12,177 results match your criteria gut hormones


Therapeutic aspects of bile acid signalling in the gut-liver axis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 23. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Bile acids are important endocrine modulators of intestinal and hepatic signalling cascades orchestrating critical pathophysiological processes in various liver diseases. Increasing knowledge on bile acid signalling has stimulated the development of synthetic ligands of nuclear bile acid receptors and other bile acid analogues.

Aim: This review summarises important aspects of bile acid-mediated crosstalk between the gut and the liver ("gut-liver axis") as well as recent findings from experimental and clinical studies. Read More

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September 2021

Gut-associated cGMP mediates colitis and dysbiosis in a mouse model of an activating mutation in GUCY2C.

J Exp Med 2021 Nov 21;218(11). Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India.

Activating mutations in receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C), the target of gastrointestinal peptide hormones guanylin and uroguanylin, and bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins cause early-onset diarrhea and chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). GC-C regulates ion and fluid secretion in the gut via cGMP production and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. We characterize a novel mouse model harboring an activating mutation in Gucy2c equivalent to that seen in an affected Norwegian family. Read More

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November 2021

Protease Activity Assay in Fly Intestines.

Bio Protoc 2017 Sep 20;7(18):e2560. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Universite Cote d'Azur, CNRS, INRA, ISA, France.

The intestine is a central organ required for the digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients and for fighting against aggressors ingested along with the food. Impairment of gut physiology following mucosal damages impacts its digestive capacities that consequently will affect growth, wellbeing or even survival of the individual. Hence, the assessment of intestinal functions encompasses, among others, the monitoring of its integrity, its cellular renewing, its immune defenses, the production of enteroendocrine hormones and its digestive capacities. Read More

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September 2017

Metabolic homeostasis: it's all in the timing.

Endocrinology 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Cross-talk between peripheral tissues is essential to ensure the coordination of nutrient intake with disposition during the feeding period, thereby preventing metabolic disease. This Mini-review considers the interactions between the key peripheral tissues that constitute the metabolic clock, each of which is considered in a separate Mini-review in this collation of articles published in Endocrinology in 2020/2021, by: Martchenko et al. (Circadian Rhythms and the Gastrointestinal Tract: Relationship to Metabolism and Gut Hormones); Alvarez et al. Read More

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September 2021

Supplementation Prevents Early Life Stress-Induced Anxiety and Depressive-Like Behavior in Maternal Separation Model-Possible Involvement of Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis in Differential Regulation of MicroRNA124a/132 and Glutamate Receptors.

Front Neurosci 2021 31;15:719933. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

Behavioural Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, India.

This study was designed to investigate stressful social experience (SSE) in early life by examining how it can induce alterations in the microbiota-gut-brain axis. To test this, different experimental groups of pups experienced the presence of either a stranger (S) with mother (M+P+S) or without their mother (MS+S-M). Animals were assessed for anxiety-like behavior and high-throughput bacterial 16s rRNA sequencing was performed to analyze the structure of the gut microbiota. Read More

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Dietary Whey and Egg Proteins Interact with Inulin Fiber to Modulate Energy Balance and Gut Microbiota in Obese Rats.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Sep 11:108860. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Production Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Calgary, AB, T2N 4N1, Canada; School of Veterinary Medicine, Texas Tech University, 7671 Evans Drive, Amarillo, TX 79106, USA; Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Human Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA. Electronic address:

Diets supplemented with protein and fiber are well known to reduce food intake and weight gain; however, less is known about the combined effects of protein and fiber on energy balance and gut microbiota composition. We compared effects of diets containing egg or whey protein with cellulose or inulin fiber on energy balance, gut microbiota, hormones and metabolites. Male obese rats (n=8/group) were allocated to 4 diets: Egg albumin + Cellulose (EC), Egg albumin + Inulin (EI), Whey protein + Cellulose (WC), and Whey protein +Inulin (WI). Read More

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September 2021

Berberine Improves the Symptoms of DHEA-Induced PCOS Rats by Regulating Gut Microbiotas and Metabolites.

Gynecol Obstet Invest 2021 18;86(4):388-397. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Gynecology, Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with insulin resistance (IR).

Design: This study performed 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomic analysis on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rats treated with berberine, focusing on the improvement of PCOS-IR by modifying gut microbiota and metabolism.

Methods: Forty-two female Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups of 8 rats each (PCOS + HFD, PCOS + HFD + BBR, NCD + PCOS, and NCD + PCOS + BBR groups). Read More

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September 2021

Progress in treatment of type 2 diabetes by bariatric surgery.

World J Diabetes 2021 Aug;12(8):1187-1199

Department of General Surgery & Department of Biliopancreatic and Metabolic Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410011, Hunan Province, China.

The incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Bariatric surgical procedures, such as the vertical sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, are the most efficient approaches to obtain substantial and durable remission of T2D. The benefits of bariatric surgery are realized through the consequent increased satiety and alterations in gastrointestinal hormones, bile acids, and the intestinal microbiota. Read More

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Gut-Liver Immune Traffic: Deciphering Immune-Pathogenesis to Underpin Translational Therapy.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:711217. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Birmingham Biomedical Research Centre, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The tight relationship between the gut and liver on embryological, anatomical and physiological levels inspired the concept of a gut-liver axis as a central element in the pathogenesis of gut-liver axis diseases. This axis refers to the reciprocal regulation between these two organs causing an integrated system of immune homeostasis or tolerance breakdown guided by the microbiota, the diet, genetic background, and environmental factors. Continuous exposure of gut microbiome, various hormones, drugs and toxins, or metabolites from the diet through the portal vein adapt the liver to maintain its tolerogenic state. Read More

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Probiotics: Potential novel therapeutics for microbiota-gut-brain axis dysfunction across gender and lifespan.

Pharmacol Ther 2021 Sep 4:107978. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

MS4Pharma, Glasgow, UK.

Probiotics are live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, present a health benefit for the host. While the beneficial effects of probiotics on gastrointestinal function are generally well recognized, new animal research and clinical studies have found that alterations in gut microbial communities can have a broad range of effects throughout the body. Non-intestinal sites impacted include the immune, endocrine, cardiovascular and the central nervous system (CNS). Read More

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September 2021

Gut and Vagina Microbiota Associated With Estrus Return of Weaning Sows and Its Correlation With the Changes in Serum Metabolites.

Front Microbiol 2021 19;12:690091. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

State Key Laboratory of Pig Genetic Improvement and Production Technology, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, China.

More and more studies have indicated that gut microbiota takes part in the biosynthesis and metabolism of sex hormones. Inversely, sex hormones influence the composition of gut microbiota. However, whether microbiota in the gut and vagina is associated with estrus return of weaning sows is largely unknown. Read More

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A Protocol for Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Rats using Linear Staplers.

J Vis Exp 2021 Aug 21(174). Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Surgery, University of Alberta.

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is commonly performed for the treatment of severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of weight loss and metabolic changes are not well understood. Multiple factors are thought to play a role, including reduced caloric intake, decreased nutrient absorption, increased satiety, the release of satiety-promoting hormones, shifts in bile acid metabolism, and alterations in the gut microbiota. Read More

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Advances in research on the relationship between the gut microbiome and cancer.

Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2021 Aug;25(16):5104-5112

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong First Medical University, Jinan, China.

Objective: The objective of this review is to provide currently available information on the relationship between the gut microbiome and cancer.

Materials And Methods: In this mini-review, we explored the PubMed, EMBASE, and Google Scholar electronic databases, with regards to the searching terms "gut microbiome, cancer, intestinal flora, immunotherapy, immune checkpoint inhibitor". By reviewing and analyzing the literature, we analyzed how the bacterial microbiome influences the immune system and cancer, as well as how changes in symbiotic flora may be applied to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Read More

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The metabolomic effects of tripeptide gut hormone infusion compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and caloric restriction.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Section of Endocrinology and Investigative Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London W12 0NN, United Kingdom.

Context: The gut-derived peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY) are regulators of energy intake and glucose homeostasis, and are thought to contribute to the glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery.

Objective: To establish the metabolomic effects of a combined infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY (tripeptide "GOP") in comparison to a placebo infusion, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and a very low-calorie diet (VLCD).

Design And Setting: Sub-analysis of a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of GOP infusion (ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Adipokine, gut and thyroid hormone responses to probiotic application in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) exposed to heat stress.

Acta Vet Hung 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

8 Veterinary Control Centre Research Institute Directorate, Ankara, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri E81 (LRE) probiotic supplementation on heat stress responses in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar). The birds were divided into two groups, one of which was exposed to heat stress (HS). Within each group, four subgroups, each including 64 birds, were created for the three treatment doses (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg) of LRE and the control. Read More

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Assessing donor-to-donor variability in human intestinal organoid cultures.

Stem Cell Reports 2021 Sep 26;16(9):2364-2378. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Exploratory Science Center, Merck & Co., Inc., Cambridge, MA 02141, USA. Electronic address:

Donor-to-donor variability in primary human organoid cultures has not been well characterized. As these cultures contain multiple cell types, there is greater concern that variability could lead to increased noise. In this work we investigated donor-to-donor variability in human gut adult stem cell (ASC) organoids. Read More

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September 2021

Potential for Gut Peptide-Based Therapy in Postprandial Hypotension.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 17;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Adelaide Medical School and Centre of Research Excellence in Translating Nutritional Science to Good Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5000, Australia.

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is an important and under-recognised disorder resulting from inadequate compensatory cardiovascular responses to meal-induced splanchnic blood pooling. Current approaches to management are suboptimal. Recent studies have established that the cardiovascular response to a meal is modulated profoundly by gastrointestinal factors, including the type and caloric content of ingested meals, rate of gastric emptying, and small intestinal transit and absorption of nutrients. Read More

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Flavonoid-Modifying Capabilities of the Human Gut Microbiome-An In Silico Study.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 3;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Research Group Intestinal Microbiology, Department of Molecular Toxicology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116, 14558 Nuthetal, Germany.

Flavonoids are a major group of dietary plant polyphenols and have a positive health impact, but their modification and degradation in the human gut is still widely unknown. Due to the rise of metagenome data of the human gut microbiome and the assembly of hundreds of thousands of bacterial metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), large-scale screening for potential flavonoid-modifying enzymes of human gut bacteria is now feasible. With sequences of characterized flavonoid-transforming enzymes as queries, the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Protein catalog was analyzed and genes encoding putative flavonoid-modifying enzymes were quantified. Read More

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Do Gut Microbes Taste?

Nutrients 2021 Jul 27;13(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Department of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA 91766, USA.

Gut microbiota has emerged as a major metabolically active organ with critical functions in both health and disease. The trillions of microorganisms hosted by the gastrointestinal tract are involved in numerous physiological and metabolic processes including modulation of appetite and regulation of energy in the host spanning from periphery to the brain. Indeed, bacteria and their metabolic byproducts are working in concert with the host chemosensory signaling pathways to affect both short- and long-term ingestive behavior. Read More

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Impact of Estrogen Withdrawal and Replacement in Female Mice along the Intestinal Tract. Comparison of E2 Replacement with the Effect of a Mixture of Low Dose Pollutants.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 17;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Univ-Lyon, CarMeN Laboratory, INSERM U1060, INRAE U1397, Université Claude Bernard Lyon1, F-69310 Pierre-Bénite, France.

Postmenopausal women represent a vulnerable population towards endocrine disruptors due to hormonal deficit. We previously demonstrated that chronic exposure of ovariectomized C57Bl6/J mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet to a low-dose mixture of chemicals with one dioxin, one polychlorobiphenyl, one phthalate, and bisphenol A triggered metabolic alterations in the liver but the intestine was not explored. Yet, the gastrointestinal tract is the main route by which pollutants enter the body. Read More

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Soy and Frequent Dairy Consumption with Subsequent Equol Production Reveals Decreased Gut Health in a Cohort of Healthy Puerto Rican Women.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 08 4;18(16). Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Universidad Central del Caribe, Bayamón 00956, Puerto Rico.

The U.S. Hispanic female population has one of the highest breast cancer (BC) incidence and mortality rates, while BC is the leading cause of cancer death in Puerto Rican women. Read More

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Effects of a Peripherally Restricted Hybrid Inhibitor of CB1 Receptors and iNOS on Alcohol Drinking Behavior and Alcohol-Induced Endotoxemia.

Molecules 2021 Aug 22;26(16). Epub 2021 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Physiologic Studies, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Alcohol consumption is associated with gut dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, endotoxemia, and a cascade that leads to persistent systemic inflammation, alcoholic liver disease, and other ailments. Craving for alcohol and its consequences depends, among other things, on the endocannabinoid system. We have analyzed the relative role of central vs. Read More

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Surface Properties of and Impacts of Stress-Induced Molecules on Its Surface Adhesion and Biofilm Formation Capacities.

Microorganisms 2021 Jul 27;9(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

SIMPA, Université de Lorraine, F-54000 Nancy, France.

The gut microbiota is a complex and dynamic ecosystem whose balance and homeostasis are essential to the host's well-being and whose composition can be critically affected by various factors, including host stress. causes well-known beneficial roles for its host, but is negatively impacted by stress. However, the mechanisms explaining its maintenance in the gut have not yet been explored, in particular its capacities to adhere onto (bio)surfaces, form biofilms and the way its physicochemical surface properties are affected by stressing conditions. Read More

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Microbiome Metabolites and Thyroid Dysfunction.

J Clin Med 2021 Aug 16;10(16). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Human Nutrition and Metabolomics, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, 71-460 Szczecin, Poland.

Thyroid diseases are common conditions that have a negative impact on the health of all populations. The literature sheds light on the differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in patients suffering from thyroid diseases compared to healthy individuals. The microbiome affects the proper functioning of the thyroid gland, and the existence of the gut-thyroid axis is discussed in the context of both thyroid diseases and intestinal dysbiosis. Read More

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Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Mutation Exacerbated High-Fat-Diet-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Gut Microbiota Remodeling in Male Mice.

Biology (Basel) 2021 Aug 1;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 1.

National Laboratory Animal Center, National Applied Research Laboratories, Taipei 115, Taiwan.

Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a critical enzyme involved in ethanol clearance in acetaldehyde metabolism and plays a key role in protecting the liver. The ALDH2*2 mutation causes a significant decrease in acetaldehyde scavenging capacity, leading to the accumulation of acetaldehyde after consuming alcohol. The prevalence of the ALDH2*2 variant is in 45% of Taiwanese individuals. Read More

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Biology and pathology of the uterine microenvironment and its natural killer cells.

Cell Mol Immunol 2021 Sep 23;18(9):2101-2113. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Cambridge, National Institute for Health Research Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge, CB2 0SW, UK.

Tissues are the new frontier of discoveries in immunology. Cells of the immune system are an integral part of tissue physiology and immunity. Determining how immune cells inhabit, housekeep, and defend gut, lung, brain, liver, uterus, and other organs helps revealing the intimate details of tissue physiology and may offer new therapeutic targets to treat pathologies. Read More

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September 2021

[Gly²]-GLP-2, But Not Glucagon or [D-Ala²]-GLP-1, Controls Collagen Crosslinking in Murine Osteoblast Cultures.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 4;12:721506. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Univ Angers, GEROM, SFR ICAT, Angers, France.

Bone tissue is organized at the molecular level to resist fracture with the minimum of bone material. This implies that several modifications of the extracellular matrix, including enzymatic collagen crosslinking, take place. We previously highlighted the role of several gut hormones in enhancing collagen maturity and bone strength. Read More

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Luzhou-Feier powder reduces inflammatory response and improves intestinal immune barrier in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.

J Food Biochem 2021 Aug 21:e13905. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Luzhou, China.

As we know, nutritional support plays a key role in the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Since total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was discovered, the mortality of SAP had been greatly reduced. But researchers recently demonstrated that the prognosis of SAP could be improved by early enteral nutrition (EEN), which has been a priority for nutritional support in patients with SAP. Read More

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Neonatal exposure to a wild-derived microbiome protects mice against diet-induced obesity.

Nat Metab 2021 08 20;3(8):1042-1057. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Immunology Section, Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, DHHS, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Obesity and its consequences are among the greatest challenges in healthcare. The gut microbiome is recognized as a key factor in the pathogenesis of obesity. Using a mouse model, we show here that a wild-derived microbiome protects against excessive weight gain, severe fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome during a 10-week course of high-fat diet. Read More

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Electroacupuncture enhances resting-state functional connectivity between dorsal caudate and precuneus and decreases associated leptin levels in overweight/obese subjects.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Acupuncture and Massage, Xi'an Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, 710021, Shaanxi, China.

Electroacupuncture (EA) is a safe and effective method for treating obesity. However, how it modulates reward-related brain activity/functional connectivity and gut hormones remains unclear. We employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to investigate EA induced changes in resting-state activity and RSFC in reward-related regions and its association with gut hormones in overweight/obese subjects who received real (n = 20) and Sham (n = 15) stimulation. Read More

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