2,342 results match your criteria gsc

Analytical validation of the Percepta genomic sequencing classifier; an RNA next generation sequencing assay for the assessment of Lung Cancer risk of suspicious pulmonary nodules.

BMC Cancer 2021 Apr 13;21(1):400. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Veracyte, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, 94080, USA.

Background: Bronchoscopy is a common procedure used for evaluation of suspicious lung nodules, but the low diagnostic sensitivity of bronchoscopy often results in inconclusive results and delays in treatment. Percepta Genomic Sequencing Classifier (GSC) was developed to assist with patient management in cases where bronchoscopy is inconclusive. Studies have shown that exposure to tobacco smoke alters gene expression in airway epithelial cells in a way that indicates an increased risk of developing lung cancer. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Accelerated 3D whole-brain T1, T2, and proton density mapping: feasibility for clinical glioma MR imaging.

Neuroradiology 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Purpose: Advanced MRI-based biomarkers offer comprehensive and quantitative information for the evaluation and characterization of brain tumors. In this study, we report initial clinical experience in routine glioma imaging with a novel, fully 3D multiparametric quantitative transient-state imaging (QTI) method for tissue characterization based on T1 and T2 values.

Methods: To demonstrate the viability of the proposed 3D QTI technique, nine glioma patients (grade II-IV), with a variety of disease states and treatment histories, were included in this study. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Somatic CG6015 mediates cyst stem cell maintenance and germline stem cell differentiation via EGFR signaling in Drosophila testes.

Cell Death Discov 2021 Apr 6;7(1):68. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Gynecology, the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Jiangsu University, 212001, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Stem cell niche is regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In the Drosophila testis, cyst stem cells (CySCs) support the differentiation of germline stem cells (GSCs). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Tumor Suppressor /ATIP1 Modulates Tumor Promotion in Glioma: Association with Epigenetics and DNA Repair.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 12;13(6). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Laboratory of Neuroscience, Department of Biotechnology & Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Telangana 500046, India.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor. Resistance mechanisms in GBM present an array of challenges to understand its biology and to develop novel therapeutic strategies. We investigated the role of a TSG, /ATIP1 in glioma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The Osa-Containing SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complex Is Required in the Germline Differentiation Niche for Germline Stem Cell Progeny Differentiation.

Genes (Basel) 2021 Mar 4;12(3). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, The Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, School of Life Sciences &Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

The ovary is recognized as a powerful model to study stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Decapentaplegic (Dpp) is secreted from the germline stem cell (GSC) niche to activate Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) signaling in GSCs for their self-renewal and is restricted in the differentiation niche for daughter cell differentiation. Here, we report that Switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) component Osa depletion in escort cells (ECs) results in a blockage of GSC progeny differentiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Protective Activity and Underlying Mechanism of Ginseng Seeds against UVB-Induced Damage in Human Fibroblasts.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Chungbuk 28644, Korea.

Ginseng seeds are rich in phytosterols, ginsenosides, and fatty acids, and can therefore be used in skincare to delay the aging process. Ginseng seed embryo (GSE) and ginseng seed coat (GSC) were separated from ginseng seeds (Panax ginseng Meyer). This study evaluated the protective activity and underlying mechanism of GSE and GSC on UVB irradiation-induced skin photoaging using Hs68 cells. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

A Robust Dual-Microphone Generalized Sidelobe Canceller Using a Bone-Conduction Sensor for Speech Enhancement.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 8;21(5). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Communication and Information Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065, China.

The use of multiple spatially distributed microphones allows performing spatial filtering along with conventional temporal filtering, which can better reject the interference signals, leading to an overall improvement of the speech quality. In this paper, we propose a novel dual-microphone generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) algorithm assisted by a bone-conduction (BC) sensor for speech enhancement, which is named BC-assisted GSC (BCA-GSC) algorithm. The BC sensor is relatively insensitive to the ambient noise compared to the conventional air-conduction (AC) microphone. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

18F-FET PET/CT in Early Subventricular Zone Recurrence of Adult Glioblastoma.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

From the Radiation Oncology Department, University Hospital Université de Bretagne Occidentale LaTIM, INSERM 1101 Radiology Department, University Hospital EA 3878 GETBO IFR 148 Nuclear Medicine Department, University Hospital, Brest, France.

Abstract: Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are the source of tumor recurrence in glioblastoma and are capable of whole tumor regeneration once the treatment has concluded. Compelling evidence from the last decade suggests that GSC may arise from neural stem cells residing in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). We report the findings of an 18F-FET PET/CT showing pathological uptake in SVZ with a tumor-background ratio of greater than 1. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Glioblastoma stem cell (GSC)-derived PD-L1-containing exosomes activates AMPK/ULK1 pathway mediated autophagy to increase temozolomide-resistance in glioblastoma.

Cell Biosci 2021 Mar 31;11(1):63. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University (People's Hospital of Shenzhen Baoan District), Longjing Second Road No. 118, Shenzhen, 518101, Guang Dong, China.

Temozolomide (TMZ)-resistance hampers the therapeutic efficacy of this drug for glioblastoma (GBM) treatment in clinic, and emerging evidences suggested that exosomes from GBM-derived stem cells (GSCs) contributed to this process, but the detailed mechanisms are still largely unknown. In the present study, we reported that GSCs derived programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) containing exosomes activated AMPK/ULK1 pathway mediated protective autophagy enhanced TMZ-resistance in GBM in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, we noticed that continuous low-dose TMZ stimulation promoted GSCs generation and PD-L1 containing exosomes (PD-L1-ex) secretion in GBM cells, and that PD-L1-ex inhibited cell apoptosis and promoted cell autophagy to increased TMZ-resistance in GBM cells, which were reversed by co-treating cells with the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long noncoding RNA SNHG9 facilitates growth of glioma stem-like cells via miR-326/SOX9 axis.

J Gene Med 2021 Mar 31:e3334. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Oncology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, People's Hospital of Henan University, People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

Background: Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) are greatly responsible for the progression of glioma. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an important role in glioma tumor progression. This study aims to explore the role and underlying mechanism of lncRNA SNHG9 in regulating GSC cell growth. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The DEAD-box helicase DDX56 is a conserved stemness regulator in normal and cancer stem cells.

Cell Rep 2021 Mar;34(13):108903

The Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Toronto, ON M5G 0A4, Canada; University of Toronto, Department of Molecular Genetics, Toronto, ON M5S 1A8, Canada; Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, ON M5G 0A3, Canada. Electronic address:

Across the animal kingdom, adult tissue homeostasis is regulated by adult stem cell activity, which is commonly dysregulated in human cancers. However, identifying key regulators of stem cells in the milieu of thousands of genes dysregulated in a given cancer is challenging. Here, using a comparative genomics approach between planarian adult stem cells and patient-derived glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs), we identify and demonstrate the role of DEAD-box helicase DDX56 in regulating aspects of stemness in four stem cell systems: planarians, mouse neural stem cells, human GSCs, and a fly model of glioblastoma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Doublesex regulates fruitless expression to promote sexual dimorphism of the gonad stem cell niche.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 31;17(3):e1009468. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD, United States of America.

Doublesex (Dsx) and Fruitless (Fru) are the two downstream transcription factors that actuate Drosophila sex determination. While Dsx assists Fru to regulate sex-specific behavior, whether Fru collaborates with Dsx in regulating other aspects of sexual dimorphism remains unknown. One important aspect of sexual dimorphism is found in the gonad stem cell (GSC) niches, where male and female GSCs are regulated to create large numbers of sperm and eggs. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Understanding the Biological Basis of Glioblastoma Patient-derived Spheroids.

Anticancer Res 2021 Mar;41(3):1183-1195

Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College/Westchester Medical Center, Valhalla, NY, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Resistance to glioblastoma (GB) therapy is attributed to the presence of glioblastoma stem cells (GSC). Here, we defined the behavior of GSC as it pertains to proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis.

Materials And Methods: Human-derived GSC were isolated and cultured from GB patient tumors. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Uncovering a novel function of the CCR4-NOT complex in phytochrome A-mediated light signalling in plants.

Elife 2021 Mar 30;10. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Biology II, Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Phytochromes are photoreceptors regulating growth and development in plants. Using the model plant Arabidopsis, we identified a novel signalling pathway downstream of the far-red light-sensing phytochrome, phyA, that depends on the highly conserved CCR4-NOT complex. CCR4-NOT is integral to RNA metabolism in yeast and animals, but its function in plants is largely unknown. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Analysis of intraoperative human brain tissue transcriptome reveals putative risk genes and altered molecular pathways in glioma-related seizures.

Epilepsy Res 2021 Mar 18;173:106618. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The pathogenesis of glioma-related seizures (GRS) is poorly understood. Here in, we aim to identify putative molecular pathways that lead to the development of GRS.

Methods: We determined brain transcriptome from intraoperative human brain tissue of patients with either GRS, glioma without seizures (non-GRS), or with idiopathic temporal lobe epilepsy (iTLE). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Highly parallelized droplet cultivation and prioritization on antibiotic producers from natural microbial communities.

Elife 2021 Mar 25;10. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Bio Pilot Plant, Leibniz Institute for Natural Products Research and Infection Biology - Hans-Knöll-Institute, Jena, Germany.

Antibiotics from few culturable microorganisms have saved millions of lives since the 20 century. But with resistance formation, these compounds become increasingly ineffective, while the majority of microbial and with that chemical compound diversity remains inaccessible for cultivation and exploration. Culturing recalcitrant bacteria is a stochastic process. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF


Thyroid 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Baystate Health, 7476, Medicine, 759 Chestnut Street, Springfield, Massachusetts, United States, 01199;

Background: Thyroid nodules are a very common, often incidental finding on physical exam or imaging. Of those that undergo fine needle aspiration, cytology is indeterminate in up to 15%. Molecular testing is increasingly being used to help identify which nodules may be high risk for malignancy and guide management in regard to clinical follow up or surgical intervention. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Role of glioblastoma stem cells in cancer therapeutic resistance: a perspective on antineoplastic agents from natural sources and chemical derivatives.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Mar 24;12(1):206. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Molecular Oncology Research Center, Barretos Cancer Hospital, Rua Antenor Duarte Villela, 1331, CEP 14784 400, Barretos, São Paulo, Brazil.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the highest-grade form of glioma, as well as one of the most aggressive types of cancer, exhibiting rapid cellular growth and highly invasive behavior. Despite significant advances in diagnosis and therapy in recent decades, the outcomes for high-grade gliomas (WHO grades III-IV) remain unfavorable, with a median overall survival time of 15-18 months. The concept of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has emerged and provided new insight into GBM resistance and management. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Mad dephosphorylation at the nuclear pore is essential for asymmetric stem cell division.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Department of Cell Biology, University of Connecticut Health, Farmington, CT 06030;

Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate a stem cell and a differentiating daughter cell. Yet, it remains poorly understood how a stem cell and a differentiating daughter cell can receive distinct levels of niche signal and thus acquire different cell fates (self-renewal versus differentiation), despite being adjacent to each other and thus seemingly exposed to similar levels of niche signaling. In the ovary, germline stem cells (GSCs) are maintained by short range bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling; the BMP ligands activate a receptor that phosphorylates the downstream molecule mothers against decapentaplegic (Mad). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Targeting Several Biologically Reported Targets of Glioblastoma Multiforme by Assaying 2D and 3D Cultured Cells.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratorio de Diseño y Desarrollo de Nuevos Fármacos y Productos Biotecnológicos, Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación, Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Plan de San Luis y Díaz Mirón, 11340, México City, Mexico.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is account for 70% of all primary malignancies of the central nervous system. The median survival of human patients after treatment is around 15 months. There are several biological targets which have been reported that can be pursued using ligands with varied structures to treat this disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

CDK8 maintains stemness and tumorigenicity of glioma stem cells by regulating the c-MYC pathway.

Oncogene 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Bioactive Molecules, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu, Japan.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant form of glioma. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) contribute to the initiation, progression, and recurrence of GBM as a result of their self-renewal potential and tumorigenicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase 8 (CDK8) belongs to the transcription-related CDK family. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nutrient starvation induces apoptosis and autophagy in C6 glioma stem-like cells.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 26;7(2):e06352. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Neuroscience, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 10400, Thailand.

Glioblastoma is a severe cancer with extremely poor survival. Its treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. However, glioma stem-like cells (GSCs)-a subpopulation of tumor-propagating glioblastoma cells-cause post-treatment recurrence and are a major factor in the poor prognosis of the disease. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Glioma Stem Cells as Immunotherapeutic Targets: Advancements and Challenges.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:615704. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Ben & Catherine Ivy Center for Advanced Brain Tumor Treatment, Swedish Neuroscience Institute, Seattle, WA, United States.

Glioblastoma is the most common and lethal primary brain malignancy. Despite major investments in research into glioblastoma biology and drug development, treatment remains limited and survival has not substantially improved beyond 1-2 years. Cancer stem cells (CSC) or glioma stem cells (GSC) refer to a population of tumor originating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Mitochondria's Role in the Maintenance of Cancer Stem Cells in Glioblastoma.

Front Oncol 2021 22;11:582694. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Neurosurgery, The 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University Medical School, Hangzhou, China.

Glioblastoma (GBM), one of the deadliest primary brain malignancies, is characterized by a high recurrence rate due to its limited response to existing therapeutic strategies such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and surgery. Several mechanisms and pathways have been identified to be responsible for GBM therapeutic resistance. Glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) are known culprits of GBM resistance to therapy. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

Carbonic Anhydrase XII is a Clinically Significant, Molecular Tumor-Subtype Specific Therapeutic Target in Glioma with the Potential to Combat Invasion of Brain Tumor Cells.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 4;14:1707-1718. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Molecular Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: The metabolic enzyme carbonic anhydrase 12 (CA12/CAXII) emerges as a promising cancer therapeutic target with drug development projects underway. Previous reports proposed the relevance of CA12 in the context of glioma but are limited in patient data quantity, ignore ethnic diversity of patients or rely on semi-quantitative, thereby out of date, methodology. Moreover, little is known on the association of CA12 to brain tumor stemness or on the effect of anti-CAXII-directed monotherapies on glioma stem cells (GSCs), in particular their response regarding mesenchymal differentiation status. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nanostructured lipid carrier co-delivering paclitaxel and doxorubicin restrains the proliferation and promotes apoptosis of glioma stem cells via regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling.

Nanotechnology 2021 Mar 10;32(22):225101. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Neurology, North China University of Science and Technology Affiliated Hospital, Tangshan 063000, People's Republic of China.

The development of safe and efficient nanocomposites remains a huge challenge in targeted therapy of glioma. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs), which facilitate specific site drug delivery, have been widely used in glioma treatment. Herein, we aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and therapeutic impact of paclitaxel (PTX) and doxorubicin (DOX) loaded NLC (PTX-DOX-NLC) on glioma stem cells (GSCs). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

In Vitro Methods for the Study of Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cell Radiosensitivity.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2269:37-47

Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Ionizing radiation is a critical component of glioblastoma (GBM) therapy. Recent data have implicated glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) as determinants of GBM development, maintenance, and treatment response. Understanding the response of GSCs to radiation should thus provide insight into the development of improved GBM treatment strategies. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

miRNA-mediated loss of m6A increases nascent translation in glioblastoma.

PLoS Genet 2021 Mar 8;17(3):e1009086. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Laboratory of Cancer Epigenetics and Plasticity, Brown University, Rhode Island Hospital, Providence Rhode Island, United States of America.

Within the glioblastoma cellular niche, glioma stem cells (GSCs) can give rise to differentiated glioma cells (DGCs) and, when necessary, DGCs can reciprocally give rise to GSCs to maintain the cellular equilibrium necessary for optimal tumor growth. Here, using ribosome profiling, transcriptome and m6A RNA sequencing, we show that GSCs from patients with different subtypes of glioblastoma share a set of transcripts, which exhibit a pattern of m6A loss and increased protein translation during differentiation. The target sequences of a group of miRNAs overlap the canonical RRACH m6A motifs of these transcripts, many of which confer a survival advantage in glioblastoma. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

An Integrated Bioinformatics Study of a Novel Niclosamide Derivative, NSC765689, a Potential /// Suppressor with Anti-Glioblastoma Properties.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 28;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 28.

PhD Program for Cancer Molecular Biology and Drug Discovery, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University and Academia Sinica, Taipei 11031, Taiwan.

Despite management efforts with standard surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, glioblastoma multiform (GBM) remains resistant to treatment, which leads to tumor recurrence due to glioma stem cells (GSCs) and therapy resistance. In this study, we used random computer-based prediction and target identification to assess activities of our newly synthesized niclosamide-derived compound, NSC765689, to target GBM oncogenic signaling. Using target prediction analyses, we identified (), , signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (), and cluster of differentiation 44 () as potential druggable candidates of NSC765689. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF
February 2021

HP1 proteins compact DNA into mechanically and positionally stable phase separated domains.

Elife 2021 Mar 4;10. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, United States.

In mammals, HP1-mediated heterochromatin forms positionally and mechanically stable genomic domains even though the component HP1 paralogs, HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ, display rapid on-off dynamics. Here, we investigate whether phase-separation by HP1 proteins can explain these biological observations. Using bulk and single-molecule methods, we show that, within phase-separated HP1α-DNA condensates, HP1α acts as a dynamic liquid, while compacted DNA molecules are constrained in local territories. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF