vivo Thermal Reading of Liver by Combining Superbright AgS Nanothermometers and In Silico Simulations.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 05 3;8(9):2003838. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Nanomaterials for Bioimaging Group (NanoBIG) Instituto Ramón y Cajal de Investigación Sanitaria IRYCIS Ctra. Colmenar km. 9.100 Madrid 28034 Spain.

Luminescent nano-thermometry is a fast-developing technique with great potential for in vivo sensing, diagnosis, and therapy. Unfortunately, it presents serious limitations. The luminescence generated by nanothermometers, from which thermal readout is obtained, is strongly distorted by the attenuation induced by tissues. Read More

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Water-Triggered Transformation of Ligand-Free Lead Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal-Embedded Pb(OH)Br with Ultrahigh Stability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, No. 122, Luoshi Road, Wuhan 430070, P. R. China.

Lead halide perovskite (LHP) nanomaterials have attracted tremendous attention owing to their remarkable optoelectronic properties. However, they are extremely unstable under moist environments, high temperatures, and light illumination due to their intrinsic structural lability, which has been the critical unsolved problem for practical applications. To address this issue, we propose a facile and environmentally friendly ligand-free approach to design and synthesize rod-like CsPbBr-embedded Pb(OH)Br with excellent stability under various harsh environments such as soaking in water, heating, and ultraviolet (UV) illumination. Read More

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Multi-layer graphene pirani pressure sensors.

Nanotechnology 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Microelectronics, Delft University of Technology, Feldmannweg 17, Delft, 2628CT, NETHERLANDS.

The operating principle of Pirani pressure sensors is based on the pressure dependence of a suspended strip's electrical conductivity, caused by the thermal conductance of the surrounding gas which changes the Joule heating of the strip. To realize such sensors, not only materials with high temperature dependent electrical conductivity are required, but also minimization of the suspended strip dimensions is essential to maximize the responsivity and minimize the power consumption. Due to this, nanomaterials are especially attractive for this application. Read More

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Microwave applications in the food industry: an overview of recent developments.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 May 10:1-20. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture, Poland in Cracow, Krakow.

Microwave radiation has the ability to heat a material with dielectric properties. Material absorbs microwave energy and then converts it into heat, which gives the possibility of a wide use of microwaves in many industry sectors or agricultural sciences. Microwaves are especially widely used in food industry. Read More

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Combined Density Functional Theory and Microkinetics Study to Predict Optimum Operating Conditions of Si(100) Surface Carbonization by Acetylene for High Power Devices.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 May 10:4558-4568. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan.

The Si(100) surface carbonization mechanisms by acetylene are explored using density functional theory calculations combined with microkinetic simulations. The most stable acetylene adsorption geometries and their subsequent decomposition mechanisms to form a carbon dimer on the Si surface are investigated. Microkinetics simulations are further used to examine the optimal reaction conditions for obtaining a single-crystalline silicon carbide (SiC). Read More

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Novel Mn-/Co-N Moieties Captured in N-Doped Carbon Nanotubes for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Activity and Stability in Acidic and Alkaline Media.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Laboratory of Materials and Devices for Clean Energy, Department of Technology of Electrochemical Processes, Ural Federal University, 19 Mira Str., Yekaterinburg 620002, Russia.

Fe-N-C-based electrocatalysts have been developed as an encouraging substitute compared to their expensive Pt-containing equivalents for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, they still face major durability challenges from the in- situ production of Fenton radicals. Therefore, the synthesis of Fe-free ORR catalysts is among the emerging concerns. Read More

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Laser-Scanning-Guided Assembly of Quasi-3D Patterned Arrays of Plasmonic Dimers for Information Encryption.

Adv Mater 2021 May 10:e2100325. Epub 2021 May 10.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200438, China.

The application of plasmonic dimeric nanostructures in color displays, data storage, and especially metamaterials necessitates the patterning of dimers into ordered arrays, but controllable assembly of plasmonic nanoparticles into patterned dimer arrays on substrates still remains a challenge. Here, a facile laser-scanning-based strategy to fabricate quasi-3D patterned arrays of plasmonic nanoparticle dimers with controlled orientation for plasmonic information encryption is reported. Laser scanning of polymer-covered plasmonic nanoparticle (e. Read More

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g-CN/MoS based floating solar still for clean water production by thermal/light activation of persulfate.

Chemosphere 2021 Apr 27;280:130618. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Safety and Distribution Technology, College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Currently, seawater desalination based on air-water interface solar heating has triggered significant research interests because it effectively makes use of the solar energy and avoids fossil fuel consumption. However, to prevent the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from volatilizing with water vapor which later will liquefy and enter the condensed freshwater is still a challenge. In this work, a g-CN/MoS based floating solar still (CM-FSS) combined with thermal/light activation of persulfate (PS) at air-water interface was applied for clean freshwater production for the first time. Read More

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Cloudiness reduces the bleaching response of coral reefs exposed to heat stress.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z2, Canada.

Climate change and warming ocean temperatures are a threat to coral reef ecosystems. Since the 1980s, there has been an increase in mass coral bleaching and associated coral mortality due to more frequent and severe thermal stress. Although most research has focused on the role of temperature, coral bleaching is a product of the interacting effects of temperature and other environmental variables such as solar radiation. Read More

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Construction of hierarchically porous biomass carbon using iodine as pore-making agent for energy storage.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Apr 24;599:351-359. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

College of Biological, Chemical Science and Engineering, Jiaxing University, Jiaxing 314001, China. Electronic address:

High specific surface area, hierarchical porosity, high conductivity and heteroatoms doping have been considered as the dominating factors of high-performance carbon-based supercapacitors. Inspired by the blue phenomenon of combination of starch and iodine, iodine is employed firstly as pore-making agent to create micropores for the starch-derived carbon in this study. Based on this mechanism, the hierarchically porous carbon is synthesized through simple solvent heating and high-temperature (1000 °C) carbonization, which achieves high specific surface area of 2989 m g (an increase of 39. Read More

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Protein unfolded states populated at high and ambient pressure are similarly compact.

Biophys J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Biological Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy NY 12180. Electronic address:

The relationship between the dimensions of pressure unfolded states of proteins compared to those at ambient pressure is controversial; resolving this issue is related directly to the mechanisms of pressure denaturation. Moreover, a significant pressure dependence of the compactness of unfolded states would complicate the interpretation of folding parameters from pressure perturbation and make comparison to those obtained using alternative perturbation approaches difficult. Here we determined the compactness of the pressure-unfolded state of a small, cooperatively folding model protein, CTL9-I98A, as a function of temperature. Read More

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Extended Defects in Graphene and Their Contribution to the Excess Specific Heat at High Temperatures.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Apr;126(16):165501

Institute for High Pressure Physics RAS, 108840 Troitsk, Moscow, Russia.

The recent experiments on fast (microsecond) pulse heating of graphite suggest the existence of sharp maximum (6500 K at 1-2 GPa) on its melting curve. To check the validity of these findings, we propose to investigate the accumulation of extended in-plane defects in graphene. Such defects would contribute to thermodynamic properties of graphene and impose the upper limit on its melting temperature. Read More

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In-syringe temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidified floating ionic liquid for the simultaneous determination of triazine and phenylurea pesticide in vegetable protein drinks.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Apr 20;1174:122721. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, PR China.

A novel in-syringe temperature-controlled liquid-liquid microextraction based on solidified floating ionic liquid (in-syringe TC-LLME-SFIL) combined with high performance liquid chromatography was developed for the simultaneous determination of monuron, chlorotoluron, atrazine, monolinuron, propazine and prometryn in commercial vegetable protein drinks. The samples were deproteinized by trichloroacetic acid and further cleaned up by solid phase extraction column. The ionic liquid tributyldodecylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate ([P]BF) was used as extraction solvent and dispersed into the depurated sample solution to form fine droplets with the assistance of heating and vortex. Read More

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Decoding Chemical and Physical Processes Driving Plasmonic Photocatalysis Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopies.

Acc Chem Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.

ConspectusIn order to mitigate the advancing effects of environmental pollution and climate change, immediate action is needed on social, political, and industrial fronts. One segment of industry that contributes significantly to this current crisis is bulk chemical production, where fossil fuels are primarily used to drive reactions at high temperatures and pressures. Toward mitigating the environmental impact of these processes, solar energy has shown promise as a clean and renewable alternative for the photocatalytic synthesis of chemicals. Read More

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Formation and growth mechanism for niobium oxide nanoparticles: atomistic insight from in situ X-ray total scattering.

Nanoscale 2021 May 23;13(17):8087-8097. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Chemistry and Nano-Science Center, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Understanding the mechanisms for nanoparticle nucleation and growth is crucial for the development of tailormade nanomaterials. Here, we use X-ray total scattering and Pair Distribution Function analysis to follow the formation and growth of niobium oxide nanoparticles. We study the solvothermal synthesis from niobium chloride in benzyl alcohol, and through investigations of the influence of reaction temperature, a formation pathway can be suggested. Read More

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Tailoring grain sizes of the biodegradable iron-based alloys by pre-additive manufacturing microalloying.

Sci Rep 2021 May 5;11(1):9610. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, 30013, Taiwan.

We demonstrated the design of pre-additive manufacturing microalloying elements in tuning the microstructure of iron (Fe)-based alloys for their tunable mechanical properties. We tailored the microalloying stoichiometry of the feedstock to control the grain sizes of the metallic alloy systems. Two specific microalloying stoichiometries were reported, namely biodegradable iron powder with 99. Read More

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Native contrast visualization and tissue characterization of myocardial radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid chemoablation lesions at 0.55 T.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 May 6;23(1):50. Epub 2021 May 6.

Cardiovascular Branch, Division of Intramural Research, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Purpose: Low-field (0.55 T) high-performance cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an attractive platform for CMR-guided intervention as device heating is reduced around 7.5-fold compared to 1. Read More

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Heavy metal- and organic-matter pollution due to self-heating coal-waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland).

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 26;412:125244. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

University of Silesia, Faculty of Natural Sciences, 60 Będzińska Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland.

This study provides potential insight between self-heating coal-waste dumps and related environmental pollution in southern Poland. Samples collected from dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin were used to quantify released contents of organic- and inorganic pollutants, i.e. Read More

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Superhydrophobic and Recyclable Cellulose-Fiber-Based Composites for High-Efficiency Passive Radiative Cooling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, United States.

Passive daytime radiative cooling (PDRC) involves cooling down an object by simultaneously reflecting sunlight and thermally radiating heat to the cold outer space through the Earth's atmospheric window. However, for practical applications, current PDRC materials are facing unprecedented challenges such as complicated and expensive fabrication approaches and performance degradation arising from surface contamination. Herein, we develop scalable cellulose-fiber-based composites with excellent self-cleaning and self-cooling capabilities, through air-spraying ethanolic poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) microparticle suspensions embedded partially within the microsized pores of the cellulose fiber to form a dual-layered structure with PTFE particles atop the paper. Read More

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Novel experimental setup for megahertz X-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell at the High Energy Density (HED) instrument of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL).

J Synchrotron Radiat 2021 May 14;28(Pt 3):688-706. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA.

The high-precision X-ray diffraction setup for work with diamond anvil cells (DACs) in interaction chamber 2 (IC2) of the High Energy Density instrument of the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser is described. This includes beamline optics, sample positioning and detector systems located in the multipurpose vacuum chamber. Concepts for pump-probe X-ray diffraction experiments in the DAC are described and their implementation demonstrated during the First User Community Assisted Commissioning experiment. Read More

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