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LDLR expression in the cochlea suggests a role in endolymph homeostasis and cochlear amplification.

Hear Res 2021 Jul 15;409:108311. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

GIGA-Neurosciences, Unit of Cell and Tissue Biology, University of Liège, C.H.U. B36, B-4000 Liège, Belgium. Electronic address:

There is now growing evidence that hypercholesterolemia and high serum levels of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) predispose to sensorineural hearing loss. Circulating LDL-cholesterol is delivered to peripheral tissues via LDL receptor (LDLR) -mediated endocytosis. Recently, it has been shown that LDLR gene polymorphisms are associated with higher susceptibility to sudden deafness. Read More

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[Alopecia and cancers: From basics to clinical practice].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

CHU de Nîmes, Service d'Oncologie Médicale, 4, rue du Professeur Robert Debré, 30900 Nîmes, France; Université de Montpellier, UFR de Médecine Montpellier-Nîmes, 186, chemin du Carreau de Lanes, 30900 Nîmes, France; UMR Inserm IDESP Institut Desbrest d'Épidémiologie et de Santé Publique, Université de Montpellier, 641, avenue du Doyen Gaston Giraud, 34093 Montpellier, France.

Alopecia, although long considered an unavoidable consequence of cancer therapy, currently presents a multifaceted challenge. The knowledge of the physiology of the hair and consequently of the pathophysiology of alopecia has led to show that there is not one but several types of alopecia. Transposed to the world of oncology, different types of alopecia and subsequently molecular pathways have been characterized, allowing a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Read More

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[Clinical effects of fine follicular unit extraction and transplantation in repairing cicatricial eyebrow defects].

Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi 2021 Jul;37(7):661-665

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China.

To observe the clinical effects of fine follicular unit extraction (FUE) and transplantation in repairing cicatricial eyebrow defects. The retrospective observational study was conducted. From September 2013 to January 2020, 58 patients (36 males and 22 females, aged 12-40 years) underwent fine FUE and transplantation to treat cicatricial eyebrow defects in the First Affiliated Hospital of Air Force Medical University. Read More

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The Dynamic Change of Gene-Regulated Networks in Cashmere Goat Skin with Seasonal Variation.

Biochem Genet 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University for Nationalities, Tongliao, 028000, China.

The Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) is renowned for its high-quality fiber production trait. The hair cycle in Cashmere goat has an annual rhythm. To deepen the understanding of the molecular foundation of annual rhythm in the skin of Cashmere goat, we did a comparative analysis of the Cashmere goat skin transcriptome all year round. Read More

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Agarose Micro-Well Platform for Rapid Generation of Homogenous 3D Tumor Spheroids.

Curr Protoc 2021 Jul;1(7):e199

Department of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India.

In recent years, 3D culture of tumor spheroids has managed to revolutionize cancer research and drug discovery. 2D monolayer cells grown in cell culture flasks undergo radical changes in cell behavior, structure, and function owing to varying environmental cues and are unable to provide predictive data for preclinical evaluation. 3D tumor spheroids can better recapitulate tumor architecture, cell-cell and cell-matrix connectivity, and the tissue complexity of tumors grown in animal models. Read More

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HOME vs. LAB hair samples for the determination of long-term steroid concentrations: a comparison between hair samples collected by laypersons and trained research staff.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Hair segment analysis is a valuable tool for the assessment of cumulative long-term steroid secretion. Preliminary findings suggest comparable cortisol concentrations in hair collected by instructed laypersons and research staff. However, it remains unclear whether hair sample quality and hair steroids other than cortisol are affected by level of experience (laypersons vs. Read More

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EEG/ERP as a pragmatic method to expand the reach of infant-toddler neuroimaging in HBCD: Promises and challenges.

Dev Cogn Neurosci 2021 Jul 14;51:100988. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, United States; Institute for Innovations in Developmental Sciences, Northwestern University, United States.

Though electrophysiological measures (EEG and ERP) offer complementary information to MRI and a variety of advantages for studying infants and young children, these measures have not yet been included in large cohort studies of neurodevelopment. This review summarizes the types of EEG and ERP measures that could be used in the HEALthy Brain and Cognitive Development (HBCD) study, and the promises and challenges in doing so. First, we provide brief overview of the use of EEG/ERP for studying the developing brain and discuss exemplar findings, using resting or baseline EEG measures as well as the ERP mismatch negativity (MMN) as exemplars. Read More

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Defining a role for GPCR/cAMP/Creb signaling in HFSC activation.

J Invest Dermatol 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Molecular Biology Institute, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095; Department of Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095; Division of Dermatology, DGSOM, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095; Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095; Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095. Electronic address:

Manipulation of adrenergic signaling has been shown experimentally and clinically to affect hair follicle growth. Here we provide direct evidence that canonical cAMP/Creb signaling through adrenergic receptors can regulate HFSC activation and the hair cycle. We found that Creb activation is regulated through the hair cycle and coincides with HFSC activation. Read More

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The application of label-free imaging technologies in transdermal research for deeper mechanism revealing.

Asian J Pharm Sci 2021 May 24;16(3):265-279. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China.

The penetration behavior of topical substances in the skin not only relates to the transdermal delivery efficiency but also involves the safety and therapeutic effect of topical products, such as sunscreen and hair growth products. Researchers have tried to illustrate the transdermal process with diversified theories and technologies. Directly observing the distribution of topical substances on skin by characteristic imaging is the most convincing approach. Read More

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POU4F3 pioneer activity enables ATOH1 to drive diverse mechanoreceptor differentiation through a feed-forward epigenetic mechanism.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Jul;118(29)

Department of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Eli and Edythe Broad Center for Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology at University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90033;

During embryonic development, hierarchical cascades of transcription factors interact with lineage-specific chromatin structures to control the sequential steps in the differentiation of specialized cell types. While examples of transcription factor cascades have been well documented, the mechanisms underlying developmental changes in accessibility of cell type-specific enhancers remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the transcriptional "master regulator" ATOH1-which is necessary for the differentiation of two distinct mechanoreceptor cell types, hair cells in the inner ear and Merkel cells of the epidermis-is unable to access much of its target enhancer network in the progenitor populations of either cell type when it first appears, imposing a block to further differentiation. Read More

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Cell wall damage attenuates root hair patterning and tissue morphogenesis mediated by the receptor kinase STRUBBELIG.

Development 2021 Jul 12;148(14). Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Plant Developmental Biology, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany.

Cell wall remodeling is essential for the control of growth and development as well as the regulation of stress responses. However, the underlying cell wall monitoring mechanisms remain poorly understood. Regulation of root hair fate and flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana requires signaling mediated by the atypical receptor kinase STRUBBELIG (SUB). Read More

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Cortical Activation to Social and Mechanical Stimuli in the Infant Brain.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 24;15:510030. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Psychological & Brain Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, United States.

From the early days of life infants distinguish between social and non-social physical entities and have different expectations for the way these two entities should move and interact. At the same time, we know very little about the cortical systems that support this early emerging ability. The goal of the current research was to assess the extent to which infant's processing of social and non-social physical entities is mediated by distinct information processing systems in the temporal cortex. Read More

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Registration status, mercury exposure biomarkers, and neuropsychological assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold miners (ASGM) from the Western Region of Ghana.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 7;201:111639. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, USA; Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

The artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) sector is estimated to be the largest anthropogenic source of mercury pollution worldwide, and not surprisingly human exposures in this sector are amongst the highest of all population groups. While formalization of the sector has been proposed as a solution to help improve health and safety within ASGM sites, there are few empirical studies in support of this notion. The objective of this study was to assess if individuals working in ASGM sites that are registered have reduced mercury exposures and better neuropsychological scores than workers from unregistered sites. Read More

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Platelet Rich Plasma Hybridized Adipose Transplant (PHAT) for the Treatment of Hair Loss: A Case Series.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

USC, 1500 Soto street, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has long been used for the restoration of hair in conjunction with microneedling or on its own. Fat grafting to the scalp has also been utilized in the past to improve the quality of hair and the possibility of successful hair transplant. The novel therapy reported in this case series combines the natural progression of these two techniques and utilizes synergistic effects to improve the quality of hair, either in preparation for micrografting or without hair transplant. Read More

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Characterization of Individual Projections Reveal That Neuromasts of the Zebrafish Lateral Line are Innervated by Multiple Inhibitory Efferent Cells.

Front Neuroanat 2021 21;15:666109. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

The zebrafish lateral line is a sensory system used to detect changes in water flow. It is comprized of clusters of superficial hair cells called neuromasts. Modulation occurs via excitatory and inhibitory efferent neurons located in the brain. Read More

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Human deafness-associated variants alter the dynamics of key molecules in hair cell stereocilia F-actin cores.

Hum Genet 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, Room 1F-143A, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

Stereocilia protrude up to 100 µm from the apical surface of vertebrate inner ear hair cells and are packed with cross-linked filamentous actin (F-actin). They function as mechanical switches to convert sound vibration into electrochemical neuronal signals transmitted to the brain. Several genes encode molecular components of stereocilia including actin monomers, actin regulatory and bundling proteins, motor proteins and the proteins of the mechanotransduction complex. Read More

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Sensorineural Hearing Loss and Mitochondrial Apoptosis of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons in Fibroblast Growth Factor 13 Knockout Mice.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 16;15:658586. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

The Key Laboratory of Neural and Vascular Biology, Ministry of Education, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Deafness is known to occur in more than 400 syndromes and accounts for almost 30% of hereditary hearing loss. The molecular mechanisms underlying such syndromic deafness remain unclear. Furthermore, deafness has been a common feature in patients with three main syndromes, the BÖrjeson-Forssman-Lehmann syndrome, Wildervanck syndrome, and Congenital Generalized Hirsutism, all of which are characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene. Read More

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Detection and kinetic simulation of animal hair/wool wastes pyrolysis toward high-efficiency and sustainable management.

Waste Manag 2021 Jun 30;131:305-312. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Clothing Materials R&D and Assessment, Beijing Engineering Research Center of Textile Nano Fiber, Beijing Institute of Fashion Technology, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China; Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Soft Matter Science and Engineering, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, Beijing Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Process and Technology for Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Large quantities of solid wastes are produced each year in the leather industry. The considerable wastes generated exhibit tremendous application potential in terms of renewable energy sources and functional materials. Among them, animal hair/wool wastes possess high carbon content, which can be used sustainably and efficiently by using pyrolysis. Read More

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Levels of GHB in hair after regular application.

Forensic Sci Int 2021 Aug 24;325:110885. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, Justus Liebig University Giessen, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a central nervous system depressant that is an approved drug for the treatment of narcolepsy with cataplexy and other syndromes. Due to its dose dependent stimulating, relaxing or sedative effects, illicit abuses include recreational use by young people and cases of drug-facilitated crime (DFC). Since GHB is also produced endogenously, for forensic questions, it is important to be able to differentiate between endogenous GHB and elevated levels due to additional intake. Read More

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A Comprehensive Literature Review of JAK Inhibitors in Treatment of Alopecia Areata.

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 25;14:691-714. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pharmacology, St. George's University School of Medicine, True Blue, Grenada.

Alopecia areata (AA) is a chronic, immune-mediated form of nonscarring alopecia that is multifactorial and results in localized patches. It is often described as a self-limiting condition that results in the spontaneous regrowth of hair in most cases. However, this regrowth may take several months or years to occur in some patients, leading to the development of psychoemotional trauma in those that are affected. Read More

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Intracochlear distortion products are broadly generated by outer hair cells but their contributions to otoacoustic emissions are spatially restricted.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 1;11(1):13651. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

GWW School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Detection of low-level sounds by the mammalian cochlea requires electromechanical feedback from outer hair cells (OHCs). This feedback arises due to the electromotile response of OHCs, which is driven by the modulation of their receptor potential caused by the stimulation of mechano-sensitive ion channels. Nonlinearity in these channels distorts impinging sounds, creating distortion-products that are detectable in the ear canal as distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs). Read More

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Identification of Cilia in Different Mouse Tissues.

Cells 2021 Jun 29;10(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Department of Basic and Translational Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Cilia are microtubule-based hair-like organelles that extend from the cell surface. However, the existence and distribution of cilia in each organ and tissue at the postnatal stage in vivo remain largely unknown. In this study, we defined cilia distribution and arrangement and measured the ciliary lengths and the percentage of ciliated cells in different organs and tissues in vivo by using cilium dual reporter-expressing transgenic mice. Read More

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Molecular pathology of skin adnexal tumors.

Histopathology 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Pathology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, MI, USA.

Aims: Tumors of the cutaneous adnexa arise from, or differentiate toward, structures in normal skin such as hair follicles, sweat ducts/glands, sebaceous glands, or a combination of these elements. This class of neoplasms includes benign tumors and highly aggressive carcinomas. Adnexal tumors often present as solitary sporadic lesions, but can herald the presence of an inherited tumor syndrome such as Muir-Torre Syndrome, Cowden Syndrome, or CYLD Cutaneous Syndrome. Read More

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Key Signaling Pathways Regulate the Development and Survival of Auditory Hair Cells.

Neural Plast 2021 11;2021:5522717. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tianjin First Central Hospital, 300192 Tianjin, China.

The loss of auditory sensory hair cells (HCs) is the most common cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). As the main sound transmission structure in the cochlea, it is necessary to maintain the normal shape and survival of HCs. In this review, we described and summarized the signaling pathways that regulate the development and survival of auditory HCs in SNHL. Read More

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Integration of a single-step genome-wide association study with a multi-tissue transcriptome analysis provides novel insights into the genetic basis of wool and weight traits in sheep.

Genet Sel Evol 2021 Jun 30;53(1):56. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

Background: Genetic improvement of wool and growth traits is a major goal in the sheep industry, but their underlying genetic architecture remains elusive. To improve our understanding of these mechanisms, we conducted a weighted single-step genome-wide association study (WssGWAS) and then integrated the results with large-scale transcriptome data for five wool traits and one growth trait in Merino sheep: mean fibre diameter (MFD), coefficient of variation of the fibre diameter (CVFD), crimp number (CN), mean staple length (MSL), greasy fleece weight (GFW), and live weight (LW).

Results: Our dataset comprised 7135 individuals with phenotype data, among which 1217 had high-density (HD) genotype data (n = 372,534). Read More

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Phytochemistry, pharmacological activity, and potential health benefits of .

Heliyon 2021 Jun 7;7(6):e07240. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, 1000, Bangladesh.

Nature has always been an excellent source for many therapeutic compounds providing us with many medicinal plants and microorganisms producing beneficial chemicals. Therefore, the demand for medicinal plants, cosmetics, and health products is always on the rise. One such plant from the Leguminosae family is licorice and the scientific name is Linn. Read More

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Analysis of hair steroid hormones in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: comparison with two immunoassays and application for longitudinal monitoring in zoos.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Sep 26;310:113837. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Institute for Terrestrial and Aquatic Wildlife Research (ITAW), University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Bischofsholer Damm 15, 30173 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) is a promising method for monitoring long-term stress in mammals. However, previous measurements of HCCs in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have yielded highly variable results, which are likely due to different methodological approaches. In this study, hair samples of zoo-housed polar bears were analyzed for cortisol with two independent immunoassays [an enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) and a chemiluminescence assay (CLIA)] and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Read More

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September 2021

Amplitude Growth Functions of Auditory Nerve Responses to Electric Pulse Stimulation With Varied Interphase Gaps in Cochlear Implant Users With Ipsilateral Residual Hearing.

Trends Hear 2021 Jan-Dec;25:23312165211014137

Clinic for Otorhinolaryngology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Amplitude growth functions (AGFs) of electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) with varying interphase gaps (IPGs) were measured in cochlear implant users with ipsilateral residual hearing (electric-acoustic stimulation [EAS]). It was hypothesized that IPG effects on AGFs provide an objective measure to estimate neural health. This hypothesis was tested in EAS users, as residual low-frequency hearing might imply survival of hair cells and hence better neural health in apical compared to basal cochlear regions. Read More

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Gene editing in a Myo6 semi-dominant mouse model rescues auditory function.

Mol Ther 2021 Jun 23. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

ENT Institute and Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Eye & ENT Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology and MOE Frontiers Center for Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, China; Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China; NHC Key Laboratory of Hearing Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200031, China. Electronic address:

Myosin VI is an unconventional myosin that is vital for auditory and vestibular function. Pathogenic variants in the human MYO6 gene cause autosomal dominant or recessive forms of hearing loss. Effective treatments for Myo6 mutation causing hearing loss are limited. Read More

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Lead uptake into calcified and keratinized compartments of horns from a convenience sample of lead-dosed goats.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2021 Sep 25;84(18):729-742. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

New York State Department of Health, Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY USA.

Hair and/or nail analyses are sometimes used in biomonitoring studies due to the convenience of sample collection, storage, and transport, as well as the potential to assess past exposures to toxic metals, such as lead (Pb). However, the validity of Pb measurements in these keratinized matrices as biomarkers of absorbed dose remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the uptake of Pb into horns harvested from 11 goats that received a cumulative oral dose of up to 151 g Pb acetate over a period of 1-11 years as part of a long-term blood Pb proficiency testing program. Read More

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September 2021