305,175 results match your criteria growth fungi

The effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus: An in vitro study.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 Jun 4;221:112240. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Laser Institute for Research and Applications LIRA, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef 62511, Egypt. Electronic address:

We investigated the effect of femtosecond laser irradiation on the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus. In order to improve laser-based antimicrobial therapy and develop a clinically viable modality, various laser parameters such as laser light wavelength, laser power, exposure time, and energy density were studied. The INSPIRE HF100 laser system (Spectra Physics) provided the femtosecond laser light, which was pumped by a mode-locked femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser MAI TAI HP (Spectra Physics). Read More

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Role of amylopectin synthesis in and its implication in vaccine development against toxoplasmosis.

Open Biol 2021 Jun 16;11(6):200384. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China.

is a ubiquitous pathogen infecting one-third of the global population. A significant fraction of toxoplasmosis cases is caused by reactivation of existing chronic infections. The encysted bradyzoites during chronic infection accumulate high levels of amylopectin that is barely present in fast-replicating tachyzoites. Read More

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Interaction between CO2-consuming autotrophy and CO2-producing heterotrophy in non-axenic phototrophic biofilms.

PLoS One 2021 15;16(6):e0253224. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

As the effects of climate change become increasingly evident, the need for effective CO2 management is clear. Microalgae are well-suited for CO2 sequestration, given their ability to rapidly uptake and fix CO2. They also readily assimilate inorganic nutrients and produce a biomass with inherent commercial value, leading to a paradigm in which CO2-sequestration, enhanced wastewater treatment, and biomass generation could be effectively combined. Read More

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Maize mycorrhizas increase the susceptibility of the foliar insect herbivore Spodoptera frugiperda to its homologous nucleopolyhedrovirus.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Instituto de investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Km 9.5 carretera Morelia- Zinapécuaro, CP 58880, Tarímbaro, Michoacán, Mexico.

Background: The multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV) plays an important role in regulating its natural host and has a high potential to be used as a bioinsecticide. However, information about how agricultural practice such as fertilization and plant biotic interactions affect the biocontrol efficacy of SfMNPV is limited. In this study, we examined how multitrophic maize-mycorrhiza-insect herbivore interactions affect the biocontrol efficacy of SfMNPV against S. Read More

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Laminin alpha 5 regulates mammary gland remodeling through luminal cell differentiation and Wnt4-mediated epithelial crosstalk.

Development 2021 Jun 15;148(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Institute of Biotechnology, Helsinki Institute of Life Sciences (HiLIFE), 00014 University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Epithelial attachment to the basement membrane (BM) is essential for mammary gland development, yet the exact roles of specific BM components remain unclear. Here, we show that Laminin α5 (Lama5) expression specifically in the luminal epithelial cells is necessary for normal mammary gland growth during puberty, and for alveologenesis during pregnancy. Lama5 loss in the keratin 8-expressing cells results in reduced frequency and differentiation of hormone receptor expressing (HR+) luminal cells. Read More

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Exploring antimicrobial resistance to beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and fluoroquinolones in E. coli and K. pneumoniae using proteogenomics.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 14;11(1):12472. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Neurology, Neuro-Oncology Laboratory/Clinical and Cancer Proteomics, Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Antimicrobial resistance is mostly studied by means of phenotypic growth inhibition determinations, in combination with PCR confirmations or further characterization by means of whole genome sequencing (WGS). However, the actual proteins that cause resistance such as enzymes and a lack of porins cannot be detected by these methods. Improvements in liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS) enabled easier and more comprehensive proteome analysis. Read More

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Molecular laterality encodes stress susceptibility in the medial prefrontal cortex.

Mol Brain 2021 Jun 14;14(1):92. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Behavioral Genetics Lab., Department of Biological Sciences, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701, Korea.

Functional lateralization of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress and emotional disorders, yet underlying gene expression changes remains unknown. Here, we report molecular signatures lateralized by chronic social defeats between the two medial prefrontal cortices (mPFCs). Stressed mice show 526 asymmetrically expressed genes between the mPFCs. Read More

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The Iranian Newborn Multiples Registry (IRNMR): a registry protocol.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 14:1-4. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Cancer Research Center, Cancer Institute of Iran, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Over the last decades, several twin/multiples registries have been developed worldwide, mostly concentrated in Europe and high-income countries (HICs). In Iran, we lack accurate nationwide epidemiological and biobank data on twins. We established the Iranian Newborn Multiples Registry (IRNMR) to evaluate the role of genetics and environmental factors in the variation of phenotypes among newborn monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. Read More

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The effects of syringic acid on the properties of MCPA-contaminated soil and the growth of two cucurbit species.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Jun 14:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

UNESCO Chair on Ecohydrology and Applied Ecology, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland.

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of syringic acid (SA), a plant secondary metabolite (PSM), on the properties of soil contaminated with 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and the condition of two cucurbit species zucchini ( L. 'Atena Polka') and cucumber ( 'Cezar') grown on that soil. It was found that amendment with MCPA and MCPA + SA modified the soil physico-chemical properties. Read More

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Soft but Not Too Soft-How a Rigid Tube Expands without Breaking.

mBio 2021 Jun 15:e0050121. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.

Fungi grow by apical extension of their hyphae. The continuous growth requires constant delivery of vesicles, which fuse with the membrane and secrete cell wall biosynthesis enzymes. The growth mechanism requires the fungal cytoskeleton and turgor pressure. Read More

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Comparative Biofilm Assays Using Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF Identify New Determinants of Biofilm Formation.

mBio 2021 Jun 15:e0101121. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

Enterococcus faecalis is a common commensal organism and a prolific nosocomial pathogen that causes biofilm-associated infections. Numerous E. faecalis OG1RF genes required for biofilm formation have been identified, but few studies have compared genetic determinants of biofilm formation and biofilm morphology across multiple conditions. Read More

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The dynamics of phosphorus fractions and the factors driving phosphorus cycle in Zoige Plateau peatland soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 6;278:130501. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

College of Environmental Sciences, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, PR China; College of Resources, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient, limiting plant growth and microbial activity in many ecosystems. However, a few studies have been conducted to investigate P dynamics and the factors driving P dynamics in peatland soils. Therefore, this study chose Zoige Plateau peatland (the largest peatland in China) to reveal P dynamics and the possible driving factors through fractionating soil P and investigating a series of abiotic and biotic factors. Read More

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September 2021

5-Deoxyadenosine Metabolism: More than "Waste Disposal".

Microb Physiol 2021 Jun 14:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Interfaculty Institute of Microbiology and Infection Medicine, Microbiology/Organismic Interactions, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

5-Deoxyadenosine (5dAdo) is a by-product of many radical SAM enzyme reactions in all domains of life, and an inhibitor of the radical SAM enzymes themselves. Hence, pathways to recycle or dispose of this toxic by-product must exist but remain largely unexplored. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge about canonical and atypical 5dAdo salvage pathways that have been characterized in the last years. Read More

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Elevated CO differently suppresses the arsenic oxide nanoparticles-induced stress in C3 (Hordeum vulgare) and C4 (Zea maize) plants via altered homeostasis in metabolites specifically proline and anthocyanin metabolism.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jun 6;166:235-245. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Beni-Suef University, Beni-Suef, 62511, Egypt; Integrated Molecular Plant Physiology Research, Department of Biology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium.

Nano-sized arsenic oxide nanoparticles (AsO-NP) limit crop growth and productivity. AsO-NP represent a strong environmental hazard. The predicted rise in future atmospheric CO could boost plant growth both under optimal and heavy metal stress conditions. Read More

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sRNA-mediated RNA processing regulates bacterial cell division.

Nucleic Acids Res 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Tight control of cell division is essential for survival of most organisms. For prokaryotes, the regulatory mechanisms involved in the control of cell division are mostly unknown. We show that the small non-coding sRNA StsR has an important role in controlling cell division and growth in the alpha-proteobacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Read More

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VPS18-regulated vesicle trafficking controls the secretion of pectin and its modifying enzyme during pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

State Key Laboratory for Protein and Plant Gene Research, Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Sciences at College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871, People's Republic of China.

In eukaryotes, homotypic fusion and vacuolar protein sorting (HOPS) as well as class C core vacuole/endosome tethering (CORVET) are evolutionarily conserved membrane tethering complexes that play important roles in lysosomal/vacuolar trafficking. Whether HOPS and CORVET control endomembrane trafficking in pollen tubes, the fastest growing plant cells, remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that the four core components shared by the two complexes, Vacuole protein sorting 11 (VPS11), VPS16, VPS33 and VPS18, are all essential for pollen tube growth in Arabidopsis thaliana and thus for plant reproduction success. Read More

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Anaerobic microbiota derived from the upper airways impact physiology.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 14:IAI0015321. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Minnesota, 689 23rd Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455.

is associated with the development of persistent and severe inflammatory diseases of the upper airways. Yet, is also carried asymptomatically in the sinonasal cavity of ∼50% of healthy adults. The cause(s) of this duality and host and microbial factors that tip the balance between pathogenesis and commensalism are poorly understood. Read More

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Mutations in a membrane permease or lead to 6-thioguanine resistance in .

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jun 14:AAC0076021. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada N6A 5C1.

We recently discovered that 6-thioguanine (6-TG) is an anti-virulence compound that is produced by a number of coagulase negative staphylococci. In , it inhibits purine biosynthesis and ribosomal protein expression, thus inhibiting growth and abrogating toxin production. Mechanisms by which may develop resistance to this compound are currently unknown. Read More

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The interaction of Akkermansia muciniphila with host-derived substances, bacteria and diets.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 WE, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Trillions of microbes inhabit the human gut and build extremely complex communities. Gut microbes contribute to host metabolisms for better or worse and are widely studied and associated with health and disease. Akkermansia muciniphila is a gut microbiota member, which uses mucin as both carbon and nitrogen sources. Read More

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Taxonomic and Metabolomics Profiling of Actinobacteria Strains from Himalayan Collection Sites in Pakistan.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Actinobacteria have proven themselves as the major producers of bioactive compounds with wide applications. In this study, 35 actinobacteria strains were isolated from soil samples collected from the Himalayan mountains region in Pakistan. The isolated strains were identified by polyphasic taxonomy and were prioritized based on biological and chemical screening to identify the strains with ability to produce inimitable metabolites. Read More

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Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Soil Streptomyces Isolates for Induction of Plant Resistance Against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV).

Curr Microbiol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44519, Egypt.

The ability of various Streptomyces isolates obtained from soil to induce systemic resistance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Supra) plant against Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV) was characterized in current study. Importantly, of nine Streptomyces isolates tested herein, the culture filtrate (CF) of one isolate, designated as Streptomyces ovatisporus LC597360, was the most effective. Read More

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The ChvG-ChvI and NtrY-NtrX two-component systems coordinately regulate growth of .

J Bacteriol 2021 Jun 14:JB0019921. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are comprised of a sensory histidine kinase and a response regulator protein. In response to environmental changes, sensor kinases directly phosphorylate their cognate response regulator to affect gene expression. Bacteria typically express multiple TCSs that are insulated from one another and regulate distinct physiological processes. Read More

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Advancing HIV Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies: From Discovery to the Clinic.

Front Public Health 2021 26;9:690017. Epub 2021 May 26.

Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR, United States.

Despite substantial progress in confronting the global HIV-1 epidemic since its inception in the 1980s, better approaches for both treatment and prevention will be necessary to end the epidemic and remain a top public health priority. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been effective in extending lives, but at a cost of lifelong adherence to treatment. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are directed to conserved regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env) and can block infection if present at the time of viral exposure. Read More

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Genome-Wide Analysis of Coding and Non-coding RNA Reveals a Conserved miR164-NAC-mRNA Regulatory Pathway for Disease Defense in .

Front Genet 2021 28;12:668940. Epub 2021 May 28.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to plant defense responses by increasing the overall genetic diversity; however, their origins and functional importance in plant defense remain unclear. Here, we employed Illumina sequencing technology to assess how miRNA and messenger RNA (mRNA) populations vary in the Chinese white poplar () during a leaf black spot fungus () infection. We sampled RNAs from infective leaves at conidia germinated stage [12 h post-inoculation (hpi)], infective vesicles stage (24 hpi), and intercellular infective hyphae stage (48 hpi), three essential stages associated with plant colonization and biotrophic growth in fungi. Read More

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Using Spectral Reflectance to Estimate the Leaf Chlorophyll Content of Maize Inoculated With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Water Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:646173. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China.

Leaf chlorophyll content is an important indicator of the growth and photosynthesis of maize under water stress. The promotion of maize physiological growth by (AMF) has been studied. However, studies of the effects of AMF on the leaf chlorophyll content of maize under water stress as observed through spectral information are rare. Read More

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Tumor-Derived Autophagosomes (DRibbles) Activate Human B Cells to Induce Efficient Antigen-Specific Human Memory T-Cell Responses.

Front Immunol 2021 26;12:675822. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

We have reported that tumor-derived autophagosomes (DRibbles) were efficient carriers of tumor antigens and DRibbles antigens could be present by DRibbles-activated B cells to stimulate effect and naïve T cells in mice. However, the effect of DRibbles on human B cells remains unclear. Herein, we found that DRibbles can also efficiently induce proliferation and activation of human B cells and lead to the production of chemokines, cytokines and hematopoietic growth factors. Read More

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Connective Tissue Growth Factor Is Overexpressed in Explant Lung Tissue and Broncho-Alveolar Lavage in Transplant-Related Pulmonary Fibrosis.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:661761. Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Chronic Diseases and Metabolism, Katholieke Universiteit, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is an important mediator in several fibrotic diseases, including lung fibrosis. We investigated CTGF-expression in chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) and pulmonary graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

Materials And Methods: CTGF expression was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in end-stage CLAD explant lung tissue (bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), n=20; restrictive allograft syndrome (RAS), n=20), pulmonary GHVD (n=9). Read More

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Research Progress on Phytopathogenic Fungi and Their Role as Biocontrol Agents.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:670135. Epub 2021 May 28.

College of Plant Protection, Gansu Agricultural University, Lanzhou, China.

Phytopathogenic fungi decrease crop yield and quality and cause huge losses in agricultural production. To prevent the occurrence of crop diseases and insect pests, farmers have to use many synthetic chemical pesticides. The extensive use of these pesticides has resulted in a series of environmental and ecological problems, such as the increase in resistant weed populations, soil compaction, and water pollution, which seriously affect the sustainable development of agriculture. Read More

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Lead Drives Complex Dynamics of a Conjugative Plasmid in a Bacterial Community.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:655903. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Proteomics and Microbiology, Research Institute for Biosciences, University of Mons, Mons, Belgium.

Plasmids carrying metal resistance genes (MRGs) have been suggested to be key ecological players in the adaptation of metal-impacted microbial communities, making them promising drivers of bio-remediation processes. However, the impact of metals on plasmid-mediated spread of MRGs through selection, plasmid loss, and transfer is far from being fully understood. In the present study, we used two-member bacterial communities to test the impact of lead on the dispersal of the IncP plasmid pKJK5 from a KT2440 plasmid donor and two distinct recipients, B4 or SPH-1 after 4 and 10 days of mating. Read More

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Bacterial Biofilm Growth on 3D-Printed Materials.

Front Microbiol 2021 28;12:646303. Epub 2021 May 28.

Center for Advanced Microbial Processing and Center for Surgical Infections and Biofilms, Institute for Molecular Medicine and Infectious Disease, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

Recent advances in 3D printing have led to a rise in the use of 3D printed materials in prosthetics and external medical devices. These devices, while inexpensive, have not been adequately studied for their ability to resist biofouling and biofilm buildup. Bacterial biofilms are a major cause of biofouling in the medical field and, therefore, hospital-acquired, and medical device infections. Read More

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