8,775 results match your criteria gtp atp


Enzymatic properties of Myxococcus xanthus exopolyphosphatases mxPpx1 and mxPpx2.

Biochim Biophys Acta Proteins Proteom 2021 Apr 12:140660. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Miki-cho, Kagawa, Japan. Electronic address:

Myxococcus xanthus possesses two exopolyphosphatases, mxPpx1 and mxPpx2, which belong to the family of Ppx/GppA phosphatases; however, their catalytic properties have not been described. mxPpx1 and mxPpx2 contain 311 and 505 amino acid residues, respectively; mxPpx2 has an additional C-terminal region, which corresponds to the metal-dependent HDc phosphohydrolase domain. mxPpx1 mainly hydrolyzed short-chain polyPs (polyP and polyP), whereas mxPpx2 preferred long-chain polyP and polyP. Read More

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Characterization of ZmCOLD1, novel GPCR-Type G Protein genes involved in cold stress from L. and the evolution analysis with those from other species.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Mar 15;27(3):619-632. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

College of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang, 110866 China.

Maize is one of the most vital staple crops worldwide. G proteins modulate plentiful signaling pathways, and G protein-coupled receptor-type G proteins (GPCRs) are highly conserved membrane proteins in plants. However, researches on maize G proteins and GPCRs are scarce. Read More

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Crystal structure and functional implication of a bacterial cyclic AMP-AMP-GMP synthetase.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung 406, Taiwan.

Mammalian cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) and its homologue dinucleotide cyclase in Vibrio cholerae (VcDncV) produce cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs) that participate in the defense against viral infection. Recently, scores of new cGAS/DncV-like nucleotidyltransferases (CD-NTases) were discovered, which produce various CDNs and cyclic trinucleotides (CTNs) as second messengers. Here, we present the crystal structures of EcCdnD, a CD-NTase from Enterobacter cloacae that produces cyclic AMP-AMP-GMP, in its apo-form and in complex with ATP, ADP and AMPcPP, an ATP analogue. Read More

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Enhanced Transport and Permeation of a Polymeric Nanocarrier across the Retina by Mixing with ATP upon Intravitreal Injection.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 29;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 29.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 61005, Korea.

The outer part of the retina pigment epithelium (RPE) in the retina is the main site of neovascularization associated with retinal diseases. However, various obstacles interrupt the delivery of medicines across the RPE, mainly due to the well-developed tight junctions in the RPE. Currently, there is no practical formulation to overcome this issue. Read More

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Tetramethylpyrazine Improves Cognitive Impairment and Modifies the Hippocampal Proteome in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 15;9:632843. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Key Laboratory of Modern Toxicology of Shenzhen, Shenzhen Medical Key Subject of Modern Toxicology, Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, has no effective treatment. We studied the potential effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), an alkaloid in the rhizome of Hort. used in Traditional Chinese Medicine () to treat ischemic stroke, on AD progression in two AD mouse models. Read More

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Adenylate Kinase 4 Promotes Inflammatory Gene Expression Hif1α and AMPK in Macrophages.

Front Immunol 2021 15;12:630318. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Graduate Institute of Immunology, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.

Macrophages comprise the front line of defense against various pathogens. Classically activated macrophages (M1), induced by IFN-γ and LPS, highly express inflammatory cytokines and contribute to inflammatory processes. By contrast, alternatively activated macrophages (M2) are induced by IL-4 and IL-13, produce IL-10, and display anti-inflammatory activity. Read More

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Homology Model of a Catalytically Competent Bifunctional Rel Protein.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 3;8:628596. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Chemistry, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Bacteria have developed different bet hedging strategies to survive hostile environments and stressful conditions with persistency being maybe the most elegant yet still poorly understood one. Persisters' temporary tolerance to antibiotic treatment hints at their role not only in chronic and recurrent infections but also in the insurgence of resistant strains. Therefore, hampering persisters formation might represent an innovative strategy in the quest for new effective antimicrobial compounds. Read More

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February 2021

A self-organized synthetic morphogenic liposome responds with shape changes to local light cues.

Nat Commun 2021 03 9;12(1):1548. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Systemic Cell Biology, Max Planck Institute for Molecular Physiology, Dortmund, Germany.

Reconstituting artificial proto-cells capable of transducing extracellular signals into cytoskeletal changes can reveal fundamental principles of how non-equilibrium phenomena in cellular signal transduction affect morphogenesis. Here, we generated a Synthetic Morphogenic Membrane System (SynMMS) by encapsulating a dynamic microtubule (MT) aster and a light-inducible signaling system driven by GTP/ATP chemical potential into cell-sized liposomes. Responding to light cues in analogy to morphogens, this biomimetic design embodies basic principles of localized Rho-GTPase signal transduction that generate an intracellular MT-regulator signaling gradient. Read More

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Terminal Peptide Extensions Augment the Retinal IMPDH1 Catalytic Activity and Attenuate the ATP-induced Fibrillation Events.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

Defects in inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase-1 (IMPDH1) lead to insufficient biosyntheses of purine nucleotides. In eyes, these defects are believed to cause retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Major retinal isoforms of IMPDH1 are structurally distinct from those in other tissues, by bearing terminal extensions. Read More

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Streptococcus suis MsmK: Novel Cell Division Protein Interacting with FtsZ and Maintaining Cell Shape.

mSphere 2021 03 17;6(2). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China

Bacteria of different shapes have adopted distinct mechanisms to faithfully coordinate morphogenesis and segregate their chromosomes prior to cell division. Despite recent focuses and advances, the mechanism of cell division in ovococci remains largely unknown. , a major zoonotic pathogen that causes problems in human health and in the global swine industry, is an elongated and ellipsoid bacterium that undergoes successive parallel splitting perpendicular to its long axis. Read More

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Reformulation of an extant ATPase active site to mimic ancestral GTPase activity reveals a nucleotide base requirement for function.

Elife 2021 Mar 11;10. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Laboratory of Molecular Biology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, United States.

Hydrolysis of nucleoside triphosphates releases similar amounts of energy. However, ATP hydrolysis is typically used for energy-intensive reactions, whereas GTP hydrolysis typically functions as a switch. SpoIVA is a bacterial cytoskeletal protein that hydrolyzes ATP to polymerize irreversibly during sporulation. Read More

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Energy and Dynamics of Caveolae Trafficking.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 21;8:614472. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Biochemistry and Biophysics Center, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States.

Caveolae are 70-100 nm diameter plasma membrane invaginations found in abundance in adipocytes, endothelial cells, myocytes, and fibroblasts. Their bulb-shaped membrane domain is characterized and formed by specific lipid binding proteins including Caveolins, Cavins, Pacsin2, and EHD2. Likewise, an enrichment of cholesterol and other lipids makes caveolae a distinct membrane environment that supports proteins involved in cell-type specific signaling pathways. Read More

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January 2021

Second distinct conformation of the phosphohistidine loop in succinyl-CoA synthetase.

Acta Crystallogr D Struct Biol 2021 Mar 19;77(Pt 3):357-368. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4, Canada.

Succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) catalyzes a reversible reaction that is the only substrate-level phosphorylation in the citric acid cycle. One of the essential steps for the transfer of the phosphoryl group involves the movement of the phosphohistidine loop between active site I, where CoA, succinate and phosphate bind, and active site II, where the nucleotide binds. Here, the first crystal structure of SCS revealing the conformation of the phosphohistidine loop in site II of the porcine GTP-specific enzyme is presented. Read More

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Co-therapy with S-adenosylmethionine and nicotinamide riboside improves t-cell survival and function in Arts Syndrome (PRPS1 deficiency).

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2021 Mar 20;26:100709. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Paediatrics, University Children's Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Arts syndrome or phosphoribosyl-pyrophosphate-synthetase-1 (PRPS1) deficiency is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the gene (Xq22.3). PRPS1 is an initial and essential step for the synthesis of the nucleotides of purines, pyrimidines, and nicotinamide. Read More

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Rab1-AMPylation by Legionella DrrA is allosterically activated by Rab1.

Nat Commun 2021 01 19;12(1):460. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Center for Integrated Protein Science Munich (CIPSM), Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Garching, 85748, Germany.

Legionella pneumophila infects eukaryotic cells by forming a replicative organelle - the Legionella containing vacuole. During this process, the bacterial protein DrrA/SidM is secreted and manipulates the activity and post-translational modification (PTM) states of the vesicular trafficking regulator Rab1. As a result, Rab1 is modified with an adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and this process is referred to as AMPylation. Read More

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January 2021

Essential biochemical, biophysical and computational inputs on efficient functioning of Mycobacterium tuberculosis HRv FtsY.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 5;171:59-73. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-HRDC, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis HRv) utilizes the signal recognition particle pathway (SRP pathway) system for secretion of various proteins from ribosomes to the extracellular surface which plays an important role in the machinery running inside the bacterium. This system comprises of three major components FtsY, FfH and 4. Read More

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February 2021

Development of a High-Throughput Assay to Identify Inhibitors of ENPP1.

SLAS Discov 2021 Jan 5:2472555220982321. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

BellBrook Labs, Madison, WI, USA.

The innate immune response to cancer is initiated by cytosolic DNA, where it binds to cGAS and triggers type I interferon (IFN) expression via the STING receptor, leading to activation of tumor-specific T cells. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) has been identified as the primary enzyme responsible for degrading cGAMP, and therefore it is under intense investigation as a therapeutic target for cancer immunotherapy. ENPP1 hydrolyzes cGAMP to produce AMP and GMP, and hydrolyzes ATP and other nucleotides to monophosphates and pyrophosphate. Read More

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January 2021

Inducible expression of (pp)pGpp synthetases in Staphylococcus aureus is associated with activation of stress response genes.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 30;16(12):e1009282. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, University of Tuebingen, Germany.

The stringent response is characterized by the synthesis of the messenger molecules pppGpp, ppGpp or pGpp (here collectively designated (pp)pGpp). The phenotypic consequences resulting from (pp)pGpp accumulation vary among species and can be mediated by different underlying mechanisms. Most genome-wide analyses have been performed under stress conditions, which often mask the immediate effects of (pp)pGpp-mediated regulatory circuits. Read More

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December 2020

Transcriptome Analysis of Juvenile Tilapia () Blood, Fed With Different Concentrations of Resveratrol.

Front Physiol 2020 9;11:600730. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Wuxi, China.

(genetically improved farmed tilapia, GIFT) often bites the root of when it is used as a floating bed, and resveratrol (RES) is mainly accumulated in the root of . Blood acts as a pipeline for the fish immune system. Generating blood transcriptomic resources is crucial for understanding molecular mechanisms underlying blood immune responses. Read More

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December 2020

Small molecules targeting the innate immune cGAS‒STING‒TBK1 signaling pathway.

Acta Pharm Sin B 2020 Dec 13;10(12):2272-2298. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Research Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology & Frontiers on Drug Discovery (RLMCBFDD), School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Multiple cancer immunotherapies including chimeric antigen receptor T cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been successfully developed to treat various cancers by motivating the adaptive anti-tumor immunity. Particularly, the checkpoint blockade approach has achieved great clinic success as evidenced by several U.S. Read More

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December 2020

Antitoxin ε Reverses Toxin ζ-Facilitated Ampicillin Dormants.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 12 15;12(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Microbial Biotechnology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología, CNB-CSIC, 3 Darwin Str., 28049 Madrid, Spain.

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are ubiquitous in bacteria, but their biological importance in stress adaptation remains a matter of debate. The inactive ζ-ε-ζ TA complex is composed of one labile ε antitoxin dimer flanked by two stable ζ toxin monomers. Free toxin ζ reduces the ATP and GTP levels, increases the (p)ppGpp and c-di-AMP pool, inactivates a fraction of uridine diphosphate--acetylglucosamine, and induces reversible dormancy. Read More

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December 2020

Exogenous pyruvate alleviates UV-induced hyperpigmentation via restraining dendrite outgrowth and Rac1 GTPase activity.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Feb 16;101(2):101-106. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

R&D Center of LG Household and Health Care, Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Melanin is synthesized in melanocytes and transferred to keratinocytes through dendrites. Endogenous pyruvate is a key metabolite for ATP production in glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and exogenous pyruvate provide protection against oxidative stress and acidosis in the intercellular space. The function of pyruvate in the regulation of dendrite outgrowth remains to be elucidated. Read More

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February 2021

Expression of ATP/GTP Binding Protein 1 Has Prognostic Value for the Clinical Outcomes in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma.

J Pers Med 2020 Dec 2;10(4). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Incurable Disease Animal Model & Stem Cell Institute (IDASI), Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea.

ATP/GTP binding protein 1 () encodes a crucial protein, cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1), which plays a role in modulating the polyglutamylation of tubulin and has been studied in degenerative diseases. However, the role of in malignancy has not been completely studied yet. In this study, we examined the role of in cancer progression, its association with patient survival, and related mechanisms in lung cancer, using the A549 cell line and lung cancer gene expression datasets. Read More

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December 2020

Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying sporadic inclusion body myositis is ameliorated by the mitochondrial homing drug MA-5.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0231064. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Division of Nephrology, Endocrinology and Vascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan.

Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most common idiopathic inflammatory myopathy, and several reports have suggested that mitochondrial abnormalities are involved in its etiology. We recruited 9 sIBM patients and found significant histological changes and an elevation of growth differential factor 15 (GDF15), a marker of mitochondrial disease, strongly suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction. Bioenergetic analysis of sIBM patient myoblasts revealed impaired mitochondrial function. Read More

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January 2021

Metabolic Compartmentalization at the Leading Edge of Metastatic Cancer Cells.

Front Oncol 2020 2;10:554272. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States.

Despite advances in targeted therapeutics and understanding in molecular mechanisms, metastasis remains a substantial obstacle for cancer treatment. Acquired genetic mutations and transcriptional changes can promote the spread of primary tumor cells to distant tissues. Additionally, recent studies have uncovered that metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells is tightly associated with cancer metastasis. Read More

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November 2020

Nucleotide-binding sites can enhance N-acylation of nearby protein lysine residues.

Sci Rep 2020 11 20;10(1):20254. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0XY, UK.

Acyl-CoAs are reactive metabolites that can non-enzymatically S-acylate and N-acylate protein cysteine and lysine residues, respectively. N-acylation is irreversible and enhanced if a nearby cysteine residue undergoes an initial reversible S-acylation, as proximity leads to rapid S → N-transfer of the acyl moiety. We reasoned that protein-bound acyl-CoA could also facilitate S → N-transfer of acyl groups to proximal lysine residues. Read More

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November 2020

Gs/Gq signaling switch in β cells defines incretin effectiveness in diabetes.

J Clin Invest 2020 12;130(12):6639-6655

Division of Molecular and Metabolic Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

By restoring glucose-regulated insulin secretion, glucagon-like peptide-1-based (GLP-1-based) therapies are becoming increasingly important in diabetes care. Normally, the incretins GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) jointly maintain normal blood glucose levels by stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells. However, the reason why only GLP-1-based drugs are effective in improving insulin secretion after presentation of diabetes has not been resolved. Read More

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December 2020

FeoB hydrolyzes ATP and GTP in the absence of stimulatory factors.

Metallomics 2020 12;12(12):2065-2074

Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA.

Feo is the most widely conserved system for ferrous iron transport in prokaryotes, and it is important for virulence in some pathogens. However, its mechanism of iron transport is not fully understood. In this study, we used full-length Vibrio cholerae FeoB (VcFeoB) as a model system to study whether its enzymatic activity is affected by regulatory factors commonly associated with FeoB proteins from other species or with G-proteins that have homology to FeoB. Read More

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December 2020

Revisiting imidazolium receptors for the recognition of anions: highlighted research during 2010-2019.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Jan 11;50(1):589-618. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310014, China.

Imidazolium based receptors selectively recognize anions, and have received more and more attention. In 2006 and 2010, we reviewed the mechanism and progress of imidazolium salt recognition of anions, respectively. In the past ten years, new developments have emerged in this area, including some new imidazolium motifs and the identification of a wider variety of biological anions. Read More

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January 2021

Biochemical and transcript level differences between the three human phosphofructokinases show optimisation of each isoform for specific metabolic niches.

Biochem J 2020 11;477(22):4425-4441

School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Michael Swann Building, Max Born Crescent, Edinburgh EH9 3BF, U.K.

6-Phosphofructokinase-1-kinase (PFK) tetramers catalyse the phosphorylation of fructose 6-phosphate (F6P) to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F16BP). Vertebrates have three PFK isoforms (PFK-M, PFK-L, and PFK-P). This study is the first to compare the kinetics, structures, and transcript levels of recombinant human PFK isoforms. Read More

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November 2020