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Contending with Spiritual Reductionism: Demons, Shame, and Dividualising Experiences Among Evangelical Christians with Mental Distress.

J Relig Health 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, DE22 1GB, UK.

The belief that mental distress is caused by demons, sin, or generational curses is commonplace among many evangelical Christian communities. These beliefs may have positive or negative effects for individuals and groups. Phenomenological descriptions of these experiences and the subjective meanings associated with them, however, remain somewhat neglected in the literature. Read More

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Modelling Public Sentiments about Juul Flavors on Twitter through Machine Learning.

Nicotine Tob Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

FIMM Institute of Molecular Medicine, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: The availability of a variety of e-cigarettes flavors is one of the frequently cited reasons for their adoption. An active stream of discussion about flavoring can be observed online. Analyzing these real-time conversations offers nuanced insights into key factors related to the adoption of flavors, subsequently supporting public health interventions. Read More

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Multiple realities around sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) among adolescents in Ghana.

Authors:
Joshua Amo-Adjei

J Biosoc Sci 2021 May 14:1-12. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Population and Health, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Ghana.

The multiple realities around the sexual and reproductive health of Ghanaian adolescents are explored in this paper. Female and male adolescents (aged 10-19 years, N=298) participated in 40 focus group discussions in 20 communities. A comparative inductive approach has been used to present, analyse and document the sexual and reproductive realities of adolescents in their communities. Read More

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"Our Home Is a Muddy Structure": Perceptions of Housing and Health Risks Among Older Adults in Contrasting Neighborhoods in Ghana.

Front Public Health 2021 22;9:650861. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Aging occurs in a variety of social and physical environmental settings that affect health. However, despite their rapidly growing populations, public health research in sub-Saharan Africa has yet to address the role of residential environments in the health and well-being of older adults. In this study, we utilized an ethnographic research methodology to explore barriers and facilitators to health among older adults residing in two contrasting neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. Read More

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Antipsychotic treatment for youth in foster care: Perspectives on improving youths' experiences in providing informed consent.

Am J Orthopsychiatry 2021 ;91(2):258-270

Institute for Health, Health Care Policy and Aging Research and School of Social Work, Rutgers University.

The disproportionate prescribing of high-risk antipsychotic medication for youth in foster care is a significant social problem across the U.S. This qualitative study examined stakeholder perceptions of prescribing, being prescribed, or overseeing prescriptions for youth in foster care. Read More

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January 2021

Religious Service Attendance and Implications for Clinical Care, Community Participation and Public Health.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

We review the evidence concerning associations between religious service attendance and subsequent health and well-being outcomes. The evidence-base for a link between religious service attendance and health has increased substantially over the past two decades. The interpretation and implications of this research require careful consideration. Read More

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NAFLD and Infection, a Nuanced Relationship.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 15;2021:5556354. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Division of Hospital Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic Health System, Eau Claire, WI, USA.

The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has increased significantly over the last few decades mirroring the increase in obesity and type II diabetes mellitus. NAFLD has become one of the most common indications for liver transplantation. The deleterious effects of NAFLD are not isolated to the liver only, for it has been recognized as a systemic disease affecting multiple organs through protracted low-grade inflammation mediated by the metabolic activity of excessive fat tissue. Read More

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Towards tailored psychosocial intervention for BD-II: Lived experience perspectives on current and future management options.

J Affect Disord 2021 Apr 27;289:110-116. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC, Australia.

Background: Despite its significant morbidity and mortality, very little is known about how those with lived experience of bipolar II disorder (BD-II) manage their condition. This study sought to understand unmet needs in currently available psychosocial treatments, explore self-management strategies (SMS) that individuals with BD-II currently use, and determine the potential role of digital mental health interventions in this space.

Methods: Individuals (aged 18-65) confirming they had received a diagnosis of BD-II from a mental health professional were invited to complete an online survey about treatments trialled, coping strategies used to manage their condition and perspectives on the role of digital mental interventions. Read More

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Moderated mediation analyses to assess intervention mechanisms for impacts on victimisation, psycho-social problems and mental wellbeing: Evidence from the INCLUSIVE realist randomized trial.

Soc Sci Med 2021 May 3;279:113984. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Public Health, Environments and Society, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK. Electronic address:

Realist evaluations aim to evaluate interventions by understanding the mechanisms they trigger, assessing not merely what works but what works for whom, under what conditions, and how. Significant disagreement in the literature exists as to whether randomized trials can be used as a tool for realist evaluation. INCLUSIVE, which was the first realist randomized trial explicitly designed as such, evaluated the impact of Learning Together, a school-based intervention for students aged 12-15 that included restorative practice, on bullying victimisation, mental wellbeing and psychological problems. Read More

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Comparison of HIV Viral Suppression Between a Sample of Foreign-Born and U.S.-Born Women of Color in the United States.

J Immigr Minor Health 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

CUNY Graduate School of Public Health and Health Policy, Health Policy and Management, 55 W 125 th Street, 5 th Fl. NY, New York, 10027, USA.

We investigate the association between nativity status (U.S.- vs foreignborn) and viral suppression among women of color (WOC) with HIV (HIV‚ÄČ+) and whether this association was modified by education and housing. Read More

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The Relationships of Nursing Home Culture Change Practices With Resident Quality of Life and Family Satisfaction: Toward a More Nuanced Understanding.

Res Aging 2021 May 11:1640275211012652. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Transforming nursing homes (NHs) from restrictive institutions to person-centered homes, referred to as NH culture change, is complex and multifaceted. This study, based on a survey of administrators in Minnesota NHs ( = 102), tested the domain-specific relationships of culture change practices with resident quality of life (QOL) and family satisfaction, and examined the moderating effect of small-home or household models on these relationships. The findings revealed that culture change operationalized through physical environment transformation, staff empowerment, staff leadership, and end-of-life care was positively associated with at least one domain of resident QOL and family satisfaction, while staff empowerment had the most extensive effects. Read More

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"Just Engage in It or Not, You Get Out What You Put In": Student and Staff Experiences of Feedback and Feedforward in Workplace-Based Learning Environments.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 May 10:e20200124. Epub 2021 May 10.

Feedback is central to student learning in the veterinary workplace. Feedforward, a related concept, is used to describe the way information about a student's performance may be used to improve their future performance. Feedback and feedforward practices are diverse, with varied student and staff understandings of the nature and purpose of feedback (feedback literacy). Read More

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Prognostication in post-stroke aphasia: speech pathologists' clinical insights on formulating and delivering information about recovery.

Disabil Rehabil 2021 May 8:1-14. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.

Purpose: For people with post-stroke aphasia, "Will I get better?" is a question often asked, but one that is intellectually and emotionally demanding for speech pathologists to answer. Speech pathologists' formulation and delivery of aphasia prognoses is varied and there is limited evidence for optimising practice. We aimed to understand speech pathologists' clinical experiences, reasoning, and support needs in aphasia prognostication. Read More

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In Sickness and in Health: Expert Discussions on Abortion Indications, Risks, and Patient-Doctor Relationships in Postwar Poland.

Authors:
Agata Ignaciuk

Bull Hist Med 2021 ;95(1):83-112

This article analyzes expert debates relating to abortion in Poland between 1956 and 1993, a period when the procedure was legal and accessible. Through the pages of the primary Polish journal for gynecology and obstetrics, Ginekologia Polska, the author traces continuities and ruptures around three major intersecting themes: the procedure's indications, its (dis)connection to health, and the patient-doctor relationship. The journal became a forum showcasing interpretative tensions over indications for abortion and the malleability of the categories "therapeutic" and "social. Read More

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January 2021

Perceptions about the accessibility of healthcare services among ethnic minority women: a qualitative study among Arab Bedouins in Israel.

Int J Equity Health 2021 May 8;20(1):117. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, PREPARED Center for Emergency Response Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background: Access to healthcare services has major implications for vulnerable populations' health. Socio-cultural and gender characteristics shape the utilization and access of healthcare services among ethnic minorities worldwide. One such vulnerable ethnic minority is the Arab Bedouin women in Israel. Read More

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Conceptualizing "agency" within child marriage: Implications for research and practice.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 May 6;117:105086. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Global Health and Development, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, United Kingdom.

Background: The concept of child 'agency' has become increasingly important for international child-centric organizations, non-government organizations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) agencies, particularly those responding to the issue of child marriage. Interventions to prevent child marriage often include awareness-raising activities focused on sharing information with children on the dangers of child marriage. Such interventions are often based on, and perpetuate, a belief that increased knowledge can lead to an increase in girls' agency. Read More

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Understanding willingness to access and experiences of NHS Stop Smoking Services: a qualitative systematic review with meta-aggregation synthesis.

Public Health 2021 May 4;194:216-222. Epub 2021 May 4.

UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. Electronic address:

Objectives: NHS Stop Smoking Services (NHS-SSS) have been available in the United Kingdom (UK) since 2000. The service has proven to be effective, however uptake remains below aspirations. Understanding people's willingness and reasons for accessing and engaging with NHS-SSS is, therefore, important. Read More

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Editorial: 'No pain - No gain' - Towards the inclusion of mental health costs in balanced "lockdown" decision-making during health pandemics.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020, many governments have implemented national or regional lockdowns to slow the spread of infection. The widely anticipated negative impact these interventions would have on families, including on their mental health, were not included in decision models. The purpose of this editorial is, therefore, to stimulate debate by considering some of the barriers that have stopped governments setting the benefits of lockdown against, in particular, mental health costs during this process and so to make possible a more balanced approach going forward. Read More

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Fluid Balance in the Critically Ill Child Section: "How Bad Is Fluid in Neonates?"

Front Pediatr 2021 20;9:651458. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Stead Family Department of Pediatrics (Nephrology), University of Iowa Health Care, Iowa City, IA, United States.

Fluid overload (FO) in neonates is understudied, and its management requires nuanced care and an understanding of the complexity of neonatal fluid dynamics. Recent studies suggest neonates are susceptible to developing FO, and neonatal fluid balance is impacted by multiple factors including functional renal immaturity in the newborn period, physiologic postnatal diuresis and weight loss, and pathologies that require fluid administration. FO also has a deleterious impact on other organ systems, particularly the lung, and appears to impact survival. Read More

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Disclosure of Mental Health Status to Employers in a Healthcare Context.

Authors:
Yusrita Zolkefli

Malays J Med Sci 2021 Apr 21;28(2):157-160. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Brunei Darussalam.

People suffering from mental health conditions are often unwilling to reveal their status and this includes health professionals. They may wrestle with the pros and cons of revealing their health status to their employer in particular as they seek to reconcile personal privacy with professional duty. There is no simple, clear consensus as to whether they have a moral duty to share the information voluntarily or explicitly to share it with the employer. Read More

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Impact of Therapy & Age in Choroidal Cancers: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis of 7722 Patients from a US National Database.

Clin Ophthalmol 2021 28;15:1763-1774. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Paul L. Foster School of Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, El Paso, TX, USA.

Background: Collectively, choroidal cancers represent a vast array of histopathologically diverse constituencies with profound repercussions related to mortality and metastasis. Prognosticated factors provide utility in determining clinical management and outcome propensities. To date, measures to collectively characterize choroidal cancers as a class are not impressive. Read More

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Sharing Reflections on Multisource Feedback in a Peer Group Setting: Stimulating Physicians' Professional Performance and Development.

Acad Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

E. Bindels was a PhD candidate, Amsterdam Center for Professional Performance and Compassionate Care, Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands, at the time of the study. The author is now a lecturer, Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6096-4950. M. van den Goor is CEO, Q3 Company for Physician Development, Den Bosch, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6361-0178. A. Scherpbier is professor, Department of Educational Development and Research, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9652-0163. K. Lombarts is professor, Amsterdam Center for Professional Performance and Compassionate Care, Department of Medical Psychology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6167-0620. S. Heeneman is professor, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, School of Health Professions Education, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6103-8075.

Purpose: Reflecting on and using feedback is important for physicians' continuous professional development (CPD). A common format is the discussion of multisource feedback (MSF) in a one-on-one session with a trusted peer or coach. A new approach is to discuss MSF during a peer group session moderated by a professional facilitator. Read More

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What is the relationship between validated frailty scores and mortality for adults with COVID-19 in acute hospital care? A systematic review.

Age Ageing 2021 05;50(3):608-616

Department of Health Sciences, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

Background And Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to quantify the association between frailty and COVID-19 in relation to mortality in hospitalised patients.

Methods: Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the grey literature were searched for papers from inception to 10 September 2020; the search was re-run in Medline up until the 9 December 2020. Screening, data extraction and quality grading were undertaken by two reviewers. Read More

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Relating behaviours and therapeutic actions during AVATAR therapy dialogue: An observational study.

Br J Clin Psychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, UK.

Objectives: AVATAR therapy is a novel relational approach to working with distressing voices by engaging individuals in direct dialogue with a digital representation of their persecutory voice (the avatar). Critical to this approach is the avatar transition from abusive to conciliatory during the course of therapy. To date, no observational study has examined the moment-to-moment dialogical exchanges of this innovative therapy. Read More

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Novel Longitudinal Methods for Assessing Retention in Care: a Synthetic Review.

Curr HIV/AIDS Rep 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8051, 4523 Clayton Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri, 63110, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Retention in care is both dynamic and longitudinal in nature, but current approaches to retention often reduce these complex histories into cross-sectional metrics that obscure the nuanced experiences of patients receiving HIV care. In this review, we discuss contemporary approaches to assessing retention in care that captures its dynamic nature and the methodological and data considerations to do so.

Recent Findings: Enhancing retention measurements either through patient tracing or "big data" approaches (including probabilistic matching) to link databases from different sources can be used to assess longitudinal retention from the perspective of the patient when they transition in and out of care and access care at different facilities. Read More

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Assessing and communicating heterogeneity of treatment effects for patient subpopulations: Keynote and panel discussion on communicating heterogeneous treatment effects across populations.

Pharm Stat 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

How do we communicate nuanced regulatory information to different audiences, recognizing that the consumer audience is very different from the physician audience? In particular, how do we communicate the heterogeneity of treatment effects - the potential differences in treatment effects based on sex, race, and age? That is a fundamental question at the heart of this panel discussion. Each panelist addressed a specific "challenge question" during their 5-minute presentation, and the list of questions is provided. The presentations were followed by a question and answer session with members of the audience and the panelists. Read More

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Subjective Social Status and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers by Intersectionality of Race/Ethnicity and Sex Among U.S. Young Adults.

Ann Behav Med 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Nutrition, T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Subjective social status (SSS) has shown inverse relationships with cardiometabolic risk, but intersectionalities of race/ethnicity and sex may indicate more nuanced relationships.

Purpose: To investigate associations of SSS with cardiometabolic risk markers by race/ethnicity and sex.

Methods: Data were from Wave IV (2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (n = 4,847; 24-32 years), which collected biological cardiometabolic risk markers. Read More

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When experience is not enough: learning-based cognitive pain modulation with or without instructions.

Pain 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, KU Leuven, Tiensestraat 102, box 3726, 3000 Leuven, Belgium Experimental Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht Univeristy, Maastricht, Netherlands Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging (WIN), Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 9DU, UK.

Abstract: The effects of expectations on pain perception are often studied using large differences in pain probabilities between experimental conditions, while they may be far more subtle in clinical contexts and, therefore, more difficult to detect. The current study aimed to investigate at which point subtle differences in pain probabilities can be detected and lead to differentiable expectations and perceptions. Furthermore, we investigated whether instructions can aid learning from experience and enhance subsequent pain modulatory effects. Read More

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Stigma as a Barrier to Participant Recruitment of Minority Populations in Diabetes Research: Development of a Community-Centered Recruitment Approach.

JMIR Diabetes 2021 May 3;6(2):e26965. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States.

Background: The development of evidence-based care geared towards Black and Latina women living with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes is contingent upon their active recruitment into clinical interventions. Well-documented impediments to recruitment include a historical mistrust of the research community and socioeconomic factors that limit awareness and access to research studies. Although sociocultural and socioeconomic factors deter minorities from participating in clinical research, it is equally important to consider the role of stigma in chronic disease intervention studies. Read More

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Pediatric obesity and perioperative medicine.

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2021 Jun;34(3):299-305

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

Purpose Of Review: Childhood obesity is a public health emergency that has reached a pandemic level and imposed a massive economic burden on healthcare systems. Our objective was to provide an update on (1) challenges of obesity definition and classification in the perioperative setting, (2) challenges of perioperative patient positioning and vascular access, (3) perioperative implications of childhood obesity, (3) anesthetic medication dosing and opioid-sparing techniques in obese children, and (4) research gaps in perioperative childhood obesity research including a call to action.

Recent Findings: Despite the near axiomatic observation that obesity is a pervasive clinical problem with considerable impact on perioperative health, there have only been a handful of research into the many ramifications of childhood obesity in the perioperative setting. Read More

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