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Comparative genome sequencing reveals insights into the dynamics of Wolbachia in native and invasive cherry fruit flies.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.

Wolbachia is a maternally inherited obligate endosymbiont that can induce a wide spectrum of effects in its host, ranging from mutualism to reproductive parasitism. At the genomic level, recombination within and between strains, transposable elements, and horizontal transfer of strains between host species make Wolbachia an evolutionarily dynamic bacterial system. The invasive cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata arrived in Europe from North America ~40 years ago, where it now co-occurs with the native cherry pest R. Read More

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Ruthenium-based Photoactive Metalloantibiotics.

Photochem Photobiol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Madia Department of Chemistry, Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Indiana, PA, 15705-1076, United States.

Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most urgent public health problems. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) is a promising therapy to combat the growing threat of antibiotic resistance. The aPDT combines a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive oxygen species to induce bacterial inactivation. Read More

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Ambient Assisted Living: Identifying New Challenges and Needs for Digital Technologies and Service Innovation.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

On behalf of the Swedish interest organizations for Elderly, Stockholm, Sweden. Member of SeniorNet and Active Seniors non-profit organizations.

Background: The ambient assisted living (AAL) market is rapidly becoming fundamental to the delivery of health and social care services for the elderly. Worldwide many different steps have been taken to increase the engagement of older adults with these technologies. Much of this work has focused on the development of novel digital services that increase wellbeing or tackle social challenges. Read More

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How to Improve Information Technology to Support Healthcare to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic: an International Survey with Health Informatics Experts.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada.

Objectives: To identify the ways in which healthcare information and communication technologies can be improved to address the challenges raised by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: The study population included health informatics experts who had been involved with the planning, development and deployment of healthcare information and communication technologies in healthcare settings in response to the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were collected via an online survey. Read More

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Managing Pandemic Responses with Health Informatics - Challenges for Assessing Digital Health Technologies.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Australian Institute of Health Innovation, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: To highlight the role of technology assessment in the management of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Method: An overview of existing research and evaluation approaches along with expert perspectives drawn from the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Working Group on Technology Assessment and Quality Development in Health Informatics and the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Working Group for Assessment of Health Information Systems.

Results: Evaluation of digital health technologies for COVID-19 should be based on their technical maturity as well as the scale of implementation. Read More

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Primary Care Informatics Response to Covid-19 Pandemic: Adaptation, Progress, and Lessons from Four Countries with High ICT Development.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences, University of Oxford, UK.

Objective: Internationally, primary care practice had to transform in response to the COVID pandemic. Informatics issues included access, privacy, and security, as well as patient concerns of equity, safety, quality, and trust. This paper describes progress and lessons learned. Read More

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Using Open Source, Open Data, and Civic Technology to Address the COVID-19 Pandemic and Infodemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objectives: The emerging COVID-19 pandemic has caused one of the world's worst health disasters compounded by social confusion with misinformation, the so-called "Infodemic". In this paper, we discuss how open technology approaches - including data sharing, visualization, and tooling - can address the COVID-19 pandemic and infodemic.

Methods: In response to the call for participation in the 2020 International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) Yearbook theme issue on Medical Informatics and the Pandemic, the IMIA Open Source Working Group surveyed recent works related to the use of Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) for this pandemic. Read More

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Trials and Tribulations: mHealth Clinical Trials in the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Introduction: Mobile phone-based interventions in cardiovascular disease are growing in popularity. A randomised control trial (RCT) for a novel smartphone app-based model of care, named TeleClinical Care - Cardiac (TCC-Cardiac), commenced in February 2019, targeted at patients being discharged after care for an acute coronary syndrome or episode of decompensated heart failure. The app was paired to a digital sphygmomanometer, weighing scale and a wearable fitness band, all loaned to the patient, and allowed clinicians to respond to abnormal readings. Read More

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Role of Participatory Health Informatics in Detecting and Managing Pandemics: Literature Review.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Institute for Medical Informatics, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Bern, Switzerland.

Objectives: Using participatory health informatics (PHI) to detect disease outbreaks or learn about pandemics has gained interest in recent years. However, the role of PHI in understanding and managing pandemics, citizens' role in this context, and which methods are relevant for collecting and processing data are still unclear, as is which types of data are relevant. This paper aims to clarify these issues and explore the role of PHI in managing and detecting pandemics. Read More

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Enhancing Safety During a Pandemic Using Virtual Care Remote Monitoring Technologies and UML Modeling.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Clinical Informatics, Harvard School of Medicine, Harvard University, United States of America.

Objectives: This paper describes a methodology for gathering requirements and early design of remote monitoring technology (RMT) for enhancing patient safety during pandemics using virtual care technologies. As pandemics such as COrona VIrus Disease (COVID-19) progress there is an increasing need for effective virtual care and RMT to support patient care while they are at home.

Methods: The authors describe their work in conducting literature reviews by searching PubMed. Read More

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Telehealth and the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Perspectives and a Health Systems Framework for Telehealth Implementation to Support Critical Response.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Sri Sathya Sai Central Trust, Puttaparthi, India.

Objectives: Telehealth implementation is a complex systems-based endeavour. This paper compares telehealth responses to (COrona VIrus Disease 2019) COVID-19 across ten countries to identify lessons learned about the complexity of telehealth during critical response such as in response to a global pandemic. Our overall objective is to develop a health systems-based framework for telehealth implementation to support critical response. Read More

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Investigating the Scientific 'Infodemic' Phenomenon Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Medical Informatics, Amsterdam University Medical Center - University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Public Health research institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The study aims at understanding the structural characteristics and content features of COVID-19 literature and public health data from the perspective of the 'Language and Meaning in Biomedicine' Working Group (LaMB WG) of IMIA. The LaMB WG has interest in conceptual characteristics, transparency, comparability, and reusability of medical information, both in science and practice.

Methods: A set of methods were used (i) investigating the overall speed and dynamics of COVID-19 publications; (ii) characterizing the concepts of COVID-19 (text mining, visualizing a semantic map of related concepts); (iii) assessing (re)usability and combinability of data sets and paper collections (as textual data sets), and checking if information is Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR). Read More

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Digital Health during COVID-19: Informatics Dialogue with the World Health Organization.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

eHealth Development Association, Amman, Jordan.

Background: On December 16, 2020 representatives of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA), a Non-Governmental Organization in official relations with the World Health Organization (WHO), along with its International Academy for Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI), held an open dialogue with WHO Director General (WHO DG) Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus about the opportunities and challenges of digital health during the COVID-19 global pandemic.

Objectives: The aim of this paper is to report the outcomes of the dialogue and discussions with more than 200 participants representing different civil society organizations (CSOs).

Methods: The dialogue was held in form of a webinar. Read More

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Drawing Reproducible Conclusions from Observational Clinical Data with OHDSI.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: The current observational research literature shows extensive publication bias and contradiction. The Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) initiative seeks to improve research reproducibility through open science.

Methods: OHDSI has created an international federated data source of electronic health records and administrative claims that covers nearly 10% of the world's population. Read More

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Managing Pandemics with Health Informatics: Successes and Challenges.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Clinical Informatics Center, UT Southwestern, Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Introduction: The novel COVID-19 pandemic struck the world unprepared. This keynote outlines challenges and successes using data to inform providers, government officials, hospitals, and patients in a pandemic.

Methods: The authors outline the data required to manage a novel pandemic including their potential uses by governments, public health organizations, and individuals. Read More

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The International Academy of Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI): 2020 Report.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Health Informatics, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Objectives: To summarize the major activities of the International Academy of Health Sciences Informatics (IAHSI) in the 2020 time period and to welcome its 2020 Class of Fellows.

Method: Report from the members of the Academy's Board.

Results: Due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, both Plenary meetings in 2020 had to be organized as virtual meetings. Read More

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Pandemics: Historically Slow "Learning Curve" Leading to Biomedical Informatics and Vaccine Breakthroughs.

Yearb Med Inform 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, USA.

Background: The worldwide tragedy of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic vividly demonstrates just how inadequate mitigation and control of the spread of infectious diseases can be when faced with a new microorganism with unknown pathogenic effects. Responses by governments in charge of public health, and all other involved organizations, have proved largely wanting. Data infrastructure and the information and communication systems needed to deal with the pandemic have likewise not been up to the task. Read More

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Asthma Medication Regimens in Pregnancy: Longitudinal Changes in Asthma Status.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Intramural Population Health Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Objective:  This study aimed to assess the impact of common asthma medication regimens on asthma symptoms, exacerbations, lung function, and inflammation during pregnancy.

Study Design:  A total of 311 women with asthma were enrolled in a prospective pregnancy cohort. Asthma medication regimen was categorized into short-acting β agonist (SABA) alone, SABA + inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), SABA + ICS + long-acting β agonist (LABA), and no asthma medications (reference). Read More

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Unexpected Term Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Admissions and a Potential Role for Centralized Remote Fetal Monitoring.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Section of Maternal Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women's Service Line, Ochsner Health, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Objective:  Centralized remote fetal monitoring (CRFM) has been proposed as a method to improve the performance of intrapartum fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring and perinatal outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether CRFM was associated with a reduction in unexpected term neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions.

Study Design:  A pre-post design was used to examine the effectiveness of CRFM which was implemented in stages across five hospitals. Read More

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Reproducibility of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale during the Postpartum Period.

Am J Perinatol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Amarillo, Texas.

Objective:  This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in the immediate postpartum period, which we defined as between 3 and 24 hours postpartum for the purpose of this research. This is such that if it can predict scores obtained at the postpartum visit, it will be an opportunity to access psychiatric services for the patient that may otherwise be more difficult to access in the outpatient setting.

Study Design:  Longitudinal observational study, which included an analysis of 848 consecutive participants screened with the EPDS in the hospital and at the 6-week postpartum visit. Read More

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Multidisciplinary Sprint Program Achieved Specialty-Specific EHR Optimization in 20 Clinics.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 21;12(2):329-339. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

University of Colorado Health Medical Group and University of Colorado Health, Aurora, Colorado, United States.

Objective:  The objective of the study was to highlight and analyze the outcomes of software configuration requests received from Sprint, a comprehensive, clinic-centered electronic health record (EHR) optimization program.

Methods:  A retrospective review of 1,254 Sprint workbook requests identified (1) the responsible EHR team, (2) the clinical efficiency gained from the request, and (3) the EHR intervention conducted.

Results:  Requests were received from 407 clinicians and 538 staff over 31 weeks of Sprint. Read More

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Data Quality of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Documentation.

Appl Clin Inform 2021 Mar 21;12(2):320-328. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

School of Nursing, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States.

Objective:  The objective of the study was to characterize the completeness and concordance of the electronic health record (EHR) documentation of cancer symptoms among multidisciplinary health care professionals.

Methods:  We examined the EHRs of children, adolescents, and young adults who received highly emetogenic chemotherapy and characterized the completeness and concordance of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) documentation by clinician type and by the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) coding choice.

Results:  The EHRs of 127 patients, comprising 870 patient notes, were abstracted and reviewed. Read More

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[Preventive Check-ups and Routine Vaccinations in Pre-school Children - An Analysis of Mutual Participation Behaviour, Taking into Account Living Conditions].

Authors:
Heribert Stich

Gesundheitswesen 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Landratsamt Landshut, Abteilung 7 Gesundheitsamt.

Aim Of The Study: Preventive screenings and vaccinations are essential health protecting measures in childhood, but no quantitative data on mutual distribution patterns of acceptance are available. The aim of the study was the quantification of distribution patterns and the identification of associations between preventive check-ups and defined routine vaccinations for children starting school, taking into account the social environment.

Methods: The 2015 school entrance health checks included documented preventive screenings and routine vaccinations on a city-wide basis. Read More

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An in vitro air-liquid interface inhalation platform for petroleum substances and constituents.

ALTEX 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

VITO NV (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Unit HEALTH, Mol, Belgium.

The goal is to optimize and show the validity of an in vitro method for inhalation testing of petroleum substances and its constituents at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The approach is demonstrated in a pilot study with ethylbenzene (EB), a mono-constituent petroleum substance using a human alveolar epithelial cell line model. This included the development and validation of a generation facility to obtain EB vapors and the optimization of an exposure system for a negative control (clean air, CA), positive control (nitrogen dioxide), and EB vapors. Read More

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Battling Burnout at the Frontlines of Health Care Amid COVID-19.

AACN Adv Crit Care 2021 Apr 26:e1-e9. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Beverly Ann M. Howell is a Lieutenant, Nurse Corps, US Navy, Naval Medical Leader and Professional Development Command, PSC 482, Box 170, FPO, AP 96362

Nursing is a physically and emotionally demanding profession. Grueling job roles and challenging work environments, specifically in acute or critical care settings, place health care professionals at risk of burnout. Burnout in health care professionals results from a chronic negative work experience, leading to job dissatisfaction and, ultimately, poor patient outcomes. Read More

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Translucent Zirconium Dioxide and Lithium Disilicate: A 3-Year Follow-up of a Prospective, Practice-Based Randomized Controlled Trial on Posterior Monolithic Crowns.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):163-172

Purpose: To systematically evaluate and compare the clinical performance of lithium disilicate (LDS)- and zirconium dioxide (ZrO)-based ceramic monolithic crowns in the posterior dentition.

Materials And Methods: Treatment was administered by two experienced general dental practitioners in two public dental health care clinics. Forty-four patients received 60 crowns randomized to be either LDS or ZrO and cemented with resin cement. Read More

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The psychometric properties of life-space mobility measures in community-dwelling older adults: a systematic review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada School of Rehabilitation Science, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Mobility is one of the most important contributors to healthy aging and is traditionally measured through performance-based tests. Measuring life-space mobility is a holistic way to measure the spaces individuals visited over a period of time versus what they are physically able to do. However, before a measure of life-space mobility can be widely used in research and clinical settings it must have robust psychometric properties. Read More

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Interprofessional collaboration between health professional learners when breaking bad news: a scoping review protocol.

JBI Evid Synth 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Nursing, Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Aligning Health Needs and Evidence for Transformative Change: A JBI Centre of Excellence, Halifax, NS, Canada Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Department of Emergency Medicine, QEII Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, NS, Canada School of Social Work, Faculty of Health, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada W.K. Kellogg Health Sciences Library, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Department of Applied Human Nutrition, Mount Saint Vincent University, Halifax, NS, Canada Centre for Collaborative Clinical Learning and Research, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QB, Canada.

Objective: The objective of this scoping review is to examine pedagogies used to teach interprofessional health learners to break bad news collaboratively.

Introduction: Breaking bad news is a skill health care professionals must be equipped to deliver well, yet literature shows that this skill receives little attention in program curricula. Consequently, health care professionals feel inadequately prepared to deliver bad news leading to greater burnout, distress, and fatigue. Read More

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Effect of Shared Governance on Nurse-Sensitive Indicator and Satisfaction Outcomes: An International Comparison.

J Nurs Adm 2021 May;51(5):287-296

Author Affiliations: Nursing Research Consultant, Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, and Adjunct Faculty (Dr Speroni), Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland; Magnet® Program Director (Dr Wisner), Salinas Valley Memorial Healthcare System; Clinical Nurse Educator, Perioperative Services, and Infection Preventionist (Dr Stafford), University of Maryland Shore Regional Health, Easton, Maryland; Magnet® Program Director (Ms Haines), King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; Chief Nursing Officer (Dr Al-Ruzzieh), King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan; and Senior Director Hospital Capacity Management & Emergency Nursing Services (Dr Walters), Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center, Baltimore, Maryland; Associate Professor (Dr Budhathoki), School of Nursing, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Objective: Researchers examined associations between Index for Professional Nursing Governance (IPNG) scores and outcomes, by US and international hospitals.

Background: Nursing governance and effects on nurse-related outcomes are not well studied.

Methods: Associations were evaluated using average IPNG scores from 2170 RNs and nurse-sensitive indicators (NSIs) and patient and RN satisfaction outcomes (n = 205 study units, 20 hospitals, 4 countries). Read More

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