134,069 results match your criteria gut


Tartrazine exposure results in histological damage, oxidative stress, immune disorders and gut microbiota dysbiosis in juvenile crucian carp (Carassius carassius).

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Oct 15;241:105998. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Engineering Lab of Henan Province for Aquatic Animal Disease Control, Engineering Technology Research Center of Henan Province for Aquatic Animal Cultivation, College of Fisheries, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, PR China. Electronic address:

Tartrazine (TZ) is an azo dye widely used in foods, cosmetics, beverages, textile, and leather. In recent years, there are reports on detecting azo dyes in the aquatic environment, so the impact of these compounds on aquatic organisms could not be ignored. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of TZ exposure on teleosts' embryo development and juvenile's health by using crucian carp (Carassius carassius) as the experimental fish. Read More

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October 2021

On harvesting and handling of porcine jejunal mucus: A few tricks of the trade.

J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 24. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin (UCD), Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland. Electronic address:

As a heterogeneous hydrogel, mucus has evolved into a formidable physiological barrier protecting the human body from external pathogens and toxic molecules. With mucin as its primary solid component, the viscoelasticity of mucus remains dynamic and dependent upon a plethora of factors, including pathological state, food intake, and infection. Current nanomedicine research strives toward developing nanoformulations that can permeate through the mucus barrier and release the encapsulated cargo of drug molecules at the vicinity of epithelial lining or be directly absorbed into the bloodstream. Read More

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October 2021

Oral microbiota affects the efficacy and prognosis of radiotherapy for colorectal cancer in mouse models.

Cell Rep 2021 Oct;37(4):109886

Tianjin Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Molecular Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300192, China. Electronic address:

Radiotherapy is inevitably intertwined with various side effects impairing the quality of life of cancer patients. Here, we report the possibility that alterations of the oral microbiota influence the therapeutic efficacy and prognosis of radiotherapy for primary rectal cancer and colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases that pathologically disrupt gastrointestinal integrity and function. 16S rRNA sequencing shows that oral microbiota alterations change the gut bacterial composition within tumors but not in adjacent peritumor tissues in CRC mouse models. Read More

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October 2021

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases ror1/2 and ryk Are Co-expressed with Multiple Wnt Signaling Components During Early Development of Sea Urchin Embryos.

Biol Bull 2021 Oct 1;241(2):140-157. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

AbstractA combination of receptors, co-receptors, and secreted Wnt modulators form protein complexes at the cell surface that activate one or more of the three different Wnt signaling pathways (Wnt/-catenin, Wnt/JNK, and Wnt/Ca). Two or more of these pathways are often active in the same cellular territories, forming Wnt signaling networks; however, the molecular mechanisms necessary to integrate information from these pathways in these situations are unclear in any model system. Recent studies have implicated two Wnt binding receptor tyrosine kinases, receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) and related-to-receptor tyrosine kinase (Ryk), in the regulation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways, depending on the context; however, the spatiotemporal expression of these genes in relation to Wnt signaling components has not been well characterized in most deuterostome model systems. Read More

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October 2021

Effects of dietary tributyrin and physterol ester supplementation on growth performance, intestinal morphology, microbiota and metabolites in weaned piglets.

J Appl Microbiol 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

College of Animal Science and Technology, Hunan Agricultural University, Hunan Co-Innovation of Animal Production Safety, Changsha Hunan, 410128, China.

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary tributyrin(TB) and physterol ester(PSE) supplementation on the growth performance and intestinal health of weaned piglets.

Methods And Results: Ninety-six piglets were randomly allocated to one of four groups, including a control group (basal diet), TB group (basal diet + 1500 g t TB), PSE group (basal diet + 300 g t PSE), and TB + PSE group (basal diet + 1500 g t TB + 300 g t PSE). All groups had eight replicates with three piglets per replicate. Read More

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October 2021

Effect of Moringa olifera leaves on growth and gut microbiota of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

Braz J Biol 2021 25;84:e250916. Epub 2021 Oct 25.

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Fisheries & Wildlife, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Lahore, Pakistan.

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of Moringa olifera on the growth and gut health of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The feed having 30% crude protein was prepared as an experimental diet with 4%, 8% and 10% M. olifera leaf supplementation, respectively. Read More

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October 2021

The Comparisons of Fatty Acid Composition in Some Anaerobic Gut Fungi Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces, Piromyces, and Caecomyces.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2021 22;93(4):e20200896. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avsar Campus, Postal 46000, Avsar Village/Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

The objective of this study were to identify the fatty acid composition for decanoic (C10:0), tridecanoic (C13:0), myristic (C14:0), pentadecanoic (C15:0), palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), oleic (C18:1n9c), linoleic (C18:2n6c), arachidic (C20:0), arachidonic (C20:4n6), heneicosanoic (C21:0), erucic (C22:1n9) and Cis-4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic (C22:6n3) acids by Neocallimastix, Orpinomyces, Caecomyces and Piromyces species of rumen fungus during in vitro culture. Fatty acid (FA) profi le of anaerobic fungi comprises carbon chains of length ranging from 10 to 22 were analyzed as methyl esters. Analysis of fatty acids was performed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometer (GC-MS). Read More

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October 2021

sp. nov., isolated from the gut of a millipede () from a coconut tree.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2021 Oct;71(10)

Department and Graduate Institute of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.

During an investigation of microbes associated with arthropods living in decaying coconut trees, a isolate, Milli4, was cultured from the digestive tract of the common Asian millipede, . Sequence analysis of 16S rRNA and genes found that Milli4 was closely related but not identical to Esp-1, B13 and CCA1. Whole genome sequencing suggested that this isolate represents a new species, with average nucleotide identity (OrthoANIu) values of around 83. Read More

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October 2021

catabolism of human milk oligosaccharides overrides endogenous competitive exclusion driving colonization and protection.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1986666

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA.

Understanding how exogenous microbes stably colonize the animal gut is essential to reveal mechanisms of action and tailor effective probiotic treatments. species are naturally enriched in the gastrointestinal tract of breast-fed infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are associated with this enrichment. Read More

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October 2021

Differential effects of early-life and post-weaning galactooligosaccharides intervention on colonic bacterial composition and function in weaning piglets.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 Oct 27:AEM0131821. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

National Center for International Research on Animal Gut Nutrition, Laboratory of Gastrointestinal Microbiology, National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China.

Recently, we have proved that the early-life galactooligosaccharides (GOS) intervention could improve the colonic function by altering the bacterial composition in the suckling piglets. However, whether the early-life GOS (ELG) intervention could have a long influence of the colonic microbiota, and the ELG and post-weaning GOS (PWG) combined intervention would have an interaction effect on maintaining colonic health in weaning piglets remain to be explored. Thus in this study, we illustrated the differential effect of ELG and PWG intervention on colonic microbiota and colonic function of weaning piglets. Read More

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October 2021

Interaction between the inflammasome and commensal microorganisms in gastrointestinal health and disease.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Oct 27:e13452. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

The inflammasome is a cytosolic multiprotein complex that plays a crucial role in inflammation and cell death. The sensor proteins in the inflammasome complex detect various microbial and endogenous stimuli, leading to subsequent caspase activation. The activation of caspases results in the maturation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 or pyroptosis. Read More

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October 2021

Allicin, a dietary trpa1 agonist, prevents high fat diet-induced dysregulation of gut hormones and associated complications.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Centre for Excellence in Functional Foods, National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Knowledge City-Sector 81, SAS Nagar, Punjab 140603, India.

Given the global epidemic of diabesity (co-existence of both diabetes and obesity), novel approaches that target gut hormone secretion and their modulation may offer the dual benefits of increased efficacy and limited side effects. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that agonism of Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), using a dietary activator, has a modulatory role in high fat diet (HFD)-induced dysregulation of post-prandial gut hormone responses and prevention of metabolic alterations. The effect of HFD on TRPA1 expression in different parts of the gut using immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR was studied. Read More

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October 2021

CCFM6432 mitigates chronic stress-induced anxiety and gut microbial abnormalities.

Food Funct 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122, P. R China.

The discovery of psychobiotics has improved the therapeutic choices available for clinical mental disorders and shows promise for regulating mental health in people by combining the properties of food and medicine. A strain CCFM6432 was previously isolated and its mood-regulating effect was investigated in this study. Viable bacteria were given to chronically stressed mice for five weeks, and then the behavioral, neurobiological, and gut microbial changes were determined. Read More

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October 2021

Gut Microbiota-Mediated Immunomodulatory Effects of HDB1258 Cultured in the Lava Seawater in the Colitis Mouse Model.

J Med Food 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Neurobiota Research Center, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea.

The immunomodulatory effects of HDB1258 were evaluated in mice with colitis induced by (KO). HDB1258 was cultured in the lava seawater (LS) to improve its probiotic properties. It increased adhesive ability to mucin with mRNA expression levels of chaperone proteins (such as GroEL/ES, DnaKJ, and HtrA). Read More

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October 2021

Unraveling the Microbiome of Necrotizing Enterocolitis: Insights in Novel Microbial and Metabolomic Biomarkers.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Oct 27:e0117621. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences, and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parmagrid.10383.39, Parma, Italy.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is among the most relevant gastrointestinal diseases affecting mostly prematurely born infants with low birth weight. While intestinal dysbiosis has been proposed as one of the possible factors involved in NEC pathogenesis, the role of the gut microbiota remains poorly understood. In this study, the gut microbiota of preterm infants was explored to highlight differences in the composition between infants affected by NEC and infants prior to NEC development. Read More

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October 2021

The influence of high fat diet on gut dysbiosis and myocardial function.

Kardiol Pol 2021 Oct 27. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Chair and Department of Experimental and Clinical Physiology, Laboratory of Centre for Preclinical Research, Medical University of Warsaw, Warszawa, Poland.

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October 2021

Effects and mechanisms of tea on obesity.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Oct 27:1-18. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Obesity has become a global health concern. It increases the risk of several diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain cancers, which threatens human health and increases social economic burden. As one of the most consumed beverages, tea contains various phytochemicals with potent bioactive properties and health-promoting effects, such as antioxidant, immune-regulation, cardiovascular protection and anticancer. Read More

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October 2021

Dietary strategies for gut-derived protein-bound uremic toxins and cardio-metabolic risk factors in chronic kidney disease: A focus on dietary fibers.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Oct 27:1-15. Epub 2021 Oct 27.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Nutrition and Dietetics Department, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with altered composition and function of gut microbiota. The cause of gut dysbiosis in CKD is multifactorial and encompasses the following: uremic state, metabolic acidosis, slow colonic transit, dietary restrictions of plant-based fiber-rich foods, and pharmacological therapies. Dietary restriction of potassium-rich fruits and vegetables, which are common sources of fermentable dietary fibers, inhibits the conversion of dietary fibers to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), which are the primary nutrient source for the symbiotic gut microbiota. Read More

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October 2021

Association between gut dysbiosis and chronic kidney disease: a narrative review of the literature.

J Int Med Res 2021 Oct;49(10):3000605211053276

Department of Nephrology, Affiliated Hospital of Shaanxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, Shaanxi, China.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a serious non-communicable disease that poses a significant burden on healthcare and society. It is essential to devise new strategies to better treat patients with CKD. Research has illustrated that gut dysbiosis, describing an abnormal intestinal ecology, is closely associated with CKD. Read More

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October 2021

Gut microbiome alpha-diversity is not a marker of Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis.

Brain Commun 2021 1;3(2):fcab113. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Luxia Scientific, HCenter, 77000 La Rochette, France.

The gut-brain axis may play a central role in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Dozens of case-control studies have been carried out to identify bacterial markers by the use of targeted metagenomics. Alterations of several taxonomic profiles have been confirmed across several populations, however, no consensus has been made regarding alpha-diversity. Read More

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Effects of semi-purified diet on depressive behaviors in aged mice.

Biochem Biophys Rep 2021 Dec 12;28:101152. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Biomedicine, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka, 812-8582, Japan.

Diet is a key modifiable factor influencing the composition of gut microbiota. There are two types of commercially available diets for experimental animals: non-purified and semi-purified diets. Non-purified diets are composed of complex ingredients from multiple sources, while semi-purified diets are formulated with refined ingredients. Read More

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December 2021

The complete genome sequence of (Tyzzer 1929), a common gut parasite of chickens.

Wellcome Open Res 2021 9;6:225. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Cambridge, CB10 1SA, UK.

We present a genome assembly from a clonal population of Houghton parasites (Apicomplexa; Conoidasida; Eucoccidiorida; Eimeriidae). The genome sequence is 53.25 megabases in span. Read More

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September 2021

Infliximab-Associated Acneiform Eruption in a Patient With Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Cureus 2021 Sep 23;13(9):e18213. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Internal Medicine, Kettering General Hospital, Kettering, GBR.

Biologic agents are increasingly used for many autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, as they are both steroid sparing and can potentially induce and maintain remission. Notably tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha antagonists are particularly useful in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) such as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF alpha (cytokine involved in modulation of inflammatory responses) and neutralizes its effects. Read More

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September 2021

The Profile and Function of Gut Microbiota in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 19;14:4283-4296. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Nephrology, Dongzhimen Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100700, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Dysbiosis of gut microbiota impairs the homeostasis of immune and metabolic systems. Although previous studies have revealed the correlation between gut microbiota and various diseases, the function between gut microbiota and diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been discovered distinctly. In this study, we tried to investigate the profile and function of gut microbiota in DN. Read More

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October 2021

Adaptive immune cells shape obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus and less prominent comorbidities.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences and the Barnstable Brown Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are increasing in prevalence owing to decreases in physical activity levels and a shift to diets that include addictive and/or high-calorie foods. These changes are associated with the adoption of modern lifestyles and the presence of an obesogenic environment, which have resulted in alterations to metabolism, adaptive immunity and endocrine regulation. The size and quality of adipose tissue depots in obesity, including the adipose tissue immune compartment, are critical determinants of overall health. Read More

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October 2021

Vertebrate host phylogeny influences gut archaeal diversity.

Nat Microbiol 2021 Oct 26. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Microbiome Science, Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology, Tübingen, Germany.

Commonly used 16S rRNA gene primers do not detect the full range of archaeal diversity present in the vertebrate gut. As a result, several questions regarding the archaeal component of the gut microbiota remain, including which Archaea are host-associated, the specificities of such associations and the major factors influencing archaeal diversity. Using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with primers that specifically target Archaea, we obtained sufficient sequence data from 185 gastrointestinal samples collected from 110 vertebrate species that span five taxonomic classes (Mammalia, Aves, Reptilia, Amphibia and Actinopterygii), of which the majority were wild. Read More

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October 2021

Gut microbiota of bats: pro-mutagenic properties and possible frontiers in preventing emerging disease.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 26;11(1):21075. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Center for Agrobiotechnology, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation, 344000.

Bats are potential natural reservoirs for emerging viruses, causing deadly human diseases, such as COVID-19, MERS, SARS, Nipah, Hendra, and Ebola infections. The fundamental mechanisms by which bats are considered "living bioreactors" for emerging viruses are not fully understood. Some studies suggest that tolerance to viruses is linked to suppressing antiviral immune and inflammatory responses due to DNA damage by energy generated to fly. Read More

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October 2021

Identification of SSRI-evoked antidepressant sensory signals by decoding vagus nerve activity.

Sci Rep 2021 Oct 26;11(1):21130. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Brain-Body Institute, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

The vagus nerve relays mood-altering signals originating in the gut lumen to the brain. In mice, an intact vagus is required to mediate the behavioural effects of both intraluminally applied selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and a strain of Lactobacillus with antidepressant-like activity. Similarly, the prodepressant effect of lipopolysaccharide is vagus nerve dependent. Read More

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October 2021

Rhesus macaques self-curing from a schistosome infection can display complete immunity to challenge.

Nat Commun 2021 Oct 26;12(1):6181. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Laboratório de Parasitologia, Instituto Butantan, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The rhesus macaque provides a unique model of acquired immunity against schistosomes, which afflict >200 million people worldwide. By monitoring bloodstream levels of parasite-gut-derived antigen, we show that from week 10 onwards an established infection with Schistosoma mansoni is cleared in an exponential manner, eliciting resistance to reinfection. Secondary challenge at week 42 demonstrates that protection is strong in all animals and complete in some. Read More

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October 2021

Intimate Adhesion Is Essential for the Pathogen-Specific Inflammatory and Immune Responses in the Gut of Mice Infected with .

Immunohorizons 2021 Oct 26;5(10):870-883. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan; and.

is a murine pathogenic bacterium that adheres to intestinal epithelial cells, resulting in loss of microvilli and pedestal formation, and alters multiple cellular processes, including actin dynamics. Translocated intimin receptor (Tir), one of its virulence factors, functions as receptor for intimin, a bacterial adhesin, thereby mediating bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells. Although robust immune responses are induced to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in the host, they are suppressed against harmless commensal bacteria. Read More

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October 2021