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Recombinant production of Trx-Ib-AMP4 and Trx-E50-52 antimicrobial peptides and antimicrobial synergistic assessment on the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus under in vitro and in vivo situations.

Protein Expr Purif 2021 Jul 26:105949. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Molecular and Medicine Research Center, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The production of alternative novel antimicrobial agents is considered an efficient way to cope with multidrug resistance among pathogenic bacteria. E50-52 and Ib-AMP4 antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have illustrated great proven antibacterial effects. The aim of this study was recombinant production of these AMPs and investigation of their synergistic effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Read More

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Reproducibility challenges in the search for antibacterial compounds from nature.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(7):e0255437. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Pharmacy and Food Chemistry, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg, Germany.

Background: Reproducibility of reported antibacterial activities of plant extracts has long remained questionable. Although plant-related factors should be well considered in serious pharmacognostic research, they are often not addressed in many research papers. Here we highlight the challenges in reproducing antibacterial activities of plant extracts. Read More

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Development of a Biocontained Toluene-Degrading Bacterium for Environmental Protection.

Microbiol Spectr 2021 Jul 28:e0025921. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Universitygrid.27476.30, Nagoya, Japan.

Biocontainment is a safeguard strategy for preventing uncontrolled proliferation of genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs) in the environment. Biocontained GEMs are designed to survive only in the presence of a specific molecule. The design of a pollutant-degrading and pollutant-dependent GEM prevents its proliferation after cleaning the environment. Read More

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Three-dimensional label-free visualization and quantification of polyhydroxyalkanoates in individual bacterial cell in its native state.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Metabolic and Biomolecular Engineering National Research Laboratory, Systems Metabolic Engineering and Systems Healthcare Cross-Generation Collaborative Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering (BK21 four), Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea;

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable polyesters that are intracellularly accumulated as distinct insoluble granules by various microorganisms. PHAs have attracted much attention as sustainable substitutes for petroleum-based plastics. However, the formation of PHA granules and their characteristics, such as localization, volume, weight, and density of granules, in an individual live bacterial cell are not well understood. Read More

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Natural -Based Nerve Guidance Conduit as a Potential Biomaterial for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biomedical Engineering and Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Allergy and Immune Related Diseases, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071, China.

The treatment and repair of serious peripheral nerve injuries remain challenging in the clinical practice, while the application of multifunctional nerve guidance conduits (NGCs) based on naturally derived polymers has attracted much attention in recent years because of their excellent physicochemical properties and biological characteristics. (Curt. ex FV) is a popular edible mushroom characterized by hollow tubular structures, antibacterial activities, and high nutritional properties. Read More

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The effect of Candida famata and Lactobacillus plantarum on the number of coliforms and the antibiotic resistance and virulence of Escherichia coli in the gut of broilers.

Animal 2021 Jul 23;15(8):100310. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 237, Reading RG6 6EU, United Kingdom.

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of a yeast (Candida famata) and a bacterium (Lactobacillus plantarum), administered alone or in combination in the drinking water, on the population of yeast, Lactobacillus sp. and coliforms, and the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence genes in Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolated from digesta samples taken throughout the life of broiler chickens. Read More

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Application of bacterial directed enzyme prodrug therapy as a targeted chemotherapy approach in a mouse model of breast cancer.

Int J Pharm 2021 Jul 23:120931. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; Novel Diagnostics and Therapeutics Research Group, Institute of Biotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. Some of the usual cancer treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. However, due to low efficacy and side effects of these treatments, novel targeted therapeutic methods are needed. Read More

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Use of Pistacia lentiscus mastic for sustained-release of chlorocresol and benzoic acid for in vitro prevention of bacterial colonisation of silicon urinary catheter.

Lett Appl Microbiol 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Delta University for Science and Biotechnology, Gamasa, 35712, Dakahlia, Egypt.

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common types of nosocomial infections. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters are at the highest risk of getting infections. A sustained-release method of chlorocresol and benzoic acid using a varnish of Pistacia lentiscus mastic was developed to prevent catheter colonization by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Read More

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Mechanisms involved in the active secretion of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase by pathogenic ST131.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2021 Jul 26:AAC0066321. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Life Science, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL, UK.

Infections caused by antimicrobial resistant bacterial pathogens are fast becoming an important global health issue. Strains of are common causal agents of urinary tract infection and can carry multiple resistance genes. This includes the gene that encodes for an extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Read More

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Bone tissue engineering potentials of 3D printed [email protected] acid composite scaffolds.

Artif Organs 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research Centre, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.

Background: The primary role of bone tissue engineering is to reconcile the damaged bones and facilitate the speedy recovery of the injured bones. Whilst, some of the investigated metallic implants suffer from stress-shielding, palpability, biocompatibility, etc. Consequently, the biodegradable scaffolds fabricated from polymers have gathered much attention from researchers and thus helped the tissue engineering sector by providing many alternative materials whose functionality is similar to that of natural bones. Read More

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Nonrefoldability is Pervasive Across the Proteome.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218, United States.

Decades of research on protein folding have primarily focused on a subset of small proteins that can reversibly refold from a denatured state. However, these studies have generally not been representative of the complexity of natural proteomes, which consist of many proteins with complex architectures and domain organizations. Here, we introduce an experimental approach to probe protein refolding kinetics for whole proteomes using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Read More

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Incorporation of Antimicrobial Bio-Based Carriers onto Poly(vinyl alcohol--ethylene) Surface for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California-Davis, Davis, California 95616, United States.

A biobased rechargeable antimicrobial modification approach was developed using a covalent immobilization of food grade yeast cell wall particles on a model plastic film. We demonstrate the applications of this modification approach on poly(vinyl alcohol--ethylene) surface to inactivate inoculated bacteria with or without the presence of organic content, reducing the cross-contamination between food contact surface and model fresh produce, and inhibiting the growth of biofilms on the film surface. These biobased cell wall particle modified plastic films can enhance the binding of chlorine to the plastic surface in the form of -halamine, extend the stability of chlorine against high organic content and ambient storage, and improve the rechargeability of the plastic films. Read More

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Epigenetic regulation of gene expression in Shiga toxin-producing : Transcriptomic data.

Data Brief 2021 Jun 20;36:107065. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biosecurity and Public Health Group, Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM, USA.

Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strain RM13514 is a clinical isolate linked to the 2010 romaine lettuce-associated outbreak in the U.S. The genes encoding a type II restriction and modification system, PstI R-M, are located in a prophage genome that is also encoding Shiga toxin. Read More

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Prevalence, Isolation, Identification, and Risk Factors of Major Bacterial Cause of Camel Subclinical Mastitis.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:5522331. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, P.O. Box 196, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: A crosssectional study was conducted between September 2015 and August 2016 in the district of Afar Regional State, Northeastern Ethiopia, to characterize the most prevalent bacterial pathogens and identify the associated risk factors of camel subclinical mastitis. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test, and standard bacteriological methods were carried out for isolation and identification of the pathogens.

Results: Among the total 96 lactating camels examined, 25 were found positive with the overall prevalence of 26%, with 25% and 1% subclinical and clinical mastitis cases, respectively. Read More

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Meloxicam Inhibited the Proliferation of LPS-Stimulated Bovine Endometrial Epithelial Cells Through Wnt/β-Catenin and PI3K/AKT Pathways.

Front Vet Sci 2021 9;8:637707. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou University, Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou, China.

Meloxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and has been used to relieve pain and control inflammation in cows with metritis and endometritis. Meloxicam has been found to be effective in inhibiting tissue or cell growth when it is used as an anti-inflammatory therapy. However, the influence of meloxicam on bovine endometrial regeneration has not been reported. Read More

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Specific Targeting of Recombinant Human Pancreatic Ribonuclease 1 using Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Targeting Peptide toward Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor-Positive Cancer Cells.

Iran J Med Sci 2021 Jul;46(4):281-290

Shiraz Institute for Cancer Research, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Targeted drug delivery is a novel method to specifically deliver anticancer therapeutics to tumor sites. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide, and its target binding property has attracted attention as a means of targeted drug delivery. Human pancreatic ribonuclease 1 (hpRNase1) has been shown to exert anticancer properties, when fused to a targeting moiety. Read More

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Dietary citric acid enhances growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal microbiota, antioxidant status, and immunity of Japanese quails.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 12;100(9):101326. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

A total of 300 un-sexed Japanese quail chicks (1-wk-old) were randomly allotted to 5 experimental groups to study the effect of citric acid (CA) on performance development, carcass estimates, blood measurements, antioxidant and immune measurements, digestive enzymes, and cecum microbiology traits of growing Japanese quail. The chicks were fed a basal diet supplemented with CA (5, 10, 15, and 20 g/kg in diet) had significantly (P < 0.05) greater live body weights at 3 and 5 wk of age and increased weight gain across all experimental periods (1-3, 3-5 and 1-5 wks of age) compared to the control group. Read More

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Rational construction of genome-reduced Burkholderiales chassis facilitates efficient heterologous production of natural products from proteobacteria.

Nat Commun 2021 07 23;12(1):4347. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Helmholtz International Lab for Anti-Infectives, Shandong University-Helmholtz Institute of Biotechnology, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China.

Heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) avails yield improvements and mining of natural products, but it is limited by lacking of more efficient Gram-negative chassis. The proteobacterium Schlegelella brevitalea DSM 7029 exhibits potential for heterologous BGC expression, but its cells undergo early autolysis, hindering further applications. Herein, we rationally construct DC and DT series genome-reduced S. Read More

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Biophysico-Chemical Properties of Alginate Oligomers Obtained by Acid and Oxidation Depolymerization.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Jul 9;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Functional Food Products Development, The Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 37, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland.

The aim of the study was to obtain alginate oligosaccharides by using two degradation methods of sodium alginate (SA): with hydrochloric acid (G-guluronate, M-mannuronate and G + M fractions) and hydrogen peroxide (HAS-hydrolyzed SA), in order to assess and compare their biological activity and physico-chemical properties, with an attempt to produce gels from the obtained hydrolysates. The efficiency of each method was determined in order to select the fastest and most efficient process. The ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the ability to scavenge DPPH free radicals, rheological properties, Fourier Transformed Spectroscopy (FTIR) and the microbiological test against and were performed. Read More

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Evaluation of Ruthenium(II) -Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes as Antibacterial Agents and Inhibitors of Bacterial Thioredoxin Reductase.

Molecules 2021 Jul 15;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Institute of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Beethovenstr. 55, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.

A series of ruthenium(II) complexes with -heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands of the general type (arene)(NHC)Ru(II)X (where X = halide) was prepared, characterized, and evaluated as antibacterial agents in comparison to the respective metal free benzimidazolium cations. The ruthenium(II) NHC complexes generally triggered stronger bacterial growth inhibition than the metal free benzimidazolium cations. The effects were much stronger against Gram-positive bacteria ( and ) than against Gram-negative bacteria (,  , ), and all complexes were inactive against the fungus . Read More

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Optimization of Multiparameters for Increased Yields of Cytochrome B5 in Bioreactors.

Molecules 2021 Jul 8;26(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Bioengineering, iBB-Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal.

The production of recombinant proteins is gaining increasing importance as the market requests high quality proteins for several applications. However, several process parameters affect both the growth of cells and product yields. This study uses high throughput systems and statistical methods to assess the influence of fermentation conditions in lab-scale bioreactors. Read More

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Retinoids as Chemo-Preventive and Molecular-Targeted Anti-Cancer Therapies.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Center for Translational Cancer Research, Helen F. Graham Cancer Center & Research Institute, Newark, DE 19713, USA.

Retinoic acid (RA) agents possess anti-tumor activity through their ability to induce cellular differentiation. However, retinoids have not yet been translated into effective systemic treatments for most solid tumors. RA signaling is mediated by the following two nuclear retinoic receptor subtypes: the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoic X receptor (RXR), and their isoforms. Read More

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Syntrophic co-culture of a methanotroph and heterotroph for the efficient conversion of methane to mevalonate.

Metab Eng 2021 Jul 20;67:285-292. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Synthetic Biology and Bioengineering Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea; Department of Biosystems and Bioengineering, KRIBB School of Biotechnology, University of Science & Technology (UST), Daejeon, 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

As the bioconversion of methane becomes increasingly important for bio-industrial and environmental applications, methanotrophs have received much attention for their ability to convert methane under ambient conditions. This includes the extensive reporting of methanotroph engineering for the conversion of methane to biochemicals. To further increase methane usability, we demonstrated a highly flexible and efficient modular approach based on a synthetic consortium of methanotrophs and heterotrophs mimicking the natural methane ecosystem to produce mevalonate (MVA) from methane. Read More

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A Growth-Based, High-Throughput Selection Platform Enables Remodeling of 4-Hydroxybenzoate Hydroxylase Active Site.

ACS Catal 2020 Jun 5;10(12):6969-6974. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697, United States.

We report an aerobic, growth-based selection platform founded on NADP(H) redox balance restoration in , and we demonstrate its application in the high-throughput evolution of an oxygenase. A single round of selection followed by a facile growth assay enabled 4-hydroxybenzoate hydroxylase (PobA) to efficiently hydroxylate both 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA), two consecutive steps in gallic acid biosynthesis. Structural modeling suggests precise reorganization of active site hydrogen bond network, which is difficult to obtain without deep navigation of combinatorial sequence space. Read More

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Black cardamom essential oil prevents O157:H7 and Typhimurium JSG 1748 biofilm formation through inhibition of quorum sensing.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Aug 1;58(8):3183-3191. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Health Promoting Naturals Laboratory, School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers State University, 65 Dudley Road, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 USA.

This study aimed to investigate the chemical composition, using GC-MS, and anti-biofilm potential of black cardamom essential oil (BCEO) against biofilms of O157:H7 and Typhimurium JSG 1748 through inhibition of bacterial quorum sensing. GC-MS quantification demonstrated that BCEO contains 1,8-cineole (44.24%), -terpinyl acetate (12. Read More

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Hot-melt extruded copper sulfate affects the growth performance, meat quality, and copper bioavailability of broiler chickens.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of diets of broiler chickens with hot-melt extruded CuSO4 (HME-Cu) on their growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut microbiota, small intestinal morphology, meat quality, and copper (Cu) bioavailability.

Methods: A total of 225 broilers (Ross 308), one-day old and initial weight 39.14 g, were weighed and distributed between 15 cages (15 birds per cage) in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (diets) and 5 replicates per treatment. Read More

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The influence of the crowding assumptions in biofilm simulations.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009158. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Microorganisms are frequently organized into crowded structures that affect the nutrients diffusion. This reduction in metabolite diffusion could modify the microbial dynamics, meaning that computational methods for studying microbial systems need accurate ways to model the crowding conditions. We previously developed a computational framework, termed CROMICS, that incorporates the effect of the (time-dependent) crowding conditions on the spatio-temporal modeling of microbial communities, and we used it to demonstrate the crowding influence on the community dynamics. Read More

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Spatio-temporal modeling of the crowding conditions and metabolic variability in microbial communities.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Jul 22;17(7):e1009140. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Laboratory of Computational Systems Biotechnology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland.

The metabolic capabilities of the species and the local environment shape the microbial interactions in a community either through the exchange of metabolic products or the competition for the resources. Cells are often arranged in close proximity to each other, creating a crowded environment that unevenly reduce the diffusion of nutrients. Herein, we investigated how the crowding conditions and metabolic variability among cells shape the dynamics of microbial communities. Read More

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Molecular Biology and Genetic Tools to Investigate Functional Redundancy Among Fe-S Cluster Carriers in E. coli.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2353:3-36

Laboratoire de Chimie Bactérienne, Institut de Microbiologie de la Méditerranée, CNRS UMR 7283, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are among the oldest protein cofactors, and Fe-S cluster-based chemistry has shaped the cellular metabolism of all living organisms. Over the last 30 years, thanks to molecular biology and genetic approaches, numerous actors for Fe-S cluster assembly and delivery to apotargets have been uncovered. In prokaryotes, Escherichia coli is the best-studied for its convenience of growth and its genetic amenability. Read More

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January 2021

[email protected] [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized with Rumex hymenosepalus as Antimicrobial Agent.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 Jul 22;16(1):118. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Nanotechnology Graduate Program, Department of Physics, University of Sonora, Rosales and Transversal, 83000, Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico.

In this work, we used a sequential method of synthesis for gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles with [email protected] structure ([email protected]). Rumex hymenosepalus root extract (Rh), which presents high content in catechins and stilbenes, was used as reductor agent in nanoparticles synthesis. Size distribution obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) gives a mean diameter of 36 ± 11 nm for [email protected], 24 ± 4 nm for gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and 13 ± 3 nm for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Read More

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