25,092 results match your criteria hardness

Color Stability and Mechanical Properties of Two Commonly Used Silicone Elastomers with e-Skin and Reality Coloring Systems.

Int J Prosthodont 2021 Mar-Apr;34(2):204-211

Purpose: To evaluate the color stability and mechanical properties of two commonly used maxillofacial silicone elastomers after addition of pigments and opacifiers and before and after artificial aging.

Materials And Methods: This study evaluated two maxillofacial silicone elastomers: A-2000 and M511. Two different pigment and opacifier systems (e-Skin and Reality Series) were used with the elastomers. Read More

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Quantification of penile fat infiltration using the mDIXON quant sequence: a pilot study on the correlation with penis hardness and erectile dysfunction.

Br J Radiol 2021 Apr 21:20201400. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine fat/water signal ratios using the mDIXON Quant sequence, quantitatively assess fat infiltration in the penis, and explore its possible relationship with penile hardness and erectile dysfunction.

Methods: Routine pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with the mDIXON Quant sequence was performed in 62 subjects, including 22 people in the normal group, 20 people in the normal erectile hardness group, and 20 people in the ED group. The fat/water signal ratio in the penis was measured using the mDIXON Quant sequence. Read More

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The Potential of a Bioactive, Pre-reacted, Glass-Ionomer Filler Resin Composite to Inhibit the Demineralization of Enamel in Vitro.

Oper Dent 2021 Jan;46(1):E11-E20

Clinical Relevance: A prereacted, glass-ionomer filler fluoride-containing resin composite had lower remineralization potential than glass-ionomer cements but was able to inhibit enamel demineralization; thus, it may be an option for restoring dental surfaces for patients at high risk of caries.

Summary: Evidence is lacking on the use of surface prereacted glass-ionomer filler resin composites to inhibit demineralization and that simulate real clinical conditions. The present laboratory study evaluated the potential of such composites to prevent demineralization and quantified fluoride (F) and other ions released from restorative materials after a dynamic pH-cycling regimen applied to the tooth material interface in vitro. Read More

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January 2021

[Preparation and evaluation of fused deposition modeling 3D printed verapa-mil hydrochloride gastric floating formulations].

Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;53(2):348-354

Department of Pharmaceutics, Beijing Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmaceutics and New Drug Delivery Systems, Peking University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Beijing 100191, China.

Objective: To explore the feasibility of preparing gastric floating formulations by fused de-position modeling (FDM) 3D printing technology, to evaluate the properties of the prepared FDM 3D printed gastric floating formulations, and to compare the influence of different external shapes of the formulation with their properties.

Methods: Verapamil hydrochloride and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the model drug and the excipient, respectively. The capsule-shaped and hemisphere-shaped gastric floating formulations were then prepared by FDM 3D printing. Read More

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Evaluation of aesthetic outcomes of breast-conserving surgery by the surgeon, nurse, and patients: An analysis.

Asian J Surg 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama City, Kanagawa, 236-0004, Japan.

Background: Evaluation of the cosmetic outcome after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) differs depending on the evaluator. We performed a clinical trial to examine the differences between assessments of cosmetic outcomes performed by a surgeon, patients, and a nurse as a third party after BCS; the evaluation was performed two times (at 3 months and 9 months after surgery). Similarly, we identified factors most significantly affecting the overall cosmetic outcomes. Read More

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Effect of co-precipitation plus spray-drying of nano-CaF on mechanical and fluoride properties of nanocomposite.

Dent Mater 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Advanced Oral Sciences and Therapeutics, School of Dentistry, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21021, USA; Center for Stem Cell Biology & Regenerative Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA; Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 21201, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Fluoride (F)-releasing restoratives typically are either weak mechanically or release only low levels of F ions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel photo-cured nanocomposite with strong mechanical properties and high levels of sustained F ion release via a two-step "co-precipitation + spray-drying" technique to synthesize CaF nanoparticles (nCaF); and (2) investigate the effect of spray-drying treatment after co-precipitation of nCaF on mechanical properties and F ion release of composite.

Methods: Two types of CaF particles were synthesized: A co-precipitation method yielded CaFcp; "co-precipitation + spray-drying" yielded nCaFcpsd. Read More

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Evaluation of cooking performance, structural properties, storage stability and shelf life prediction of high-moisture wet starch noodles.

Food Chem 2021 Apr 5;357:129744. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Glycomics and Glycan Bioengineering Research Center, College of Food Science &Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, PR China. Electronic address:

Cooking performance, micro- and molecular structure, storage stability and shelf-life prediction of high-moisture wet starch noodles (SN) were investigated. SEM images revealed that compared to dried SN, cooked wet SN had more evenly honeycomb-like network with smaller size of pores, indicating stronger interaction among molecules and causing favorable cooking performance. XRD and ATR-FTIR results evidenced that wet SN contained more complete crystallites and higher proportion of crystalline region. Read More

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Cress seed gum improves rheological, textural and physicochemical properties of native wheat starch-sucrose mixture.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 17. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Food Hydrocolloids Research Center, Department of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, PO Box: 91775-1163, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

In this paper, the impact of different substitution levels of cress seed gum (CSG, 0, 5, 10, and 15%) and sucrose (SUC, 0, 5, and 10%) on the rheological properties, textural attributes, syneresis, FTIR and microstructure of native wheat starch (NWS, 4%) gel was investigated. According to the rheological tests, the NWS-CSG and NWS-CSG-SUC gels showed thixotropic behavior and all the samples exhibited shear-thinning flow behavior. Increasing the CSG substitution level up to 15% elevated the apparent viscosity, consistency coefficient whereas the SUC substitution with NWS reduced these values. Read More

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Length-scale-dependent stress relief mechanisms in indium at high homologous temperatures.

J Mater Res 2021 Apr 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 USA.

Nanoindentation and electron microscopy have been used to examine the length-scale-dependent stress relaxation mechanisms in well-annealed, high-purity indium at a homologous temperature of 0.69. The experimental methods, analysis, and observations serve as a stepping stone in identifying the stress relaxation mechanisms enabling the formation and growth of metallic dendrites originating at the buried interface between a metallic anode and a solid electrolyte separator. Read More

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Development and Characteristics of Multipurpose Transparent Polyurethane Film.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):5222-5228

ICT Device Packaging Research Center, Korea Electronics Technology Institute (KETI), Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, 13509, Korea.

In industry, recent research developments include flexible films and foldable films. The next step is the development of stretchable films, and studies are being intensively carried out. Research on the development of stretchable and transparent materials is also increasing greatly. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Acid Beverage on the Microhardness of Primary Tooth Enamel In Vitro.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2021 Jan;88(1):11-16

Dr. Borsatto is a professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil;, Email:

To assess the effects of a soft drink, a soybean-based apple juice and strawberry juice on the superficial and deep microhardness of primary tooth enamel.
Sixty primary teeth were divided according to the beverages and a control group (artificial saliva). Immersion cycles were carried out under agitation (five minutes three times a day over 60 days). Read More

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January 2021

Thermochemical Properties and Growth Mechanism of the Ag-Doped Germanium Clusters, AgGe with = 1-13 and λ = -1, 0, and +1.

Bin Liu Jucai Yang

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 31;6(14):9813-9827. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

School of Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry Simulation, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot 010051, People's Republic of China.

A systematic investigation of the silver-doped germanium clusters AgGe with = 1-13 in the neutral, anionic, and cationic states is performed using the unbiased global search technique combined with a double-density functional scheme. The lowest-energy minima of the clusters are identified based on calculated energies and measured photoelectron spectra (PES). Total atomization energies and thermochemical properties such as electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IP), binding energy, hardness, and highest occupied molecular orbital-lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO-LUMO) gap are obtained and compared with those of pure germanium clusters. Read More

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Impact of short-term heat treatment on the structure and functional properties of commercial furcellaran compared to commercial carrageenans.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 8;7(4):e06640. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Tallinn University of Technology (TTU), Akadeemia tee 15, 12618, Tallinn, Estonia.

In the production of biopolymers, the processing operations (e.g. extraction and drying) involve some degradation of the polysaccharide-causing structural and functional changes in final products. Read More

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Bilateral retrocorneal hyaline scrolls secondary to asymptomatic congenital syphilis: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Apr;9(10):2274-2280

Department of Ophthalmology, Zhejiang Provincial Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Hangzhou 310003, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Retrocorneal hyaline scrolls are a rare phenomenon. We report a case of bilateral retrocorneal hyaline scrolls that were likely induced by asymptomatic congenital syphilis.

Case Summary: A 71-year-old woman presented with blurred vision due to cataracts. Read More

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Influences of extrusion parameters on physicochemical properties of textured vegetable proteins and its meatless burger patty.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Mar 19;30(3):395-403. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Food Science and Technology, Food and Feed Research Center, Kongju National University, Daehakro 54, Yesan, Chungnam 32439 Republic of Korea.

Isolated soy protein, wheat gluten, and starch at ratio 5:4:1 were texturized under different moisture contents (40 and 50%) and die temperature (130 and 150 °C) by the twin-screw extruder. Physicochemical properties were firstly studied. These textured vegetable proteins (TVPs) were used to form 100% plant-based burger patties. Read More

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Dietary isoleucine improved flesh quality, muscle antioxidant capacity, and muscle growth associated with AKT/TOR/S6K1 and AKT/FOXO3a signaling in hybrid bagrid catfish (Pelteobagrus vachelli♀ × Leiocassis longirostris♂).

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Apr 19;12(1):53. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China.

Background: Muscle is the complex and heterogeneous tissue, which comprises the primary edible part of the trunk of fish and mammals. Previous studies have shown that dietary isoleucine (Ile) exerts beneficial effects on growth in aquatic animals. However, there were limited studies regarding the benefits of Ile on fish muscle and their effects on flesh quality and muscle growth. Read More

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Multi-scale design of the chela of the hermit crab Coenobita brevimanus.

Acta Biomater 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

CAS Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China. Electronic address:

The chela of the hermit crab protects its body against the attack from predators. Yet, a deep understanding of this mechanical defense is still lacking. Here, we investigate the chela of hermit crab, Coenobita brevimanus, and establish the relationships between the microstructures, chemical compositions and mechanical properties to gain insights into its biomechanical functions. Read More

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Scleredema diabeticorum in a patient: un uncommon etiology of restrictive lung pattern Escleredema diabeticorum en un paciente: una etiología infrecuente de patrón restrictivo pulmonar.

Dermatol Online J 2021 Mar 15;27(3). Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Dermatology, Hospital General Universitario de Ciudad Real, Ciudad Real.

Scleredema adultorum of Buschke is a rare skin disease characterized by skin thickening and tightening typically at the neck and the upper part of the body. This thickening results from increased mucin deposition in the reticular dermis. Three variants are recognized. Read More

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Comparative study on the gel properties and nanostructures of gelatins from chicken, porcine, and tilapia skin.

J Food Sci 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Food Science & Technology, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117542, Singapore.

To clarify the feasibility of replacing commercial gelatin with chicken skin gelatin, we investigated the gel properties and nanostructures of chicken skin gelatin (CG), commercial porcine skin gelatin (PG), and tilapia skin gelatin (FG). Compared with PG and FG, CG exhibited the better gel strength, hardness, chewiness, melting point, gelling temperature, and thermostability. The different physicochemical properties of CG might be caused by its higher imino acid content (25. Read More

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Effect of different manipulations on the physical, chemical and microstructural characteristics of Biodentine.

Dent Mater 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Objective: The water to powder ratio and method of mixing is important for the properties of hydraulic cements. For this purpose a number of clinicians prefer premixed materials. Dental manufacturing companies provide predosed materials, however the manufacturer instructions are not always adhered to. Read More

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Increased tissue-level storage modulus and hardness with age in male cortical bone and its association with decreased fracture toughness.

Bone 2021 Apr 14;148:115949. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Center for Bone Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA; Department of Veterans Affairs, Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, TN 37212, USA. Electronic address:

The incidence of bone fracture increases with age, due to both declining bone quantity and quality. Toward the goal of an improved understanding of the causes of the age-related decline in the fracture toughness of male cortical bone, nanoindentation experiments were performed on femoral diaphysis specimens from men aged 21-98 years. Because aged bone has less matrix-bound water and dry bone is less viscoelastic, we used a nanoindentation method that is sensitive to changes in viscoelasticity. Read More

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Impact of municipal solid waste disposal on the surface water and sediment of adjoining wetland Deepor Beel in Guwahati, Assam, India.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Apr 16;193(5):278. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Resource Management and Environment Section, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST), Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati, 781035, Assam, India.

The municipal solid waste (MSW) dump in Boragaon, Guwahati, lies on the fringe areas of the wetland, Deepor Beel, which is a Ramsar site. The study was undertaken to analyze the impact the solid waste dump has on the adjoining wetland. Five sampling locations (S1, S2, S3, S4 and S5) in the wetland were selected within a distance of 3000 m from the MSW dump for the continuous monitoring of the surface water and sediment of the wetland. Read More

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The sensory, physical and nutritional quality profiles of purple sweet potato and soy-based snack bars for pregnant women.

J Public Health Res 2021 Apr 14;10(2). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang.

Background: The deficiency of energy, protein, and other beneficial nutrients during pregnancy causes chronic energy deficiency (CED). This condition increases the chance of having babies with low birth weight (LBW) and various other health problems. To meet these nutritional needs, supplementary feeding is necessary in the form of snack bar, using local food ingredients, such as purple sweet potatoes and soybeans (PSPS). Read More

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Tactile Avatar: Tactile Sensing System Mimicking Human Tactile Cognition.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2021 04 8;8(7):2002362. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Information and Communication Engineering Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science & Technology (DGIST) Daegu 711-873 Korea.

As a surrogate for human tactile cognition, an artificial tactile perception and cognition system are proposed to produce smooth/soft and rough tactile sensations by its user's tactile feeling; and named this system as "tactile avatar". A piezoelectric tactile sensor is developed to record dynamically various physical information such as pressure, temperature, hardness, sliding velocity, and surface topography. For artificial tactile cognition, the tactile feeling of humans to various tactile materials ranging from smooth/soft to rough are assessed and found variation among participants. Read More

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A novel CAD/CAM resin composite block with high mechanical properties.

Dent Mater 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Glidewell Dental, Irvine, CA, USA.

Objective: To determine the mechanical properties of a newly-developed CAD/CAM resin composite block and compare with other resin composite blocks and a polymer-infiltrated ceramic block.

Methods: Experimental composite block was formulated by our proprietary resin and filler technologies and cured via Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). Bar-shaped specimens (1 × 4×12 - 13 mm, n = 10) for flexural strength, flexural modulus and modulus of resilience were sectioned from block materials and measured in accordance to modified ISO-6872. Read More

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Imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality of Bagmati river basin, Nepal.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 10;289:112522. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Central Department of Environmental Science, Institute of Science and Technology, Tribhuvan University, Nepal.

COVID-19 pandemic has caused profound impacts on human life and the environment including freshwater ecosystems globally. Despite the various impacts, the pandemic has improved the quality of the environment and thereby creating an opportunity to restore the degraded ecosystems. This study presents the imprints of COVID-19 lockdown on the surface water quality and chemical characteristics of the urban-based Bagmati River Basin (BRB), Nepal. Read More

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Comparison of Multiple Linear Regression and Biotic Ligand Models to Predict the Toxicity of Nickel to Aquatic Freshwater Organisms.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

NiPERA, Durham, NC, 27713.

Toxicity modifying factors can either be modeled empirically with linear regression models or mechanistically, such as with the Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). The primary factors affecting the toxicity of nickel to aquatic organisms are hardness, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and pH. Interactions between these terms were also considered. Read More

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Development of a sensitive direct injection LC-MS/MS method for the detection of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in hard waters.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, 121 Hudson Hall, Box 90287, Durham, NC, 27708-0287, USA.

Glyphosate is currently the most widely used herbicide in the world; however, the zwitterionic and highly polar properties of glyphosate make current pesticide analysis methods unsuitable for its trace analysis in natural waters. Additionally, current glyphosate analysis methods do not account for waters of varying hardness, which is vital as glyphosate can complex with cationic species such as Ca and Mg in the environment. We detail here a robust LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of glyphosate and its primary transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in environmental waters of varying water hardness. Read More

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Establishing a novel method for assessing elasticity of internal anal sphincter using ultrasonic real-time tissue elastography.

ANZ J Surg 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Surgical Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Evaluating anorectal function using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) has not been reported. A previous study reported that in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) of surgical specimens of patients with rectal cancer who underwent abdominoperineal resection, there was an increased fibrosis trend in those who underwent pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) compared with non-CRT. We speculated that CRT might have induced sclerosis of the IAS because of fibrosis. Read More

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