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Reliability and Validity of a Life Course Passive Smoke Exposure Questionnaire in an Australian Cohort From Childhood to Adulthood.

J Prev Med Public Health 2021 Mar 10;54(2):153-159. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia.

Objectives: Life course exposure to passive smoke may predict health, but there are few validated measures. We tested the reliability and validity of a retrospective life course passive smoking questionnaire.

Methods: Participants from the third follow-up of the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (2014-2019, ages 36-49 years) retrospectively reported mother/father/other household member smoking when living at home during childhood, including duration (years) and smoking location (never/sometimes/always inside house). Read More

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Emergent Hybrid Treatment of a Ruptured Scalp Arteriovenous Fistula with Eyelid involvement: Technical Note.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Research and Training in Neurosurgery (CIEN), Rosario University School of Medicine, Samaritan University Hospital, Bogotá, Colombia.

Background:  Scalp arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) are a rare vascular disease usually presenting as a progressively increasing pulsating mass in the scalp. These lesions can be associated with mild to severe complications, including congestive heart failure. If ruptures, this pathology constitutes a life-threatening medical emergency because of its potential to cause severe bleeding and acute anemia. Read More

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Health Care Utilization and Associated Economic Burden of Postoperative Surgical Site Infection after Spinal Surgery with Follow-Up of 24 Months.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, United States.

Background:  Surgical site infection (SSI) may lead to vertebral osteomyelitis, diskitis, paraspinal musculoskeletal infection, and abscess, and remains a significant concern in postoperative management of spinal surgery. SSI is associated with greater postoperative morbidity and increased health care payments.

Methods:  We conducted a retrospective analysis using MarketScan to identify health care utilization payments and risk factors associated with SSI that occurs postoperatively. Read More

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Cardio-pulmonary-renal interactions in ICU patients. Role of mechanical ventilation, venous congestion and perfusion deficit on worsening of renal function: Insights from the MIMIC-III database.

J Crit Care 2021 Mar 29;64:100-107. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, APHP, Ambroise Paré Hospital, Boulogne-Billancourt, France; Versailles Saint Quentin University, France; INSERM UMR 1018, Team 5 Kidney-Heart, Centre de recherche en Epidémiologie et Santé des Populations, Villejuif, France; FHU SEPSIS (Saclay and Paris Seine Nord Endeavour to PerSonalize Interventions for Sepsis), France.

Background Mechanical ventilation (MV) in ICU patients may impact hemodynamics and renal function. We aimed to describe the interactions of MV settings, hemodynamic parameters and worsening of renal function (WRF). Methods We included adult patients admitted for the first time in the ICU from the MIMIC-III database. Read More

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Excitability and propagation of the electrical impulse in Venus flytrap; a comparative electrophysiological study of unipolar electrograms with myocardial tissue.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Mar 31;140:107810. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Heart Center, Department of Experimental Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Mammalian heart cells and cells of leaves of Dionaea muscipula share the ability to generate propagated action potentials, because the excitable cells are electrically coupled. In the heart the propagated action potential causes synchronized contraction of the heart muscle after automatic generation of the impulse in the sinus node. In Dionaea propagation results in closure of the trap after activation of trigger hairs by an insect. Read More

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Electronic dental record-based surveillance of non-communicable conditions.

Public Health 2021 Apr 9;193:146-149. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Preventive & Community Dentistry, University of Iowa College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics, USA.

Objective: The objective of the study is to demonstrate that electronic dental records (EDRs) can be used to mine meaningful public health information.

Study Design: Retrospective electronic dental chart-based reporting of disease prevalence.

Methods: Using dental EDRs (N = 104,768), the authors assessed the prevalence of common non-communicable medical conditions among unique patients seen at a United States (U. Read More

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Development of hybrid spectrofluorimetric method for simultaneous determination of Valsartan and Sacubitril in LCZ696 tablets.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Mar 26;256:119748. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharos University in Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt.

A hybrid Spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of binary mixtures, without prior separation steps. It coupled synchronous spectrofluorimetry with derivative ratio mathematical treatment. The method was applied successfully to quantify a new model binary mixture consisting of Valsartan (VAL) and Sacubitril (SAC). Read More

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Diagnosis and Ablation of Atrial flutter: The Prototypical Reentrant Atrial Arrhythmia.

Authors:
Gregory K Feld

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

University of California, San Diego Health System. Electronic address:

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Cardiac Afferent Signaling Partially Underlies Premature Ventricular Contraction-Induced Cardiomyopathy.

Heart Rhythm 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

UCLA Cardiac Arrhythmia Center, UCLA Neurocardiology Research Program of Excellence, University of California, Los Angeles CA. Electronic address:

Background: The mechanisms underlying premature ventricular contraction (PVC)-induced cardiomyopathy remain unknown. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) afferent fibers are implicated in the reflex processing of cardiac stress.

Objective: We aimed to determine whether cardiac TRPV1 afferent signaling promote PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Read More

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Impact of infrainguinal bypass tunneling technique on patency and amputation in patients with limb ischemia.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Surgery, Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the association of tunneling technique on patency and amputation in patients undergoing lower extremity bypass for limb ischemia.

Method: The National Vascular Quality Initiative database infrainguinal bypass module from 2008-2017 was queried for analysis. We excluded non-greater saphenous vein grafts, grafts using multiple segments, indication of aneurysmal disease, bypass locations outside of femoral to below knee popliteal artery or tibial arteries, and those missing data on the tunneling type and limb ischemia. Read More

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Left Ventricular Global Longitudinal Strain as a Predictor of Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients with Secondary Mitral Regurgitation: The COAPT Trial.

J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Medstar Health Research Institute, Washington, DC; Georgetown University, Washington, DC. Electronic address:

Background: Left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) is a sensitive marker of LV function and may help identify patients with heart failure (HF) and secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) who would have a better prognosis and are more likely to benefit from edge-to-edge transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) with the MitraClip. We sought to assess the prognostic utility of baseline LVGLS during 2-year follow-up of HF patients with SMR enrolled in the COAPT trial.

Methods: Symptomatic HF patients with moderate-to-severe or severe SMR who remained symptomatic despite maximally-tolerated guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT) were randomized to TMVr plus GDMT or GDMT alone. Read More

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His-purkinje system pacing upgrade improve the heart performances in patients suffering from pacing-induced cardiomyopathy with or without permanent atrial fibrillation.

Int J Cardiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: The efficacy and safety of his-purkinje system pacing (HPSP) upgrades in patients with pacing-induced cardiomyopathy (PICM) and atrial fibrillation (AF) are still unknown.

Methods And Results: Patients with PICM were continuously enrolled from January 2018 to March 2020. All patients were further divided into AF subgroup and sinus rhythm subgroup. Read More

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Cardiac magnetic resonance stress and rest perfusion with T1 mapping: Is it ready to assess for ischaemic heart disease?

Int J Cardiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

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Homeodomain only protein X (HOPX) has an oncogenic activity during squamous skin carcinogenesis.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, University Hospital Centre (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) are frequent heterogeneous tumours, arising from sun-exposed regions of the skin and characterized by complex pathogenesis. HOPX is a member of the homeodomain-containing superfamily of proteins, holding an atypical homeodomain unable to bind DNA. First discovered in the heart as a regulator of cardiac development, in skin HOPX modulates terminal differentiation of keratinocytes. Read More

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Sodium glucose transporter inhibition in heart failure From an unexpected side effect to a novel treatment possibility.

Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2021 Apr 9:108796. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine K2, Karolinska Institutet 171 76 Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address:

Sodium-glucose transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i), originally launched as glucose-lowering drugs, have been studied in large cardiovascular outcome trials to ascertain safety. Surprisingly, these compounds reduced the risk of cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial and non-fatal stroke) and total mortality. The mechanisms behind this benefit are only partly understood, but a major contributor is the reduction of heart failure hospitalisations, evident already within weeks after the initiation of the SGLT2i. Read More

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Renin-Angiotensin system inhibitors effect before and during hospitalization in COVID-19 outcomes: final analysis of the international HOPE COVID-19 (Health Outcome Predictive Evaluation for COVID-19) Registry.

Am Heart J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Hospital Clínico San Carlos. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (IdISSC). Madrid, Spain.

Background: The use of Renin-Angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been questioned because both share a target receptor site.

Methods: HOPE-COVID-19 (NCT04334291) is an international investigator-initiated registry. Patients are eligible when discharged after an in-hospital stay with COVID-19, dead or alive. Read More

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Inhaled budesonide in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Multiple early reports of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 showed that patients with chronic respiratory disease were significantly under-represented in these cohorts. We hypothesised that the widespread use of inhaled glucocorticoids among these patients was responsible for this finding, and tested if inhaled glucocorticoids would be an effective treatment for early COVID-19.

Methods: We performed an open-label, parallel-group, phase 2, randomised controlled trial (Steroids in COVID-19; STOIC) of inhaled budesonide, compared with usual care, in adults within 7 days of the onset of mild COVID-19 symptoms. Read More

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Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2021 Adult Cardiac Surgery Risk Models for Multiple Valve Operations.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The STS Quality Measurement Task Force has developed risk models and composite performance measures for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), isolated mitral valve replacement or repair (MVRR), AVR+CABG, and MVRR+CABG. To further enhance its portfolio of risk-adjusted performance metrics, STS has developed new risk models for multiple valve operations +/- CABG procedures.

Methods: Using July 2011 to June 2019 STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) data, risk models for AVR+MVRR (n=31,968) and AVR+MVRR+CABG (n=12,650) were developed with the following endpoints: operative mortality, major morbidity (any one or more of the following: cardiac reoperation; deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis; stroke; prolonged ventilation; and renal failure), and combined mortality and/or major morbidity. Read More

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Effect of l-carnitine on cardiotoxicity and apoptosis induced by imatinib through PDGF/ PPARγ /MAPK pathways.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Apr 9:108866. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Pharmacology Unit, Cancer Biology Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt. Electronic address:

A tyrosine kinase inhibitor Imatinib (IM) is used in the treatment of different varieties of cancers. The current study was designed to explore the beneficial role of l-carnitine against IM-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. Male albino rats received IM (40 mg/kg, i. Read More

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The Needs and Care Experiences of Adolescents and Young Adults Treated for Cancer in Adult Surgery Clinics: A Qualitative Study.

J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Center of Adolescent Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer hospitalized in adult surgery clinics are an overlooked group of patients. They are a minority hospitalized among elderly surgical patients, and the surroundings and care are designed with older patients in mind. A growing body of research focuses on AYAs' experiences of cancer care. Read More

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Heterogeneity of the Predictive Polygenic Risk Scores for Coronary Heart Disease Age-at-onset in Three Different CHD Family-based Ascertainments.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Division of Statistical Genomics, Department of Genetics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

- Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) may contribute to assess the overall risk of CHD. We evaluated how PRS may influence CHD risk when the distribution of age-at-onset, sex, and family health history differ significantly. - Our study included three family-based ascertainments: Long Life Family Study (LLFS, N=4,572), which represents a low CHD risk, and Family Heart Study, which consists of randomly selected families (FamHS-Random, N=1,806), and high CHD risk families (FamHS-High Risk, N=2,301). Read More

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Omega-3 Use for the Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia, Low High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels, and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Children with Obesity.

Child Obes 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Center for Better Health and Nutrition, The Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation has been investigated in treating elevated triglycerides (TGs), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) in adults, but has not been well studied in youth with obesity. This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of omega-3 as an adjunct therapy for these conditions in patients participating in a pediatric weight management program (PWMP). Patients with a BMI ≥85th percentile and abnormal alanine transaminase (ALT), TGs, or HDL, participating in our PWMP, were identified ( = 617). Read More

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Soft Materials by Design: Unconventional Polymer Networks Give Extreme Properties.

Chem Rev 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, United States.

Hydrogels are polymer networks infiltrated with water. Many biological hydrogels in animal bodies such as muscles, heart valves, cartilages, and tendons possess extreme mechanical properties including being extremely tough, strong, resilient, adhesive, and fatigue-resistant. These mechanical properties are also critical for hydrogels' diverse applications ranging from drug delivery, tissue engineering, medical implants, wound dressings, and contact lenses to sensors, actuators, electronic devices, optical devices, batteries, water harvesters, and soft robots. Read More

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Energetic constraints imposed on trophic interaction strengths enhance resilience in empirical and model food webs.

J Anim Ecol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, 14469, Potsdam, Germany.

Food web stability and resilience are at the heart of understanding the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Previous studies show that models of empirical food webs are substantially more stable than random ones, due to a few strong interactions embedded in a majority of weak interactions. Analyses of trophic interaction loops show that in empirical food webs the patterns in the interaction strengths prevent the occurrence of destabilizing heavy loops and thereby enhances resilience. Read More

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[Multicenter retrospective study about the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of Kawasaki disease in children from Panama].

Rev Chilena Infectol 2020 Dec;37(6):675-682

Centro de Ciencias Médicas, Hospital Nacional de Niños, Caja Costarricense de Seguro Social, San José, Costa Rica.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of pediatric acquired heart disease in many countries, however, there are few published studies from Latin America (LA).

Aim: To describe the epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment of KD in children from Panama as part of the REKAMLATINA-2 in LA.

Methods: Retrospective descriptive review of hospitalized patients diagnosed with KD, attended at three main pediatric hospitals of Panama from January-1-2009 to December-31-2013. Read More

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December 2020

Robust Differentiable SVD.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 12;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Eigendecomposition of symmetric matrices is at the heart of many computer vision algorithms. However, the derivatives of the eigenvectors tend to be numerically unstable, whether using the SVD to compute them analytically or using the Power Iteration (PI) method to approximate them. This instability arises in the presence of eigenvalues that are close to each other. Read More

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Can We Decrease Epicardial and Pericardial Fat in Patients With Diabetes?

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2021 Apr 12:10742484211006997. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Royal Free Hospital Campus, University College London Medical School, 9687University College London (UCL), Pond Street, London, UK.

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and complex metabolic disorder and also an important cause of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Patients with type 2 DM (T2DM) and obesity show a greater propensity for visceral fat deposition (and excessive fat deposits elsewhere) and the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than for subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue (AT). There is growing evidence that epicardial AT (EAT) and pericardial AT (PAT) play a role in the development of DM-related atherosclerosis, atrial fibrillation (AF), myocardial dysfunction, and heart failure (HF). Read More

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UNRAVELING THE THREAD OF UNCONTROLLED IMMUNE RESPONSE IN COVID-19 AND STEMI: AN EMERGING NEED FOR KNOWLEDGE SHARING.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

INCLIVA Health Research Institute. Valencia, Spain; Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Valencia. Valencia, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red - Cardiovascular; Cardiology Department. Hospital Clinico Universitario. Valencia, Spain.

The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 that first emerged in Wuhan in December 2019 has resulted in the devastating pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, creating an emerging need for knowledge sharing. Meanwhile, myocardial infarction is and will probably remain the foremost cause of death in the western world throughout the coming decades. Severe deregulation of the immune system can unnecessarily expand the inflammatory response and participate in target and multiple organ failure, in infection but also in critical illness. Read More

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