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Screening for hypophosphatasia: does biochemistry lead the way?

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of General Pediatrics, Adolescent Medicine and Neonatology, Medical Centre, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Objectives: Patients with childhood hypophosphatasia (HPP) often have unspecific symptoms. It was our aim to identify patients with mild forms of HPP by laboratory data screening for decreased alkaline phosphatase (AP) within a pediatric population.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective hospital-based data screening for AP activity below the following limits: Girls: ≤12 years: <125 U/L; >12 years: <50 U/L Boys: ≤14 years: <125 U/L; >14 years: <70 U/L. Read More

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September 2021

CSCD2: an integrated interactional database of cancer-specific circular RNAs.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan430071, China.

The significant function of circRNAs in cancer was recognized in recent work, so a well-organized resource is required for characterizing the interactions between circRNAs and other functional molecules (such as microRNA and RNA-binding protein) in cancer. We previously developed cancer-specific circRNA database (CSCD), a comprehensive database for cancer-specific circRNAs, which is widely used in circRNA research. Here, we updated CSCD to CSCD2 (http://geneyun. Read More

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September 2021

Animal-eRNAdb: a comprehensive animal enhancer RNA database.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Agricultural Bioinformatics, College of Informatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, P.R. China.

Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs transcribed from enhancers. As the markers of active enhancers, eRNAs play important roles in gene regulation and are associated with various complex traits and characteristics. With increasing attention to eRNAs, numerous eRNAs have been identified in different human tissues. Read More

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September 2021

Prophage Tracer: precisely tracing prophages in prokaryotic genomes using overlapping split-read alignment.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology, Guangdong Key Laboratory of Marine Materia Medica, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1119, Haibin Road, Nansha District, Guangzhou 511458, China.

The life cycle of temperate phages includes a lysogenic cycle stage when the phage integrates into the host genome and becomes a prophage. However, the identification of prophages that are highly divergent from known phages remains challenging. In this study, by taking advantage of the lysis-lysogeny switch of temperate phages, we designed Prophage Tracer, a tool for recognizing active prophages in prokaryotic genomes using short-read sequencing data, independent of phage gene similarity searching. Read More

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September 2021

ZNF598 co-translationally titrates poly(GR) protein implicated in the pathogenesis of C9ORF72-associated ALS/FTD.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Biological Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

C9ORF72-derived dipeptide repeat proteins have emerged as the pathogenic cause of neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9-ALS/FTD). However, the mechanisms underlying their expression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that ZNF598, the rate-limiting factor for ribosome-associated quality control (RQC), co-translationally titrates the expression of C9ORF72-derived poly(GR) protein. Read More

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September 2021

Efficient and targeted COVID-19 border testing via reinforcement learning.

Nature 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Internal Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, countries relied on a variety of ad-hoc border control protocols to allow for non-essential travel while safeguarding public health: from quarantining all travellers to restricting entry from select nations based on population-level epidemiological metrics such as cases, deaths or testing positivity rates. Here we report the design and performance of a reinforcement learning system, nicknamed 'Eva'. In the summer of 2020, Eva was deployed across all Greek borders to limit the influx of asymptomatic travellers infected with SARS-CoV-2, and to inform border policies through real-time estimates of COVID-19 prevalence. Read More

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September 2021

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia with the KMT2A-Mixed Lineage Leukemia T10 Fusion: An Analysis of 10 Cases Showed Common Features and Frequent Mutations in the RAS Signaling Pathway.

Acta Haematol 2021 Sep 22:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Hematology, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou No.2 People's Hospital, Changzhou, China.

Mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) T10 is a relatively rare partner for the KMT2A lysine (K)-specific methyltransferase 2A gene. The common features and coexisting mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with KMT2A-MLLT10 remain unknown. In this study, 10 adult AML patients with KMT2A-MLLT10 fusions were picked up from 496 AML patients by using RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization, and then screened for mutations in the 49 genes panel with next-generation sequencing and PCR, followed by direct Sanger sequencing. Read More

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September 2021

Infantile hypercalcaemia type 1: a vitamin D-mediated, under-recognised cause of hypercalcaemia.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2021 Sep 1;2021. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, UK.

Summary: A 33-year-old gentleman of Egyptian heritage presented with a 21 years history of unexplained and recurrent hypercalcaemia, nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and myocarditis. A similar history was also found in two first-degree relatives. Further investigation into the vitamin D metabolism pathway identified the biochemical hallmarks of infantile hypercalcaemia type 1 (IIH). Read More

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September 2021

Internet-like brain hierarchical network model: Alzheimer's disease study as an example.

Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2021 Sep 4;211:106393. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

College of Information Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, 1550 Harbor Avenue, Pudong, Shanghai, 201306, China.

Background And Objective: The modular structure and hierarchy are important topological characteristics in real complex networks such as brain networks on temporal scale. However, there are few studies investigating the hierarchical structure at the spatial scale of brain networks, the application of which still remains to be further studied.

Methods: In this study, a novel model of brain hierarchical network based on the hierarchical characteristic of Internet topology is proposed for the first time, which is called Internet-like brain hierarchical network (IBHN). Read More

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September 2021

A urine and serum metabolomics study of gastroesophageal reflux disease in TCM syndrome differentiation using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 15;206:114369. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Department of Chemistry, Capital Normal University, No. 105, Xisanhuanbeilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100048, PR China. Electronic address:

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common, chronic and complex upper gastrointestinal disease. In Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, GERD is classified into two main types: stagnant heat of liver and stomach (SHLS) and deficient cold of spleen and stomach (DCSS). The discovery and evaluation of potential biomarkers for different syndrome types of GERD may contribute to comprehend specific molecular mechanism and identify new targets for diagnosis and appropriate management. Read More

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September 2021

SNP prioritization in targeted sequencing data associated with humoral immune responses in chicken.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 19;100(11):101433. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Biostatistics Group, Department of Genetics, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wrocław, Poland; National Research Institute of Animal Production, Balice, Poland.

Our study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with a significant impact on the innate immunity represented by antibody response against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoid acid (LTA) and the adaptive immune response represented toward keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) using the SNP prioritization method. Data set consisted of 288 F2 experimental individuals, created by crossing Green-legged Partridgelike and White Leghorn. The analyzed SNPs were located within 24 short genomic regions of GGA1, GGA2, GGA3, GGA4, GGA9, GGA10, GGA14, GGA18, and GGZ, pre-targeted based on literature references and database information. Read More

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Chinese patent medicine Aidi injection for cancer care: An overview of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 19:114656. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Centre for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, 100029, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Aidi injection is one of the China Food and Drug Administration approved Chinese herbal injections and the most competitive product in cancer care in China. It is composed of the extracts from Mylabris Phalerata, Astragalus Membranaceus, Panax Ginseng, and Acanthopanax Senticosus.

Aim Of The Study: This overview aims to map systematic reviews (SRs) of Aidi injection for cancer and provide a summarized evidence for clinical practice and decision making. Read More

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September 2021

Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activity of beta-defensin from the Chinese spiny frog (Quasipaa spinosa).

Dev Comp Immunol 2021 Sep 19:104264. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

College of Ecology, Lishui University, Lishui, 323000, China. Electronic address:

The β-defensins are important components of the vertebrate innate immune system. While mammalian β-defensins have wide-ranging antibacterial and immunomodulatory activities, those of amphibians remain largely uncharacterised. In this study, β-defensin cDNA was identified from the skin transcriptome of the Chinese spiny frog Quasipaa spinosa. Read More

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September 2021

Assessment of cefepime toxico-dynamics: comprehensive examination of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets for cefepime-induced neurotoxicity and evaluation of current dosing guidelines.

Int J Antimicrob Agents 2021 Sep 19:106443. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

UniSA Clinical and Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Background: Cefepime-induced neurotoxicity (CIN) is an increasingly reported adverse event; however, the toxicity threshold remains unclear. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive examination of the most appropriate threshold for CIN, and evaluate the ability of current dosing regimens to attain therapeutic targets.

Methods: Data of CIN incidence and cefepime plasma concentrations were collected retrospectively from patients administered cefepime. Read More

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September 2021

A Realist Evaluation Analysis of a Novel Multi-Faceted Inpatient Patient Navigation Program.

Acad Pediatr 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children's Research Institute, 1920 Terry Ave, M/S CURE-3, Seattle, Washington 98101; Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children's Hospital, 4800 Sandpoint Way NE, Seattle WA, 98105.

Objectives: Children of color and from low-income families experience disparities in hospital care and outcomes. This study examined the experiences of parents and providers who participated in a novel patient navigation program designed to address these disparities.

Methods: Between April and October 2018, we conducted semi-structured interviews with parents enrolled in the Family Bridge navigation pilot study, and inpatient care providers. Read More

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September 2021

Hypomethylating agents and FLT3 inhibitors as maintenance treatment for acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Leukemia Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY; Department of Medical Oncology, Adult Leukemia Program, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA.

Background: Disease relapse remains the major cause of death among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who receive an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT). Maintenance treatment with FLT3 inhibitors and hypomethylating agents (HMA) has been studied in various clinical trials with mixed results.

Objective: To synthesize the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of FLT3 inhibitors and HMA for maintenance therapy following allo-HCT in AML and MDS. Read More

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September 2021

Impact of In-Hospital Infection with SARS-CoV-2 among Inpatients at a University Hospital.

Am J Infect Control 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Infectious Diseases Division, Infection Control Committee, Hospital São Paulo, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of nosocomial infection and the impact of cross-transmission of SARS-CoV-2 among inpatients at a tertiary care teaching hospital.

Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study involving inpatients admitted to a tertiary university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 2020 and February 2021. Cases were identified on the basis of a positive reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction result for SARS-CoV-2 and the review of electronic medical records. Read More

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September 2021

Exosomal OTULIN from M2 macrophages promotes the recovery of spinal cord injuries via stimulating Wnt/β-catenin pathway-mediated vascular regeneration.

Acta Biomater 2021 Sep 19. Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Spine Surgery and Orthopaedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China; Key Laboratory of Organ Injury, Aging and Regenerative Medicine of Hunan Province, 410008, Changsha, China; Hunan Engineering Research Center of Sports and Health; National Clinical Research Center for Geriatric Disorders, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. Electronic address:

Vascularization following spinal cord injury (SCI) provides trophic support for rebuilding up and maintaining the homeostasis of neuronal networks, and the promotion of angiogenesis is beneficial for functional recovery after SCI. M2 macrophages have been reported to exhibit powerful pro-angiogenic functions during tissue repair. Exosomes are important paracrine mediators of their parent cells and play critical roles in tissue regeneration. Read More

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September 2021

Cellular bases of olfactory circuit assembly revealed by systematic time-lapse imaging.

Cell 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

Neural circuit assembly features simultaneous targeting of numerous neuronal processes from constituent neuron types, yet the dynamics is poorly understood. Here, we use the Drosophila olfactory circuit to investigate dynamic cellular processes by which olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) target axons precisely to specific glomeruli in the ipsi- and contralateral antennal lobes. Time-lapse imaging of individual axons from 30 ORN types revealed a rich diversity in extension speed, innervation timing, and ipsilateral branch locations and identified that ipsilateral targeting occurs via stabilization of transient interstitial branches. Read More

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September 2021

UQCRC1 engages cytochrome c for neuronal apoptotic cell death.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(12):109729

Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Human ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 1 (UQCRC1) is an evolutionarily conserved core subunit of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex III. We recently identified the disease-associated variants of UQCRC1 from patients with familial parkinsonism, but its function remains unclear. Here we investigate the endogenous function of UQCRC1 in the human neuronal cell line and the Drosophila nervous system. Read More

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September 2021

Cerebellar spreading depolarization mediates paroxysmal movement disorder.

Cell Rep 2021 Sep;36(12):109743

Institute of Neuroscience, State Key Laboratory of Neuroscience, Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200031, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Shanghai Center for Brain Science and Brain-Inspired Intelligence Technology, Shanghai 201210, China. Electronic address:

Paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) is the most common paroxysmal dyskinesia, characterized by recurrent episodes of involuntary movements provoked by sudden changes in movement. Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the major causative gene for PKD. Here, we report that PRRT2 deficiency facilitates the induction of cerebellar spreading depolarization (SD) and inhibition of cerebellar SD prevents the occurrence of dyskinetic movements. Read More

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September 2021

A ROR2 coding variant is associated with craniofacial variation in domestic pigeons.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 15. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

School of Biological Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112, USA. Electronic address:

Vertebrate craniofacial morphogenesis is a highly orchestrated process that is directed by evolutionarily conserved developmental pathways. Within species, canalized development typically produces modest morphological variation. However, as a result of millennia of artificial selection, the domestic pigeon displays radical craniofacial variation within a single species. Read More

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September 2021

Prey partitioning and livestock consumption in the world's richest large carnivore assemblage.

Curr Biol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China; Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. Electronic address:

Large mammalian carnivores have undergone catastrophic declines during the Anthropocene across the world. Despite their pivotal roles as apex predators in food webs and ecosystem dynamics, few detailed dietary datasets of large carnivores exist, prohibiting deep understanding of their coexistence and persistence in human-dominated landscapes. Here, we present fine-scaled, quantitative trophic interactions among sympatric carnivores from three assemblages in the Mountains of Southwest China, a global biodiversity hotspot harboring the world's richest large-carnivore diversity, derived from DNA metabarcoding of 1,097 fecal samples. Read More

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September 2021

From Monochromatic to Technicolor: Parent Perspectives on Challenges and Approaches to Seeing Children with Severe Neurological Impairment Holistically.

J Palliat Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Division of Bioethics and Palliative Care, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Children with severe neurological impairment (SNI) commonly receive care in the hospital setting necessitating frequent interactions with clinicians. Yet, parents report that clinicians often have a limited understanding of their child's unique needs and abilities which hinders their care. This study aimed to understand the challenges and suggested approaches parents identified to seeing their child holistically. Read More

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September 2021

QKI-Regulated Alternative Splicing Events in Cervical Cancer: Pivotal Mechanism and Potential Therapeutic Strategy.

DNA Cell Biol 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, China.

QKI is a vital regulator in RNA splicing and maturation, but its role in cervical cancer (CC) is little known. In this study, we found that QKI is decreased in human CC, and overexpression of QKI inhibits HeLa cell proliferation and promotes the apoptosis of cancer cells. We identified hundreds of endogenous QKI-regulated alternative splicing events (ASEs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in QKI-overexpressed HeLa cells by RNA-seq and selectively validated their expression by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Read More

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September 2021

A Robust Prognostic Signature of Tumor Microenvironment in Colorectal Cancer.

Cancer Biother Radiopharm 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, P.R. China.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been a major public health problem. Tumor microenvironment (TME) greatly contributes to the heterogeneity of CRC and is crucial for the regulation of CRC progression. The authors' study wanted to develop a robust prognostic signature for CRC patients based on TME-related genes. Read More

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September 2021

Plasmon Character Index: An Accurate and Efficient Metric for Identifying and Quantifying Plasmons in Molecules.

J Phys Chem Lett 2021 Sep 22:9391-9397. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Theoretical Chemistry Institute and Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, United States.

Plasmons, which are collective and coherent oscillations of charge carriers driven by an external field, play an important role in applications such as solar energy harvesting, sensing, and catalysis. Conventionally, plasmons are found in bulk and nanomaterials and can be described with classical electrodynamics. In recent years, plasmons have also been identified in molecules, and these molecules have been utilized to build plasmonic devices. Read More

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September 2021

Allosteric Control of Structural Mimicry and Mutational Escape in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Complexes with the ACE2 Decoys and Miniprotein Inhibitors: A Network-Based Approach for Mutational Profiling of Binding and Signaling.

J Chem Inf Model 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Keck Center for Science and Engineering, Department of Computational and Data Sciences, Schmid College of Science and Technology, Chapman University, One University Drive, Orange, California 92866, United States.

We developed a computational framework for comprehensive and rapid mutational scanning of binding energetics and residue interaction networks in the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complexes. Using this approach, we integrated atomistic simulations and conformational landscaping of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein complexes with ensemble-based mutational screening and network modeling to characterize mechanisms of structure-functional mimicry and resilience toward mutational escape by the ACE2 protein decoy and de novo designed miniprotein inhibitors. A detailed analysis of structural plasticity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins obtained from atomistic simulations of conformational landscapes and sequence-based profiling of the disorder propensities revealed the intrinsically flexible regions that harbor key functional sites targeted by circulating variants. Read More

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September 2021

Evidence of Artemisinin-Resistant Malaria in Africa.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep;385(13):1163-1171

From the Department of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, School of Medicine (B.B., N.F., M.I., S.-I.T., M.Y., S.E., T.M.), and the Atopy Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine (B.B.), Juntendo University, Tokyo, the School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (E.K.), and the Department of Malaria Vaccine Development, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Osaka (N.M.Q.P., T.H.) - all in Japan; and Mildmay Uganda, Nazibwa Hill, Kampala (O.T.K.), and St. Mary's Hospital Lacor (W.O., M.O.) and the Faculty of Medicine, Gulu University (D.A.A., E.I.O.-A.), Gulu - all in Uganda.

Background: In the six Southeast Asian countries that make up the Greater Mekong Subregion, has developed resistance to derivatives of artemisinin, the main component of first-line treatments for malaria. Clinical resistance to artemisinin monotherapy in other global regions, including Africa, would be problematic.

Methods: In this longitudinal study conducted in Northern Uganda, we treated patients who had infection with intravenous artesunate (a water-soluble artemisinin derivative) and estimated the parasite clearance half-life. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine at Completion of Blinded Phase.

N Engl J Med 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

From Baylor College of Medicine, Houston (H.M.E.S.), and Javara, The Woodlands (C.K.) - both in Texas; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston (L.R.B.), and Moderna, Cambridge (A.A., H.C., W.D., S.H., B.L., D.M., R.P., F.S., J.E.T., H.Z., J.M.) - both in Massachusetts; Meridian Clinical Research, Baton Rouge, LA (B.E., F.E.); University of Miami, Miami (S.D.-L.), and DeLand Clinical Research Unit, DeLand (B.R.) - both in Florida; University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh (J.M.M.); Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta (E.J.A.); University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (T.B.C.); University of California, Los Angeles (J.C.), and Wake Research-Medical Center for Clinical Research, San Diego (L.H.-C.) - both in California; Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute (L.A.J.), and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (L.C., P.G., H.J.) - both in Seattle; University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati (C.J.F.); Henry Ford Health System, Detroit (M.Z.); Vitalink Research, Greenville, SC (G.F.); Clinical Research Center of Nevada, Wake Research, Las Vegas (M.L.); and the University of Maryland, College Park (K.M.N.), and the Vaccine Research Center (J.R.M., J.E.L., B.S.G.), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (D.F., M.M., L.P.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda - both in Maryland.

Background: At interim analysis in a phase 3, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, the mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy in preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). After emergency use of the vaccine was authorized, the protocol was amended to include an open-label phase. Read More

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September 2021