30 results match your criteria habitual casual

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Steering clear: Traffic violations among emerging adults who engage in habitual or casual cannabis use.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Apr 1;153:106059. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada. Electronic address:

While some research has shown that cannabis use can impair driving ability, evidence to the degree and impact of impairment are lacking. This study examined the association between habitual or casual cannabis use and past-year traffic violations among emerging adults (EAs). Data come from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health. Read More

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Is sleep deficit associated with infertility and recurrent pregnancy losses? Results from a prospective cohort study.

Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2021 02 24;100(2):302-313. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Complete Fertility Centre, Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton, UK.

Introduction: Biological rhythms, the innate cycle of changes in the body's physiological functions, are circadian if they have a 24-hour period. It is known that sleep is a key feature of human circadian rhythm but the relation between sleep and female fertility is largely unknown. This paucity of research is surprising given that circadian rhythms are paramount to human physiology and sleep is related to major female reproductive events. Read More

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February 2021

Upward resetting of the vascular sympathetic baroreflex in middle-aged male runners.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2019 07 3;317(1):H181-H189. Epub 2019 May 3.

Physical Activity for Health and Well-Being Centre, School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University , Bangor , United Kingdom.

This study focused on the influence of habitual endurance exercise training (i.e., committed runner or nonrunner) on the regulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial pressure in middle-aged (50 to 63 yr, = 23) and younger (19 to 30 yr; = 23) normotensive men. Read More

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Coffee with High but Not Low Caffeine Content Augments Fluid and Electrolyte Excretion at Rest.

Front Nutr 2017 18;4:40. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Hydration Science Laboratory, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States.

Background: Low levels of caffeine ingestion do not induce dehydration at rest, while it is not clear if larger doses do have an acute diuretic effect. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the acute effect of low and high levels of caffeine, coffee, on fluid balance in habitual coffee drinkers (at least one per day) at rest.

Methods: Ten healthy adults (eight males and two females; age: 27 ± 5 years, weight: 89. Read More

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Sex differences in addiction.

Authors:
Jill B Becker

Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2016 12;18(4):395-402

Department of Psychology, Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience Institute, University of Michigan.

Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Read More

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December 2016

Daily walking decreases casual glucose level among pregnant women in the second trimester.

Drug Discov Ther 2016;10(4):218-22

Department of Midwifery and Women's Health, Division of Health Sciences & Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo.

The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and the number of steps walked daily, as evaluated by accelerometer, among Japanese women in the second trimester of pregnancy. This longitudinal study was conducted at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan, from August 2012 to January 2013. Healthy pregnant women at 14 to 18 gestational weeks were recruited. Read More

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February 2017

The evaluation of inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers on coffee-diabetes association: results from the 10-year follow-up of the ATTICA Study (2002-2012).

Eur J Clin Nutr 2015 Nov 1;69(11):1220-5. Epub 2015 Jul 1.

First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background/objectives: The purpose of this work was to investigate the association between coffee drinking and diabetes development and potential mediation by oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers.

Subjects/methods: In 2001-2002, a random sample of 1514 men (18-87 years old) and 1528 women (18-89 years old) were selected to participate in the ATTICA study (Athens metropolitan area, Greece). A validated food-frequency questionnaire was used to assess coffee drinking (abstention, casual, habitual) and other lifestyle and dietary factors. Read More

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November 2015

Corticostriatal circuitry and habitual ethanol seeking.

Alcohol 2015 Dec 14;49(8):817-24. Epub 2015 May 14.

Department of Neuroscience, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA.

The development of alcohol-use disorders is thought to involve a transition from casual alcohol use to uncontrolled alcohol-seeking behavior. This review will highlight evidence suggesting that the shift toward inflexible alcohol seeking that occurs across the development of addiction consists, in part, of a progression from goal-directed to habitual behaviors. This shift in "response strategy" is thought to be largely regulated by corticostriatal network activity. Read More

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December 2015

Age of acquisition and imageability norms for base and morphologically complex words in English and in Spanish.

Behav Res Methods 2016 Mar;48(1):349-65

Department of Psychology, Universidad de La Laguna, San Cristobal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.

The extent to which processing words involves breaking them down into smaller units or morphemes or is the result of an interactive activation of other units, such as meanings, letters, and sounds (e.g., dis-agree-ment vs. Read More

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Chronic stress may facilitate the recruitment of habit- and addiction-related neurocircuitries through neuronal restructuring of the striatum.

Neuroscience 2014 Nov 19;280:231-42. Epub 2014 Sep 19.

Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA; Interdisciplinary Graduate Program in Neuroscience, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Chronic stress is an established risk factor in the development of addiction. Addiction is characterized by a progressive transition from casual drug use to habitual and compulsive drug use. The ability of chronic stress to facilitate the transition to addiction may be mediated by increased engagement of the neurocircuitries underlying habitual behavior and addiction. Read More

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November 2014

Habitual alcohol seeking: modeling the transition from casual drinking to addiction.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2014 Nov 2;47:281-94. Epub 2014 Sep 2.

Interdepartmental Neuroscience Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA. Electronic address:

The transition from goal-directed actions to habitual ethanol seeking models the development of addictive behavior that characterizes alcohol use disorders. The progression to habitual ethanol-seeking behavior occurs more rapidly than for natural rewards, suggesting that ethanol may act on habit circuit to drive the loss of behavioral flexibility. This review will highlight recent research that has focused on the formation and expression of habitual ethanol seeking, and the commonalities and distinctions between ethanol and natural reward-seeking habits, with the goal of highlighting important, understudied research areas that we believe will lead toward the development of novel treatment and prevention strategies for uncontrolled drinking. Read More

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November 2014

CREB phosphorylation regulates striatal transcriptional responses in the self-administration model of methamphetamine addiction in the rat.

Neurobiol Dis 2013 Oct 30;58:132-43. Epub 2013 May 30.

Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Neuroplastic changes in the dorsal striatum participate in the transition from casual to habitual drug use and might play a critical role in the development of methamphetamine (METH) addiction. We examined the influence of METH self-administration on gene and protein expression that may form substrates for METH-induced neuronal plasticity in the dorsal striatum. Male Sprague-Dawley rats self-administered METH (0. Read More

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October 2013

[Factors predisposing, facilitating and strengthening condom use amongst university students in Cali, Colombia].

Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 2012 Oct;14(5):810-21

Escuela de Enfermería, Universidad del Valle.

Objective: Identifying condom use frequency and factors predisposing, facilitating and reinforcing its consistent use in college students.

Methods: This was a cross-sectional analytical study involving multivariate analysis. The sample consisted of 397 students who were randomly selected using stratified sampling by faculty who had applied a computer-assisted survey entitled, "Recognizing my sexual health. Read More

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October 2012

Cardiovascular risk in a rural adult West African population: is resting heart rate also relevant?

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2014 May 18;21(5):584-91. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Introduction: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a neglected marker in cardiovascular risk factor studies of sub-Saharan African populations. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of elevated RHR and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to investigate any associations between RHR and these risk factors in a rural population in Ghana.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Read More

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Understanding the association between condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse: an assessment of normative, calculative, and habitual explanations.

Soc Sci Med 2010 Jun 16;70(12):2080-2084. Epub 2010 Mar 16.

Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, Isis Education Centre, Warneford Hospital, and Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford, United Kingdom.

The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of the likely mechanisms underlying regular condom use. In 2009, 1145 sexually active individuals aged 18-65 years were surveyed online, after being recruited via an e-mail message circulated at a large Croatian university and posted on various social networking websites. Participants' mean age was 28. Read More

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Kicking the habit: the neural basis of ingrained behaviors in cocaine addiction.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2010 Nov 25;35(2):212-9. Epub 2010 Jan 25.

Department of Psychiatry, Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 125 South 31st Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.

Cocaine addiction is a complex and multifaceted process encompassing a number of forms of behavioral plasticity. The process of acquiring and consuming drugs can be sufficiently risky and complicated that the casual drug user may choose not to act on every motivation to use drugs. The repetition of drug seeking and taking, however, often results in the gradual development of drug craving and compulsive drug seeking associated with addiction. Read More

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November 2010

On habits and addiction: An associative analysis of compulsive drug seeking.

Drug Discov Today Dis Models 2008 ;5(4):235-245

Departments of Psychology, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences and the Brain Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles.

The processes that underlie the pathological pursuit of drugs in addiction and that support the transition from casual drug taking to their compulsive pursuit have recently been proposed to reflect the interaction of two action control processes that mediate the goal-directed and habitual control of actions for natural rewards. Here we describe the evidence for these learning processes, their associate structure and the motivational mechanisms through which their operation is translated into performance. Finally, we describe the potential changes in the interaction between habitual and goal-directed processes induced by drug addiction that subserve compulsive drug pursuit; i. Read More

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January 2008

Urine pH is an indicator of dietary acid-base load, fruit and vegetables and meat intakes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk population study.

Br J Nutr 2008 Jun 28;99(6):1335-43. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Site, Wort's Causeway, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK.

Evidence exists that a more acidic diet is detrimental to bone health. Although more precise methods exist for measurement of acid-base balance, urine pH reflects acid-base balance and is readily measurable but has not been related to habitual dietary intake in general populations. The present study investigated the relationship between urine pH and dietary acid-base load (potential renal acid load; PRAL) and its contributory food groups (fruit and vegetables, meats, cereal and dairy foods). Read More

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Is khat-chewing associated with HIV risk behaviour? A community-based study from Ethiopia.

Afr J AIDS Res 2006 May;5(1):61-9

This study examines the possible association between the stimulant khat and risky sexual behaviour that might aggravate the spread of HIV. A community-based cross-sectional survey involving 4 000 individuals and focus group discussions were conducted to assess the attitudes and perceptions of an Ethiopian population towards the habit of khat-chewing and its possible association with risky sexual behaviour. All participants in the focus group discussions and 38% of the survey respondents were of the opinion that behaviours associated with the mild narcotic effects of khat are conducive to casual sex, and hence constitute an increased risk for contracting and spreading HIV. Read More

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Condom use in steady and casual sexual relationships: Planning, preparation and willingness to take risks among adolescents.

Psychol Health 2006 ;21(2):165-81

a Department of Clinical and Health Psychology , Leiden University , Leiden , The Netherlands.

Condom use within steady and casual sexual relationships was examined among 14-16 year old Dutch adolescents from secondary school (N = 140). It was hypothesised that among adolescents sex and subsequently condom use with casual sex partners is less likely to be considered in advance, more context-dependent and less habitual; whereas the opposite is true for steady relationships. Therefore, preparatory behaviours (buying and carrying condoms and communicating about condom use) were expected to mediate the intention-behaviour relation in the context of steady relationships, but not in the context of casual sex. Read More

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October 2012

The use of biomarkers in multicentric studies with particular consideration of iodine, sodium, iron, folate and vitamin D.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2002 May;56 Suppl 2:S12-7

Danish Veterinary and Food Administration, Institute of Food Research and Nutrition, Søborg, Denmark.

Objective: To determine which biomarkers should be used in a European monitoring system to assess intake of iodine, sodium, iron, folate and vitamin D. These nutrients are relevant for human health but difficult to assess in the diet in a comparable way among countries.

Results: Iodine and sodium are mainly excreted in urine. Read More

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Similar central hemodynamics in salt-sensitive and salt-resistant hypertensive patients.

Blood Press 1999 ;8(4):233-41

Department of Cardiology, Haukeland Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

Salt may be involved in the pathogenesis of essential hypertension but no agreement has been reached on how salt might exert its blood pressure control. One reason for the conflicting results could be differences in response to changes in salt intake--i.e. Read More

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Reproducibility of salt sensitivity testing using a dietary approach in essential hypertension.

J Hum Hypertens 1999 Jun;13(6):375-84

Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland Hospital, Bergen, Norway.

To investigate the reproducibility of salt sensitivity testing using a dietary approach, 30 essential hypertensive patients underwent salt sensitivity testing on an outpatient basis twice with a 6 month interval. At both tests casual and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h BP) was recorded on habitual diet, then after a 6-day period on a low salt diet (aiming at 50 mmol/day), and finally after a 6-day period on a high salt diet (supplementation with sodium chloride tablets aiming at 250 mmol/day). Subjects showing > or =10% increase in mean BP when changing from low to high dietary salt intake were classified as salt sensitive. Read More

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Salt sensitivity in hypertensive type-1 diabetes mellitus.

Blood Press 1996 Mar;5(2):78-85

Department of Heart Disease, Haukeland Hospital, Norway.

Unlabelled: As sodium retention has been proposed as a causal factor in the development of hypertension in diabetic patients, a high incidence of salt sensitivity has been suggested. To evaluate the influence of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure, casual and 24-h blood pressure was measured in 30 hypertensive type-1 diabetic patients aged 24-67 (mean 46) years while they were on habitual diet, after 6 days of low-sodium diet (50 mmol/day), and after 6 days of high-sodium diet (250 mmol/day). Nine patients (30%) who increased their 24-h mean blood pressure by more than 10% when going from low- to high-sodium intake were classified as salt sensitive; the others as salt resistant. Read More

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Biphasic effects of repeated alcohol intake on 24-hour blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

Circulation 1994 Jun;89(6):2626-33

Division of Hypertension, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan.

Background: The association between alcohol and blood pressure (BP) may be related to the temporal sequencing of alcohol use and BP measurement. We investigated the effects of single and repeated intakes of alcohol on 24-hour BP.

Methods And Results: Fourteen male habitual drinkers with essential hypertension were placed sequentially on a 4-day control phase: a nonalcoholic drink with the same calories as alcohol was given at dinner (5 PM to 6 PM) and a 7-day drinking phase: alcohol (ethanol, 1 mL/kg) was given at dinner under standardized conditions. Read More

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[Correlation of the clinical phenotype with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 9].

Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1992 Mar;68(3):175-81

Istituto di Clinica Pediatrica, Università di Siena.

Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 is one of the most common structural balanced chromosomal aberrations. It is considered as a paraphysiological variant of a normal karyotype and it is possible to find it as occasional report in healthy subjects. In the last ten years different signals have appeared in literature, concerning carriers of pericentric inversion of chromosome 9, who showed different anomalies of the clinical condition. Read More

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Variability in man of the levels of some indices of nutritional status over a 60-d period on a constant diet.

Eur J Clin Nutr 1990 Sep;44(9):665-74

TNO CIVO-Toxicology and Nutrition Institute, Zeist, The Netherlands.

The biological variability of the values of various biochemical indices used for the assessment of the nutritional status of man was investigated in 4 healthy male volunteers (mean age 23 years). They were given a constant diet for 60 d, with the nutrient intake at the level of the Dutch recommendations. Blood was collected twice a week and 24-h urine samples on all 60 d; furthermore, on one day blood was collected every 2 h. Read More

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September 1990

[Genetic and clinical study of a family with abnormal hemoglobin Hb D Punjab 121 beta Glu----Gln].

Genetika 1985 Nov;21(11):1918-20

A second case of discovery of HbD Punjab in Russian population is reported. Abnormal hemoglobin was found in women with recurrent fetal wastage. The possibility of casual relationship between the presence of HbD Punjab and this type of pathology was rejected on the basis of detailed clinical and genetical investigation. Read More

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November 1985

Personality and physiological traits in middle-aged runners and joggers.

J Gerontol 1977 Sep;32(5):541-8

A series of personality and physiological tests and measurements were made in 48 healthy male runners and joggers 40-59 years of age (x = 47.3 yrs.). Read More

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September 1977
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