25,063 results match your criteria hardness measured

A novel CAD/CAM resin composite block with high mechanical properties.

Dent Mater 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Glidewell Dental, Irvine, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine the mechanical properties of a newly-developed CAD/CAM resin composite block and compare with other resin composite blocks and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic block.

Methods: Experimental composite block was formulated by our proprietary resin and filler technologies and cured via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Bar-shaped specimens (1 × 4×12 - 13 mm, n = 10) for flexural strength, flexural modulus and modulus of resilience were sectioned from block materials and measured in accordance to modified ISO-6872. Read More

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Imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality of Bagmati river basin, Nepal.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 10;289:112522. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Central Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.

COVID-19 pandemic has caused profound impacts on human life and the environment including freshwater ecosystems globally. Despite the various impacts, the pandemic has improved the quality of the environment and thereby creating an opportunity to restore the degraded ecosystems. This study presents the imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality and chemical characteristics of the urban-based Bagmati River Basin (BRB), Nepal. Read More

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Comparison of Multiple Linear Regression and Biotic Ligand Models to Predict the Toxicity of Nickel to Aquatic Freshwater Organisms.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

NiPERA, Durham, NC, 27713.

Toxicity modifying factors can either be modeled empirically with linear regression models or mechanistically, such as with the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). The primary factors affecting the toxicity of nickel to aquatic organisms are hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and pH. Interactions between these terms were also considered. Read More

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Development of a sensitive direct injection LC-MS/MS method for the detection of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in hard waters.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall, Box 90287, Durham, NC, 27708-0287, USA.

Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in the world; however, the zwitterionic and highly polar properties of glyphosate make current pesticide analysis methods unsuitable for its trace analysis in natural waters. Additionally, current glyphosate analysis methods do not account for waters of varying hardness, which is vital as glyphosate can complex with cationic species such as Ca and Mg in the environment. We detail here a robust LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of glyphosate and its primary transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in environmental waters of varying water hardness. Read More

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Establishing a novel method for assessing elasticity of internal anal sphincter using ultrasonic real-time tissue elastography.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Evaluating anorectal function using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) has not been reported. A previous study reported that in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) of surgical specimens of patients with rectal cancer who underwent abdominoperineal resection, there was an increased fibrosis trend in those who underwent pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) compared with non-CRT. We speculated that CRT might have induced sclerosis of the IAS because of fibrosis. Read More

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Comparative analysis the performance of electrochemical water softening between high frequency electric fields and direct current electric fields based on orthogonal experimental methods.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Apr;83(7):1677-1690

School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430000, China E-mail:

Electrochemical water softening has been widely used in industrial circulating cooling water systems; however, their low deposition efficiency is the main drawback that limits usage in medium to large enterprises. In this work, the effect of different parameters on the hardness removal efficiency and energy consumption of the electrochemical water softening system is experimentally studied, and the performance of water softening applied by high frequency electric fields and direct current electric fields are comparative analyzed. The impact factors of the electrochemical water softening system are as follows: initial feed concentration of solute, magnitude of voltage, inter-electrode distance, area of cathode and frequency of power supply. Read More

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Crayfish Eating in Snakes: Testing How Anatomy and Behavior Affect Prey Size and Feeding Performance.

Integr Org Biol 2021 30;3(1):obab001. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, PO Box 210006, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0006, USA.

Quantifying the performance of animals is a powerful methodology for determining the functional consequences of morphological variation. For example, snakes consume prey whole, and variation in the anatomy of their trophic apparatus directly affects gape and limits maximal prey size. However, for the foraging ecology of snakes and other systems, scant data exist regarding how often maximal capacities are taxed in nature. Read More

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January 2021

Anode Properties of Cr V Si/Si Composite Electrodes for Lithium-Ion Batteries.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 26;6(13):8862-8869. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Minami 4-101, Koyama-cho, Tottori 680-8552, Japan.

We have reported the effects of substituting a transition metal in silicide on the electrochemical performance of the silicide/Si composite anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs); the CrVSi/Si electrode exhibited much better cyclability compared with CrSi/Si and VSi/Si electrodes. Herein, we investigated the electrochemical performance of a Cr V Si/Si slurry electrode for its application in LIBs, and the results obtained were compared to those of a gas deposition (GD) electrode, which was comprised of only active materials. The slurry electrode exhibited a superior cycling life as with the GD electrode. Read More

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Nutritional, physical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free biscuits incorporated with a novel resistant starch ingredient.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 21;7(3):e06562. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department for Sustainable Food Process (DiSTAS), Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Via Emilia Parmense 84, 29122, Piacenza, Italy.

Gluten-free (GF) biscuits were prepared by replacing part of a GF flour mix (GFM) with 0, 15, 30 and 45 g/100 g (total flour) with a novel resistant starch-rich ingredient obtained from annealed white sorghum starch (RSWS). The chemical composition, physical characteristics, in vitro starch digestion and sensory evaluation of biscuits were considered. The chemical composition of samples was influenced by the addition of the RSWS. Read More

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Synthesis, microstructural characterization and nanoindentation of Zr, Zr-nitride and Zr-carbonitride coatings deposited using magnetron sputtering.

Anwar Ul-Hamid

J Adv Res 2021 Mar 25;29:107-119. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Center for Engineering Research, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Hard coatings are primarily based on carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides of transition metal elements such as W, Ti, Zr, etc. Zr-based hard coatings show good resistance to wear, erosion, and corrosion as well as exhibit high hardness, high temperature stability, and biocompatibility, making them suitable candidates for tribological, biomedical, and electrical applications.

Objectives: The present study aims to synthesize uniform and adherent hard Zr-based coatings that demonstrate sound mechanical integrity. Read More

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Production and characterization of soft Sardaigne-type cheese by using almond gum as a functional additive.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Apr 20;9(4):2032-2041. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Laboratoire d'Amélioration des Plantes et Valorisation des Agroressources National School of Engineering of Sfax (ENIS) Sfax University Sfax Tunisia.

The effect of almond gum (AG), as natural polysaccharide with high nutritional value and important functional properties, on physicochemical and textural characteristics of Sardaigne-type cheese was investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) using Box-Behnken design was applied to determine optimal levels of three selected processing variables such as coagulation temperature (25-45°C), stirring period (20-30 min), and AG concentration (0.25%-0. Read More

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Preparation of High-Drug-Loaded Clarithromycin Gastric-Floating Sustained-Release Tablets Using 3D Printing.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2021 Apr 11;22(3):131. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China.

The high-drug-loaded sustained-release gastric-floating clarithromycin (CAM) tablets were proposed and manufactured via semisolid extrusion (SSE)-based 3D printing. The physical and mechanical properties, such as dimensions, weight variation, friability, and hardness, were accessed according to the quality standards of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (Ch.P). Read More

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Effects of biochar aging in the soil on its mechanical property and performance for soil CO and NO emissions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 29;782:146824. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

College of Environmental Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address:

Biochar application into the soils has been reported to have huge carbon sequestration potential, although it remains unclear that how the biochar aging in the soil affects its mechanical properties and soil CO and NO emissions. This work assessed the impact of soil biochar aging on its physicochemical properties, microbiota community in the biochar, and soil CO and NO emissions. Various characterizations (e. Read More

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A preliminary study on enhancing safety of contact features in the terrain park.

J Sci Med Sport 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

C. Roberts Consulting Engineers, Inc., USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: Terrain park riders use contact features such as fun boxes and rails. Typical fun box and rail features have a design characteristic that can be changed to improve safety. Fun box edge coping and edges of rails are typically constructed of soft steel. Read More

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Hydrochemical characterization and quality assessment of groundwater in the hilly area of the Taihang Mountains in Henan Province, China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Henan Institute of Geological Environment Monitoring, Zhengzhou, 450016, China.

This study evaluated the quality of groundwater and its suitability for drinking and irrigation in the hilly area of the Taihang Mountains in Henan Province, China. Groundwater samples were collected from 43 unconfined and 20 confined wells and analyzed. The pollution index of groundwater (PIG) was estimated based on the physicochemical parameters, and seven indices, including the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (%Na), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), permeability index (PI), magnesium ratio (MR), Kelley's ratio (KR), and corrosivity ratio (CR), were calculated to qualify the groundwater within the research area for irrigation activities. Read More

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Nano-emulsification of oriental lacquer sap by ultrasonic wave propagation: Improvement of thin-film characteristics as a natural resin.

Ultrason Sonochem 2021 Mar 29;73:105545. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lacquer sap has received much attention as a traditional natural resin because it is a renewable and eco-friendly biopolymer resource unlike artificial coating materials. However, strict drying conditions and long drying times of lacquer sap should be modified to expand its applications. This study presents the first attempt to investigate the effect of different amplitudes of ultrasonic waves on the lacquer sap composed of water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion droplets and the mechanical properties of the resultant film by solvent evaporation. Read More

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PILP remineralization of artificial and natural dentin carious lesions evaluated by nanoindentation and microcomputed tomography.

J Dent 2021 Apr 6:103659. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Preventative and Restorative Dental Sciences, UCSF School of Dentistry, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: The study evaluates the efficacy to remineralize artificial and natural dentin lesions through restorative dental procedures that include the Polymer-Induced Liquid Precursor (PILP) method comprising polyaspartic acid (pAsp).

Methods: Novel ionomeric cement compositions based on bioglass 45S5 and pAsp mixtures, as well as conditioning solutions (conditioner) containing 5 mg/ml pAsp, were developed and tested on demineralized dentin blocks (3-4 mm thick) on shallow and deep lesions with the thickness of 150 µm ± 50 and 700 µm ± 50, respectively. In the first treatment group, 20 µl of conditioner was applied to demineralized shallow (n = 3) and deep (n = 3) lesion specimens for 20 s before restoration with glass ionomer cement (RMGIC). Read More

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Roles of gelator type and gelation technology on texture and sensory properties of cookies prepared with oleogels.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 23;356:129667. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

National Engineering Research Center for Functional Food, Collaborative Innovation Center of Food Safety and Quality Control in Jiangsu Province, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, 1800 Lihu Road, Wuxi 214122, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, different types of oleogels were prepared by five gelators including hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), monoacylglycerol (MAG), sodium stearyl lactate (SSL), rice bran wax (RBW) and beeswax (BW), and their applications in cookies were compared. Texture, microstructure, and colour results showed that MAG, RBW and shortening based cookies had similar hardness, porous structure, and L*, a*, b*. MAG and RBW exhibited excellent rheological properties similar to shortening. Read More

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and evaluation of taste-masked orodispersible tablets of fluoxetine hydrochloride for the treatment of depression.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Apr 7:1-9. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy Department, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City, Egypt.

Aim: Fluoxetine (FLX) has become the first-line drug in the pharmacotherapy of patients with depression. However, it has a strong unpleasant bitter taste, leading to the failure to complete the therapy. In this study, FLX is formulated into orodispersible tablets (ODTs) characterized by a fast release with an acceptable taste. Read More

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Development of Seed Butter Made with Pumpkin, Sesame, and Sunflower Seeds and the Influence of Natural Antimicrobials and Stabilizers on Its Shelf Life.

Int J Food Sci 2021 22;2021:6630636. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University, USA.

This study investigated the antimicrobial efficacies of grape seed extract (GSE) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) against and and the influence of hydrogenated rapeseed oil (HRO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) on the texture and oil separation in pumpkin/sesame/sunflower seed butter. The results showed that the 10 and 15% GSE significantly reduced both and . Cinnamaldehyde was effective against but did not significantly reduce . Read More

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Remineralization Potential of Nanohydroxyapatite Toothpaste Compared with Tricalcium Phosphate and Fluoride Toothpaste on Artificial Carious Lesions.

Int J Dent 2021 20;2021:5588832. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Pediatric Dentistry and Biomaterials Research, Faculty of Dentistry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002, Thailand.

Introduction: Nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA) has been utilized as an alternative agent for dental enamel remineralization. This study compared remineralization potential of nano-HA toothpaste (NHT), functionalized tricalcium phosphate toothpaste (TCPT), and fluoride toothpaste (FT) on carious lesions.

Materials And Methods: Sixty extracted human premolars were prepared for artificial carious lesions with synthetic polymer gel. Read More

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QSPR modelling for intrinsic viscosity in polymer-solvent combinations based on density functional theory.

SAR QSAR Environ Res 2021 Apr 7:1-15. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, PR China.

Linear and nonlinear quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) models were developed based on a dataset with 65 polymer-solvent combinations. Seven quantum chemical descriptors, dipole moment, hardness, chemical potential, electrophilicity index, total energy, HOMO and LUMO orbital energies, were calculated with density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level for polymers and solvents. Considering the strong correlation between intrinsic viscosity and weight, size, shape as well as topological structure of polymers and solvents, topological descriptors were also applied in this work. Read More

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Analysis of English free association network reveals mechanisms of efficient solution of Remote Association Tests.

PLoS One 2021 6;16(4):e0248986. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Applied Mathematics, MIEM, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia.

We study correlations between the structure and properties of a free association network of the English language, and solutions of psycholinguistic Remote Association Tests (RATs). We show that average hardness of individual RATs is largely determined by relative positions of test words (stimuli and response) on the free association network. We argue that the solution of RATs can be interpreted as a first passage search problem on a network whose vertices are words and links are associations between words. Read More

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Ultrasonic measurement of dentin remineralization effects of dentifrices and silver diamine fluoride.

Acta Odontol Scand 2021 Apr 6:1-8. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Operative Dentistry, Nihon University School of Dentistry, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: This study investigated the dentin remineralization effect of the application of a functionalized tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) dentifrice and a silver diamine fluoride (SDF) solution.

Material And Methods: The materials used were: a fluoride-containing dentifrice with fTCP (fTCP+), a fluoride-containing dentifrice without fTCP (fTCP-) and a 38% SDF solution. Following treatment, the dentin slabs were immersed in a 0. Read More

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Diffraction manipulation of visible light with submicron structures for structural coloration fabrication.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):9294-9311

The structural coloration of glass induced by submicron structures is eco-friendly, ink-free, and has profound scientific significance. However, it is difficult to manufacture the submicron structures for glass optics due to the high hardness of glass and the miniature size of the microstructures. In this paper, the diffraction manipulation mechanism of groove shape to structural coloration and optimization theory are studied by establishing the theoretical and simulation mode. Read More

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Rapid fabrication technique for aluminum optics by inducing a MRF contamination layer modification with Ar ion beam sputtering.

Opt Express 2021 Mar;29(6):8951-8966

Aluminum optics are widely used in modern optical systems because of high specific stiffness and high reflectance. Magnetorheological finishing (MRF) provides a highly deterministic technology for high precision aluminum optics fabrication. However, the contamination layer will generate on the surface and bring difficulties for the subsequent processes, which highly limit the fabrication efficiency and precision. Read More

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Rock-breaking performances of innovative triangular-shaped polycrystalline diamond compact cutter.

Rev Sci Instrum 2021 Mar;92(3):035115

State Key Laboratory of Shale Oil and Gas Enrichment Mechanisms and Effective Development, Beijing 102206, China.

Due to high hardness and high abrasion, conventional planar polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters can easily get broken and dull when drilling in (ultra-)deep formations. To enhance the drilling performance, an innovative kind of non-planar PDC cutter, namely, a triangular-shaped PDC cutter, has been developed by altering the 2D planar cutting face into a 3D cutting structure of a triangular trustum of a pyramid. According to the numerical simulation results, the triangular-shaped PDC cutter can easily break hard rocks by a smaller cutting force than the conventional planar PDC cutter. Read More

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Growth, spectral, optical, electrical and computational analysis of sodium oxalate single crystals.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 21;7(3):e06527. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, St Berchmans College (Autonomous), Changanassery, 686101, Kerala, India.

Single crystals of Sodium Oxalate (SO) were grown by adopting the slow evaporation solution growth approach from aqueous solution. The prominent functional groups seen in the SO crystal were distinctly detected with Fourier transform infrared and FT-Raman spectral analysis. The cut-off wavelength of 230 nm was measured using Ultraviolet -visible spectral analysis. Read More

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Effect of addition of dried potato pulp on selected quality characteristics of shortcrust pastry cookies.

Open Life Sci 2020 7;15(1):735-741. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Food Storage and Technology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland.

Potato pulp is a nuisance waste from the production of potato starch, containing large amounts of dietary fiber; therefore, addition of the pulp to food may have a positive effect on the nutritional value of food products. To increase the amount of dietary fiber, shortcrust pastry cookies were baked by replacing some of the flour (20-100%) with an equivalent amount of dried potato pulp. In all the tested variants, correct confectionery products were obtained. Read More

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October 2020

Effect of FibroScan test in antiviral therapy for HBV-infected patients with ALT <2 upper limit of normal.

Open Life Sci 2020 22;15(1):418-422. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

Objective: The objective of this study is to detect the liver stiffness of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients with an alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level of <2 upper limit of normal (2ULN) by FibroScan and compare histological changes to assess the progression of liver lesions and its test results.

Methods: There were 36 patients who had a liver FibroScan degree of >7.3 KD (F1), and a liver biopsy was conducted. Read More

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