49,811 results match your criteria growth failure

Leukocyte transmigration efficiency and longitudinal forward-thrusting force in a microfluidic Transwell device.

Biophys J 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

LAI, Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, INSERM, Turing center for living systems, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Transmigration of leukocytes across blood vessels walls is a critical step of the immune response. Transwell assays examine transmigration properties in vitro by counting cells passages through a membrane, however the difficulty of in situ imaging hampers a clear disentanglement of the roles of adhesion, chemokinesis and chemotaxis. We used here microfluidic Transwells to image the cells transition from 2D migration on a surface to 3D migration in a confining microchannels, and measure cells longitudinal forward-thrusting force in microchannels. Read More

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A liquid culture cancer spheroid model reveals low PI3K/Akt pathway activity and low adhesiveness to the extracellular matrix.

FEBS J 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Three-dimensional (3D) cultures of cancer cells in liquid without extracellular matrix (ECM) offers in vitro models for metastasising conditions such as those in vessels and effusion. However, liquid culturing is often hindered by cell adhesiveness, which causes large cell clumps. We previously described a liquid culture material, LA717, which prevents non-clonal cell adhesion and subsequent clumping, thus allowing clonal growth of spheroids in an anchorage-independent manner. Read More

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Grain polydispersity and coherent crystal reorientations are features to foster stress hotspots in polycrystalline alloys under load.

Sci Adv 2021 Apr 9;7(15). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Departamento de Materiales y Nanotecnología, Facultad de Minas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia-Medellín, Medellín, Colombia.

The mechanical properties of metallic alloys are controlled through the design of their polycrystalline structure via heat treatments. For single-phase microstructures, they aim to achieve a particular average grain diameter to leverage stress hardening or softening. The stochastic nature of the recrystallization process generates a grain size distribution, and the randomness of the crystallographic orientation determines the anisotropy of a mechanical response. Read More

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Using Markov chain model to evaluate medical students' trajectory on progress tests and predict USMLE step 1 scores---a retrospective cohort study in one medical school.

BMC Med Educ 2021 Apr 9;21(1):200. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Medicine, Michigan State University, 909 Wilson Rd, 120 West Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Background: Medical students must meet curricular expectations and pass national licensing examinations to become physicians. However, no previous studies explicitly modeled stages of medical students acquiring basic science knowledge. In this study, we employed an innovative statistical model to characterize students' growth using progress testing results over time and predict licensing examination performance. Read More

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[Progress in the study of pulmonary fibrosis signaling pathways caused by paraquat poisoning].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Mar;33(3):377-380

Departmentof Emergency, Affiliated Hospital of Zunyi Medical University, Zunyi 563003, Guizhou, China. Corresponding author: Zhou Manhong, Email:

Paraquat is a quaternary ammonium herbicide, which can be distributed in lung, liver, kidney, heart, brain and other organs through blood circulation, leading to multiple organ failure, especially lung injury. Due to the lack of effective treatment methods and specific antidotes, the prognosis of most patients with paraquat poisoning is very poor. The treatment of paraquat poisoning was a big problem for emergency doctors. Read More

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Antimicrobial Peptide-Polymer Conjugates for Dentistry.

ACS Appl Polym Mater 2020 Mar 2;2(3):1134-1144. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

University of Kansas (KU), Lawrence, Kansas.

Bacterial adhesion and growth at the composite/adhesive/tooth interface remain the primary cause of dental composite restoration failure. Early colonizers, including , play a critical role in the formation of dental caries by creating an environment that reduces the adhesive's integrity. Subsequently, other bacterial species, biofilm formation, and lactic acid from demineralize the adjoining tooth. Read More

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Neurophysiologic Profiling of At-Risk Low and Very Low Birth-Weight Infants Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

Ying Qi Jingni He

Front Physiol 2021 23;12:638868. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Low birth-weight (LBW) and very low birth-weight (VLBW) newborns have increased risks of brain injuries, growth failure, motor difficulties, developmental coordination disorders or delay, and adult-onset vascular diseases. However, relatively little is known of the neurobiologic underpinnings. To clarify the pathophysiologic vulnerabilities of such neonates, we applied several advanced techniques for assessing brain physiology, namely T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and phase-contrast (PC) MRI. Read More

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Neuropsychiatric Symptoms of COVID-19 Explained by SARS-CoV-2 Proteins' Mimicry of Human Protein Interactions.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 23;15:656313. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Research Center for Translational Medicine, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.

The first clinical symptoms focused on the presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been respiratory failure, however, accumulating evidence also points to its presentation with neuropsychiatric symptoms, the exact mechanisms of which are not well known. By using a computational methodology, we aimed to explain the molecular paths of COVID-19 associated neuropsychiatric symptoms, based on the mimicry of the human protein interactions with SARS-CoV-2 proteins. Available 11 of the 29 SARS-CoV-2 proteins' structures have been extracted from Protein Data Bank. Read More

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Mandibular Distraction Osteogenesis as a Primary Intervention in Infants With Pierre Robin Sequence.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

From the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL Division of Plastic Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine Divisions of Pediatric Hospital Medicine Pediatric Pulmonary & Sleep Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL Division of Plastic Surgery, New York University, New York, NY Division of Plastic Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

Background: Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is a triad of congenital facial abnormalities that can present as a syndrome (syndromic PRS [sPRS]) or an isolated entity (isolated PRS [iPRS]). Patients with PRS can develop airway and feeding problems that may result in failure to thrive. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) is a method for improving the functional issues associated with breathing and feeding. Read More

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The need to study human milk as a biological system.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Critical advancement is needed in the study of human milk as a biological system that intersects and interacts with myriad internal (maternal biology) and external (diet, environment, infections) factors and its plethora of influences on the developing infant. Human-milk composition and its resulting biological function is more than the sum of its parts. Our failure to fully understand this biology in a large part contributes to why the duration of exclusive breastfeeding remains an unsettled science (if not policy). Read More

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Widespread mortality of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) throughout interior Alaskan boreal forests resulting from a novel canker disease.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0250078. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, United States of America.

Over the past several decades, growth declines and mortality of trembling aspen throughout western Canada and the United States have been linked to drought, often interacting with outbreaks of insects and fungal pathogens, resulting in a "sudden aspen decline" throughout much of aspen's range. In 2015, we noticed an aggressive fungal canker causing widespread mortality of aspen throughout interior Alaska and initiated a study to quantify potential drivers for the incidence, virulence, and distribution of the disease. Stand-level infection rates among 88 study sites distributed across 6 Alaska ecoregions ranged from <1 to 69%, with the proportion of trees with canker that were dead averaging 70% across all sites. Read More

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Paediatrics: how to manage functional constipation.

Drugs Context 2021 26;10. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Paediatrics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong.

Background: Despite being a common problem in childhood, functional constipation is often difficult to manage. This article provides a narrative updated review on the evaluation, diagnosis and management of childhood functional constipation.

Methods: A PubMed search was performed with Clinical Queries using the key term 'functional constipation'. Read More

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Direct observation of nanoscale dynamics of ferroelectric degradation.

Nat Commun 2021 Apr 7;12(1):2095. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Failure of polarization reversal, i.e., ferroelectric degradation, induced by cyclic electric loadings in ferroelectric materials, has been a long-standing challenge that negatively impacts the application of ferroelectrics in devices where reliability is critical. Read More

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Advanced Imaging and New Cardiac Biomarkers in Long-term Follow-up After Childhood Cancer.

J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Heart Center Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry Department of Paediatric Oncology, University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

Objectives: Pathologic ejection fraction (EF), shortening fraction (FS), and standard heart failure biomarkers (high sensitive troponin T and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide) during follow-up after childhood cancer have been associated with irreversible cardiac damage. We aimed to evaluate strain imaging values by echocardiography and new biomarkers for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) as potential more sensitive parameters for cardiac deterioration in childhood cancer survivors (CCS).

Materials And Methods: Prospective study with 50 CCS (median 16. Read More

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Fibroblast growth factor induced Ucp1 expression in preadipocytes requires PGE2 biosynthesis and glycolytic flux.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21572

Department of Molecular Nutritional Medicine, TUM School of Life Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Freising, Germany.

High uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression is a characteristic of differentiated brown adipocytes and is linked to adipogenic differentiation. Paracrine fibroblast growth factor 8b (FGF8b) strongly induces Ucp1 transcription in white adipocytes independent of adipogenesis. Here, we report that FGF8b and other paracrine FGFs act on brown and white preadipocytes to upregulate Ucp1 expression via a FGFR1-MEK1/2-ERK1/2 axis, independent of adipogenesis. Read More

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BestFLR Trial: Liver Regeneration at CT before Major Hepatectomies for Liver Cancer-A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Portal Vein Embolization with -Butyl-Cyanoacrylate Plus Iodized Oil versus Polyvinyl Alcohol Particles Plus Coils.

Radiology 2021 Apr 6:204055. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

From the Interventional Radiology Unit (J.H.M.L., F.V.G., N.V.C., I.V., E.C., T.B.), Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic and Transplantation Center (H.P.M., J.S.C., R.M.A.M., V.N.T.V.R., J.T.R.d.C.L., M.M.d.S.N.e.S., S.R.G.d.S., A.S.d.T.C., S.C.C.R.), and Department of Pathology (A.A.F.P.d.F., M.V.S.), Hospital Curry Cabral, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central (CHULC), Rua Beneficência 8, 1069-166, Lisbon, Portugal; Nova Medical School, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal (J.H.M.L., F.V.G., N.V.C., I.V., T.B.); and National Institute of Infectious Disease Evandro Chagas, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (P.M.L.).

Background In patients with liver cancer, portal vein embolization (PVE) is recommended to promote liver growth before major hepatectomies. However, the optimal embolization strategy has not been established. Purpose To compare liver regeneration as seen at CT in participants with liver cancer, before major hepatectomies, with -butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) plus iodized oil versus standard polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles plus coils, for PVE. Read More

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Intact TP53 function is essential for sustaining durable responses to BH3-mimetic drugs in leukemias.

Blood 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Monash University, Australia.

Selective targeting of BCL2 with the BH3-mimetic venetoclax is proving transformative for patients with various leukemias. TP53 controls apoptosis upstream from where BCL2 and its pro-survival relatives, such as MCL1, act. Therefore, targeting these pro-survival proteins could trigger apoptosis across diverse blood cancers, irrespective of TP53 mutation status. Read More

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TRIM29 Reverses Oxaliplatin Resistance of P53 Mutant Colon Cancer Cell.

Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 22;2021:8870907. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of General Surgery, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410011, China.

Background: Oxaliplatin is the first-choice chemotherapy method for patients with advanced colon cancer. However, its resistance leads to treatment failure for many patients. In our experiments, we aim to elucidate the associations among TRIM29 protein, mutant P53, and the resistance of colon cancer cells to oxaliplatin. Read More

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Haploinsufficiency of PRR12 causes a spectrum of neurodevelopmental, eye, and multisystem abnormalities.

Genet Med 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Paediatrics, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, Canada.

Purpose: Proline Rich 12 (PRR12) is a gene of unknown function with suspected DNA-binding activity, expressed in developing mice and human brains. Predicted loss-of-function variants in this gene are extremely rare, indicating high intolerance of haploinsufficiency.

Methods: Three individuals with intellectual disability and iris anomalies and truncating de novo PRR12 variants were described previously. Read More

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iTRAQ-based proteome profiling revealed the role of Phytochrome A in regulating primary metabolism in tomato seedling.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 6;11(1):7540. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Proteomics Lab, Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai, Maharashtra, 400076, India.

In plants, during growth and development, photoreceptors monitor fluctuations in their environment and adjust their metabolism as a strategy of surveillance. Phytochromes (Phys) play an essential role in plant growth and development, from germination to fruit development. FR-light (FR) insensitive mutant (fri) carries a recessive mutation in Phytochrome A and is characterized by the failure to de-etiolate in continuous FR. Read More

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Identification of Metabolically Quiescent Parasites in Peripheral and Cured Dermal Granulomas Using Stable Isotope Tracing Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

mBio 2021 04 6;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bio21 Institute of Molecular Science, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia

are sandfly-transmitted protists that induce granulomatous lesions in their mammalian host. Although infected host cells in these tissues can exist in different activation states, the extent to which intracellular parasites stages also exist in different growth or physiological states remains poorly defined. Here, we have mapped the spatial distribution of metabolically quiescent and active subpopulations of in dermal granulomas in susceptible BALB/c mice, using heavy water labeling and ultra high-resolution imaging mass spectrometry. Read More

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Class A Penicillin-Binding Protein-Mediated Cell Wall Synthesis Promotes Structural Integrity during Peptidoglycan Endopeptidase Insufficiency in Vibrio cholerae.

mBio 2021 04 6;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Weill Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA

The bacterial cell wall is composed primarily of peptidoglycan (PG), a poly-aminosugar that is essential to sustain cell shape, growth, and structural integrity. PG is synthesized by class A/B penicillin-binding proteins (a/bPBPs) and shape, elongation, division, and sporulation (SEDS) proteins like RodA (as part of the Rod system cell elongation machinery) and degraded by "autolytic" enzymes to accommodate growth processes. It is thought that autolysins (particularly endopeptidases [EPs]) are required for PG synthesis and incorporation by creating gaps that are patched and paved by PG synthases, but the exact relationship between autolysins and PG synthesis remains incompletely understood. Read More

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Using 3D in vitro cell culture models in anti-cancer drug discovery.

Expert Opin Drug Discov 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Nemours Biomedical Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE.

Introduction: The high failure rate in drug discovery remains a costly and time-consuming challenge. Improving the odds of success in the early steps of drug development requires disease models with high biological relevance for biomarker discovery and drug development. The adoption of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems over traditional monolayers in cell-based assays is considered a promising step towards improving the success rate in drug discovery. Read More

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Vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated peritoneal neoangiogenesis in peritoneal dialysis.

Perit Dial Int 2021 Apr 7:8968608211004683. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important renal replacement therapy for patients with end-stage renal diseases, which is limited by peritoneal neoangiogenesis leading to ultrafiltration failure (UFF). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors are key angiogenic factors involved in almost every step of peritoneal neoangiogenesis. Impaired mesothelial cells are the major sources of VEGF in the peritoneum. Read More

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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusions in Japanese patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Ishinomaki Hospital, Ishinomaki, Japan.

Objective: Fibroblast growth factor receptor gene alterations have emerged as promising drug targets for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, a rare cancer that has a poor prognosis. This study evaluated the frequency of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 fusions in clinical specimens from Japanese patients with iCCA.

Methods: This study enrolled 116 patients who had histologically or cytologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and been diagnosed as relapsing after resection or with unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Read More

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Cooperative Binding of ETS2 and NFAT Link Erk1/2 and Calcineurin Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Cardiac Hypertrophy.

Circulation 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine (Cardiology Division), University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX; Department of Molecular Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Cardiac hypertrophy is an independent risk factor for heart failure, a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. The calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) pathway and the MAPK/Erk (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy as an inter-dependent network of signaling cascades. However, how these pathways interact remains unclear, and specifically few direct targets responsible for the pro-hypertrophic role of NFAT have been described. Read More

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Growth Faltering and Developmental Delay in HIV-Exposed Uninfected Ugandan Infants: A Prospective Cohort Study.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2021 May;87(1):730-740

Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

Background: HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of impaired early linear growth and cognitive development. We examined associations between prenatal and postnatal growth and subsequent neurodevelopment in Ugandan HEU infants, hypothesizing that early insults may explain alterations in both somatic growth and brain development.

Methods: We prospectively followed a cohort of HEU infants from birth to 18 months of age, and measured length/height, weight, head, and arm circumference longitudinally. Read More

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pH and ROS sequentially responsive podophyllotoxin prodrug micelles with surface charge-switchable and self-amplification drug release for combating multidrug resistance cancer.

Drug Deliv 2021 Dec;28(1):680-691

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Yancheng No. 1 People's Hospital, Yancheng First Hospital Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Yancheng, China.

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main reasons for tumor chemotherapy failure. Podophyllotoxin (PPT) has been reported that can suppress MDR cancer cell growth; however, effective delivery of PPT to MDR cancer cells is challenged by cascaded bio-barriers. To effectively deliver PPT to MDR cancer cells, a PPT polymeric prodrug micelle (PCDMA) with the charge-conversion capability and self-acceleration drug release function are fabricated, which is composed of a pH and reactive oxygen species (ROS) sequentially responsive PPT-polymeric prodrug and an ROS generation agent, cucurbitacin B (CuB). Read More

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December 2021

MicroRNA-130a Increases and Predicts Cardiotoxicity during Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-2-Positive Breast Cancer.

J Breast Cancer 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Ultrasound Medicine, HanDan Central Hospital, Handan, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the changes in microRNA-130a (miR-130a) and its correlation with cardiotoxicity during epirubicin/cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel plus trastuzumab (EC-D+T) adjuvant chemotherapy in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-positive (HER2⁺) breast cancer patients.

Methods: A total of 72 HER2⁺ breast cancer patients who underwent resection and were scheduled to receive EC-D+T adjuvant therapy were consecutively enrolled. The expression of miR-130a and cardiotoxicity (defined as any of the following situations: 1) absolute decline of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥ 10% and LVEF < 53%; 2) heart failure; 3) acute coronary artery syndromes; and 4) fatal arrhythmia) were assessed every 3 months throughout the 15-month EC-D+T treatment. Read More

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Temporal metabolic and transcriptomic characteristics crossing islets and liver reveal dynamic pathophysiology in diet-induced diabetes.

iScience 2021 Apr 5;24(4):102265. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210029, China.

To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying islet dysfunction and insulin resistance in diet-induced diabetes, we conducted temporal RNA sequencing of tissues responsible for insulin secretion (islets) and action (liver) every 4 weeks in mice on high-fat (HFD) or chow diet for 24 weeks, linking to longitudinal profile of metabolic characteristics. The diverse responses of α, β, and δ cells to glucose and palmitate indicated HFD-induced dynamic deterioration of islet function from dysregulation to failure. Insulin resistance developed with variable time course in different tissues. Read More

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