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Social Support and Functional Decline in the Oldest Old.

Gerontology 2021 May 12:1-9. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, Hamburg Center for Health Economics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objective: Longitudinal studies investigating the link between social support and functional decline are limited among the oldest old. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether changes in social support are associated with functional decline among the oldest old longitudinally using panel regression models.

Methods: Longitudinal data from 3 waves (waves 7, 8, and 9) of a multicenter prospective cohort study covering primary care patients aged ≥85 years were used. Read More

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Interventions to reduce preterm birth in pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors-A systematic review.

Midwifery 2021 Apr 20;100:103018. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Public Health and Epidemiology Group, Aalborg University, Niels Jernes Vej 14, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark.

Objective: Pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors face a higher risk of preterm birth, a heavier burden of perinatal morbidity and mortality and less social health equity. Prevention of preterm birth in this group has proved difficult, and more knowledge is needed to ensure evidence-based care and improve prevention. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of preventive interventions to reduce preterm birth among pregnant women with psychosocial vulnerability factors. Read More

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Comment on Peters, M.D.J., Marnie, C., Butler, A., 2021. Delivering, funding, and rating safe staffing levels and skills mix in aged care.

Int J Nurs Stud 2021 Apr 21;119:103947. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Health Services Research, Care and Public Health Research Institute, Maastricht University, PO Box 616 MD, Maastricht, GT 6229, the Netherlands; Living Lab in Ageing and Long-Term Care, Maastricht, GT 6229, the Netherlands.

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Health care utilisation and costs associated with different treatment protocols for newly diagnosed childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: A population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

Eur J Cancer 2021 May 9;151:126-135. Epub 2021 May 9.

Institute for Health Policy, Evaluation and Management, University of Toronto, 155 College St, Toronto, ON, M5T 3MG, Canada; Sunnybrook Research Institute, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 2075 Bayview Ave, Toronto, M4N 3M5, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, 1 King's College Cir, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Background: Although different treatment protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) all achieve high cure rates, their health care utilisation and costs have not been rigorously compared.

Methods: Disease, treatment, and outcome data were chart abstracted for all children with ALL in Ontario, Canada, diagnosed 2002-2012. Linkage to population-based databases identified health care utilisation. Read More

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The empty nest, depressive symptoms and loneliness of older parents: Prospective findings from the German Ageing Survey.

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Apr 29;95:104425. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Health Economics and Health Services Research, Hamburg Center for Health Economics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the longitudinal association between the transition to an empty nest and depressive symptoms and loneliness, respectively.

Method: Longitudinal data was used from the German Ageing Survey, a representative sample of community-dwelling adults aged 40 and over. The indication of children living outside the respondent's household was defined as an empty nest. Read More

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A high-throughput genome-wide RNAi screen identifies modifiers of survival motor neuron protein.

Cell Rep 2021 May;35(6):109125

Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA. Electronic address:

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a debilitating neurological disorder marked by degeneration of spinal motor neurons and muscle atrophy. SMA results from mutations in survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1), leading to deficiency of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Current therapies increase SMN protein and improve patient survival but have variable improvements in motor function, making it necessary to identify complementary strategies to further improve disease outcomes. Read More

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Glass hybrid (glass ionomer) versus composite for non-carious cervical lesions: Survival, restoration quality and costs in randomized controlled trial after 3 years.

J Dent 2021 May 9:103689. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Operative and Preventive Dentistry, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Germany.

Objective: This study compared survival, restoration quality and costs of glass hybrid (GH; EQUIA Forte Fil/EQUIA Forte Coat) and resin composite restorations (RC; OptiBond FL/Filtek Supreme XTE) of sclerotic non-carious cervical lesions.

Methods: This is a cluster-randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02631161). Read More

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Better Evidence for Pharmacological Maintenance Treatment in Nonaffective Psychoses: Implications for Relapse Prevention.

William G Honer

Am J Psychiatry 2021 May;178(5):369-371

Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, and British Columbia Mental Health and Substance Use Services Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada.

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Effect of Hurricane Irma on daily direct-care nurse staffing in nursing homes.

J Am Geriatr Soc 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Florida Policy Exchange Center of Aging, School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, Florida, USA.

Objectives: To examine the effect of Hurricane Irma on staff-related financial expenditures and daily direct-care nurse staffing levels.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: September 3-24, 2017 in the state of Florida, United States. Read More

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Brain Damage and Patterns of Neurovascular Disorder after Ionizing Irradiation. Complications in Radiotherapy and Radiation Combined Injury.

Radiat Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland.

Exposure to ionizing radiation, mechanical trauma, toxic chemicals or infections, or combinations thereof (i.e., combined injury) can induce organic injury to brain tissues, the structural disarrangement of interactive networks of neurovascular and glial cells, as well as on arrays of the paracrine and systemic destruction. Read More

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Celebrating 60 Years of Accomplishments of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute1.

Radiat Res 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Scientific Research Department.

Chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961, the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a Joint Department of Defense (DoD) entity with the mission of carrying out the Medical Radiological Defense Research Program in support of our military forces around the globe. Read More

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Putting ATM to BED: How Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Affected by Bariatric Surgery, Exercise, and Dietary Fatty Acids.

Adv Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Health, Kinesiology, and Applied Physiology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

With increasing adiposity in obesity, adipose tissue macrophages contribute to adipose tissue malfunction and increased circulating proinflammatory cytokines. The chronic low-grade inflammation that occurs in obesity ultimately gives rise to a state of metainflammation that increases the risk of metabolic disease. To date, only lifestyle and surgical interventions have been shown to be somewhat effective at reversing the negative consequences of obesity and restoring adipose tissue homeostasis. Read More

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Overall survival based on oncologist density in the United States: A retrospective cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250894. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States of America.

Medically underserved areas (MUA) or health professional shortage areas (HPSA) designations are based on primary care health services availability. These designations are used in recruiting international medical graduates (IMGs) trained in primary care or subspecialty (e.g. Read More

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Gender stigma awareness is associated with adolescent risky health behaviors.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251332. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

Objectives: Although racial stigma in school is associated with adolescent risky health behaviors, there are no studies investigating how gender stigma relates to adolescent risky health behaviors among low-income, minority youth. We sought to determine whether gender stigma awareness is associated with adolescent risky health behaviors (delinquency, fighting, and substance use) and whether this association is mediated by school disengagement (low perceived teacher support, low school engagement, cutting classes, and breaking school rules) among low-income, minority students.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data, collected from 2017 to 2019, from 412 high school students. Read More

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Projecting COVID-19 isolation bed requirements for people experiencing homelessness.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0251153. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Integrative Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America.

As COVID-19 spreads across the United States, people experiencing homelessness (PEH) are among the most vulnerable to the virus. To mitigate transmission, municipal governments are procuring isolation facilities for PEH to utilize following possible exposure to the virus. Here we describe the framework for anticipating isolation bed demand in PEH communities that we developed to support public health planning in Austin, Texas during March 2020. Read More

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Opioid Treatment Deserts: Concept development and application in a US Midwestern urban county.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(5):e0250324. Epub 2021 May 12.

Center for Urban Regional Analysis, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States of America.

Objectives: An Opioid Treatment Desert is an area with limited accessibility to medication-assisted treatment and recovery facilities for Opioid Use Disorder. We explored the concept of Opioid Treatment Deserts including racial differences in potential spatial accessibility and applied it to one Midwestern urban county using high resolution spatiotemporal data.

Methods: We obtained individual-level data from one Emergency Medical Services (EMS) agency (Columbus Fire Department) in Franklin County, Ohio. Read More

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Transformation of primary care during the COVID-19 pandemic: experiences of healthcare professionals in eight European countries.

Br J Gen Pract 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: Primary care has a crucial role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic as the first point of patient care and gatekeeper to secondary care. Qualitative studies exploring the experiences of healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic have mainly focused on secondary care.

Aim: To understand the experiences of European PCPs working during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Read More

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Perceptions of mHealth applications and features to support psychosocial wellbeing among frontline healthcare workers involved in the COVID-19 pandemic response.

J Med Internet Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, SG.

Background: Frontline healthcare workers are experiencing a myriad of physical and psychosocial challenges amid the COVID-19 pandemic. There is growing recognition that digital technologies have potential for improving wellbeing of frontline workers. However, there is limited development of wellness interventions using mHealth technology. Read More

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Systematic tracking of mental health acute care visits: A model of care for college students.

J Am Coll Health 2021 May 12:1-12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, Health Sciences, UC San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

College students who receive an acute care visit (ACV) from an emergency or inpatient unit require mental health follow-up (MHF) to improve long-term outcomes. This study describes tracking ACVs and MHF, while identifying characteristics of multiple vs. single ACVs. Read More

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Validity and reliability of the QLQ-MY20 module for assessing the health-related quality of life in Brazilians with multiple myeloma.

Curr Med Res Opin 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Social Pharmacy - UFMG. Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Purpose: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but treatable hematological cancer, which makes Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) an important patient-report outcome measure in clinical studies. The Quality of Life Questionnaire Multiple Myeloma Module (QLQ-MY20) was developed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) to measure HRQoL in people with MM. However, the Brazilian Portuguese version of QLQ-MY20 has not yet been validated for Brazil. Read More

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Identification of Child and Youth Maltreatment as Experienced by Prehospital Emergency Care Providers.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2021 May 12:1-33. Epub 2021 May 12.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, South Ostrobothnia Hospital District, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

This mixed method study explores 200 prehospital emergency care providers' experiences of identifying child and youth maltreatment. The data were collected in Finland in 2019-2020 using an online survey tool and analysed using SPSS statistics and inductive content analysis. Respondents had encountered signs of physical and psychosocial maltreatment, and family challenges, contexts, and economic and social problems indicative of maltreatment. Read More

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Discriminative Validity of Vestibular Ocular Motor Screening in Identifying Concussion Among Collegiate Athletes: A National Collegiate Athletic Association-Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education Consortium Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 May 12:3635465211012359. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Vestibular and ocular motor screening tools, such as the Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS), are recognized as important components of a multifaceted evaluation of sport-related concussion. Previous research has supported the predictive utility of the VOMS in identifying concussion, but researchers have yet to examine the predictive utility of the VOMS among collegiate athletes in the first few days after injury.

Purpose: To determine the discriminative validity of individual VOMS item scores and an overall VOMS score for identifying collegiate athletes with an acute sport-related concussion (≤72 hours) from healthy controls matched by age, sex, and concussion history. Read More

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Mental Health Nurses' Experiences of Working in the Emergency Department of Two Rural Australian Settings.

Issues Ment Health Nurs 2021 May 12:1-12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Sydney Nursing School, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Providing effective mental health care in Emergency Departments (ED) is a fundamental expectation, as EDs increasingly become the first point of contact with health services for people in mental distress. As part of a larger multi-site translational research project this study explored the experiences, perspectives and recommendations of mental health liaison nurses (MHLN) employed in the EDs of two rural hospitals in New South Wales, Australia. Participants identified numerous benefits associated with embedding the MHLNs within the ED team. Read More

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Single-use negative pressure wound therapy reduces costs in closed surgical incisions: UK and US economic evaluation.

J Wound Care 2021 May;30(Sup5):S23-S31

Manchester Metropolitan University, UK.

Objective: Single-use negative pressure wound therapy (sNPWT) following closed surgical incisions has a demonstrable effect in reducing surgical site complications (SSC). However, there is little health economic evidence to support its widespread use. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of sNPWT compared with standard care in reducing SSCs following closed surgical incisions. Read More

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Coping With Tinnitus During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Audiol 2021 May 12:1-9. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.

Purpose The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted normal operations of health care services, broad sectors of the economy, and the ability to socialize freely. For those with tinnitus, such changes can be factors in exacerbating tinnitus. The purpose of this study was to determine tinnitus help-seeking behavior, which resources individuals utilized to cope during the pandemic, and what additional support is desired. Read More

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Racial/Ethnic Disparities In COVID-19 Exposure Risk, Testing, And Cases At The Subcounty Level In California.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2021 May 12:101377hlthaff202100098. Epub 2021 May 12.

Jeremy D. Goldhaber-Fiebert is an associate professor in the Centers for Health Policy and Primary Care and Outcomes Research, Stanford Health Policy, Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies and the Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University.

With a population of forty million and substantial geographic variation in sociodemographics and health services, California is an important setting in which to study disparities. Its population (37.5 percent White, 39. Read More

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Healthcare professionals' encounters with ethnic minority patients: The critical incident approach.

Nurs Inq 2021 May 12:e12421. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physiotherapy, Oslo Metropolitan University, Oslo, Norway.

Ethnic minority patients face challenges concerning communication and are at higher risk of experiencing health problems and consuming fewer healthcare services. They are also exposed to disparaging societal discourses about migrants which might undermine healthcare institutions' ambitions of equitable health care. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to critically reflect on their practices and processes related to ethnic minority patients. Read More

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Left behind again: Rural home health services in a Medicaid pediatric accountable care organization.

J Rural Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Abigail Wexner Research Institute at Nationwide Children's Hospital, Center for Innovation in Pediatric Practice, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose: To contrast trends in rural and urban pediatric home health care use among Medicaid enrollees.

Methods: Medicaid administrative claims data were used to assess differences in home health care use for child members in a large pediatric accountable care organization (ACO) in Ohio. Descriptive statistics assessed rural and urban differences in health care use over a 10-year period between 2010 and 2019. Read More

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Telephone veteran peer coaching for mental health treatment engagement among rural veterans: The importance of secondary outcomes and qualitative data in a randomized controlled trial.

J Rural Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of telephone motivational coaching delivered by veteran peers to improve mental health (MH) treatment engagement among veterans.

Methods: Veterans receiving primary care from primarily rural VA community-based outpatient clinics were enrolled. Veterans not engaged in MH treatment screening positive for ≥1 MH problem(s) were randomized to receive veteran peer-delivered feedback on MH screen results and referrals plus 4 sessions of telephone motivational coaching (intervention) versus veteran peer-delivered MH results and referrals without motivational coaching (control). Read More

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Antibiotic prescribing to Kentucky Medicaid children, 2012-2017: Prescribing is higher in rural areas.

J Rural Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Duke University Medical Center, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Purpose: Antibiotic resistance is a major public health threat. Antibiotic use is the main driver of resistance, with children and the state of Kentucky having particularly high rates of outpatient antibiotic prescribing. The purpose of this study was to describe patient and provider characteristics associated with pediatric antibiotic use in Kentucky Medicaid children. Read More

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