11,887 results match your criteria growing season

Indicator of redox in soil (IRIS) films as a water management tool for rice farmers.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 12;294:112920. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, 531 S. College Avenue, Townsend Hall Rm 152, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716, USA. Electronic address:

Rice is a crucial part of the world's food supply but is also susceptible to uptake of contaminants including arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) depending on the soil redox potential. Careful control of soil redox state by implementing alternate wetting and drying (AWD) water management can decrease mobility of soil As and Cd, but can be difficult to manage. Indicators of reduction in soil (IRIS) tubes and films have been studied by pedologists for wetland delineation; here, we explore the use of the IRIS film technology as passive samplers of soil redox potential in rice paddies. Read More

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Relational health: Theorizing plants as health-supporting actors.

Sarah Elton

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jun 1;281:114083. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Sociology, Ryerson University, Canada. Electronic address:

'Plant blindness' stops people from recognizing the important role that plants play in society, and is acute when it comes to seeing how plants support health. The social sciences are beginning to explore how plants are imbricated in sociopolitical processes, including ones that produce health. This paper theorizes people-plant relations and the agency of plants in the production of health, drawing on data from a multispecies ethnography conducted in Toronto's largest social housing community during the 2018 growing season. Read More

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The impact of weather and increased atmospheric CO from 1892 to 2016 on simulated yields of UK wheat.

J R Soc Interface 2021 Jun 16;18(179):20210250. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Computational and Analytical Sciences, Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Hertfordshire AL5 2JQ, UK.

Climate change effects on UK winter wheat grain yield are complex: warmer temperature, negative; greater carbon dioxide (CO) concentration, positive; but other environmental variables and their timing also affect yield. In the absence of long-term experiments where temperature and CO concentration were manipulated separately, we applied the crop simulation model Sirius with long-term daily meteorological data (1892-2016) for Rothamsted, Hertfordshire, UK (2007-2016 mean growing season temperature 1.03°C warmer than 1892-1991), and CO concentration over this period, to investigate the separate effects of historic CO and weather on simulated grain yield in three wheat cultivars of the modern era. Read More

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An Integrated Agriculture, Atmosphere, and Hydrology Modeling System for Ecosystem Assessments.

J Adv Model Earth Syst 2020 Jan;11(12):4645-4668

Blackland Research and Extension Center, Texas A&M University, Temple, TX, USA.

We present a regional-scale integrated modeling system (IMS) that includes Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC), Weather Research and Forecast (WRF), Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ), and Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) models. The centerpiece of the IMS is the Fertilizer Emission Scenario Tool for CMAQ (FEST-C), which includes a Java-based interface and EPIC adapted to regional applications along with built-in database and tools. The SWAT integration capability is a key enhanced feature in the current release of FEST-C v1. Read More

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January 2020

Temporal Differentiation of Resource Capture and Biomass Accumulation as a Driver of Yield Increase in Intercropping.

Front Plant Sci 2021 28;12:668803. Epub 2021 May 28.

Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Intercropping, i.e., the simultaneous cultivation of different crops on the same field, has demonstrated yield advantages compared to monoculture cropping. Read More

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Analysis of the Spatial Distribution and Development of Sequential Sampling Plans for Heteropteran-Associated Fruit Injury in Florida Peaches.

J Econ Entomol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

USDA-ARS Southeastern Fruit and Tree Nut Research Station, 21 Dunbar Road, Byron, GA 31008, USA.

Catfacing and gummosis/sap-type injury associated with a heteropteran pest complex were sampled at five peach orchards in southern Florida during two consecutive growing seasons. Trapping and visual surveys indicate that Euschistus servuis (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was the dominant heteropteran pest in the study orchards. The spatial arrangement of injury indicated a random distribution, as determined by Taylor's power law. Read More

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Experimental warming differentially affects vegetative and reproductive phenology of tundra plants.

Nat Commun 2021 06 11;12(1):3442. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA.

Rapid climate warming is altering Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystem structure and function, including shifts in plant phenology. While the advancement of green up and flowering are well-documented, it remains unclear whether all phenophases, particularly those later in the season, will shift in unison or respond divergently to warming. Here, we present the largest synthesis to our knowledge of experimental warming effects on tundra plant phenology from the International Tundra Experiment. Read More

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Effects of changes in throughfall on soil GHG fluxes under a mature temperate forest, northeastern China.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 8;294:112950. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Physics and Atmospheric Chemistry, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China; Department of Atmospheric Chemistry and Environmental Science, College of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Climate change scenarios predict a change in the rainfall regimes for this current century, which has different impacts on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, how changes in annual rainfall affect annual GHG fluxes of forest soils remain unknown. A six-year field experiment with -25% and -50% throughfall (TF) and +25% TF manipulation was performed to explore the mechanisms involving GHG fluxes under a mature temperate forest, northeastern China and to work out whether the TF effect sizes on annual soil GHG fluxes vary with dry and wet years. Read More

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Performances of a system for free-air ozone concentration elevation with poplar plantation under increased nitrogen deposition.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

The increasing emission of nitrogen oxides exerts large impacts on vegetation by raising surface ozone (O) concentrations and enhancing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. We established a free-air O concentration elevation and enhanced N deposition system (O-N-FACE) in Beijing, China, to investigate long-term effects of elevated O and N deposition on poplar plantation. Eight square plots with a side length of 16 m were randomly allocated to elevated O (E-O) and ambient air (AA) treatments. Read More

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First report of stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by Puccinia coronata var. avenae f. sp. avenae, on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) in Georgia, USA.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

University of Georgia, 1355, 1109 Experiment Street, Griffin, Griffin, Georgia, United States, 30223.

Stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis, and crown rust, caused by P. coronata, are common rust diseases on cool-season grasses (Karakkat et al. 2018), for which long-distance spore dispersal was recorded in northern US (Harder and Haber 1992). Read More

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Identification of Resistance Sources and Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Septoria Tritici Blotch Resistance in Spring Bread Wheat Germplasm of ICARDA.

Front Plant Sci 2021 25;12:600176. Epub 2021 May 25.

Biodiversity and Crop Improvement Program, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Rabat, Morocco.

Septoria tritici blotch (STB) of wheat, caused by the ascomycete (formerly ), is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat. In Morocco, STB is a devastating disease in temperate wheat-growing regions, and the yield losses can exceed up to 50% under favorable conditions. The aims of this study were to identify sources of resistance to STB in Septoria Association Mapping Panel (SAMP), which is composed of 377 advanced breeding lines (ABLs) from spring bread wheat breeding program of ICARDA, and to identify loci associated with resistance to STB at seedling (SRT) as well as at the adult plant (APS) stages using genome-wide association mapping (GWAM). Read More

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State Transition Modeling in Ultimate Frisbee: Adaptation of a Promising Method for Performance Analysis in Invasion Sports.

Front Psychol 2021 25;12:664511. Epub 2021 May 25.

Chair of Performance Analysis and Sports Informatics, Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Although the body of literature in sport science is growing rapidly, certain sports have yet to benefit from this increased interest by the scientific community. One such sport is Ultimate Frisbee, officially known as Ultimate. Thus, the goal of this study was to describe the nature of the sport by identifying differences between winning and losing teams in elite-level competition. Read More

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When do apples stop growing, and why does it matter?

PLoS One 2021 10;16(6):e0252288. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

University of Reading Herbarium, School of Biological Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, United Kingdom.

Apples in the commercial food chain are harvested up to two weeks before maturity. We explore apple fruit development through the growing season to establish the point at which physical features differentiating those cultivars become evident. This is relevant both for the understanding of the growing process and to ensure that any identification and classification tools can be used both on ripened-on-tree and stored fruit. Read More

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Vulnerability of maize, millet, and rice yields to growing season precipitation and socio-economic proxies in Cameroon.

PLoS One 2021 9;16(6):e0252335. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM), Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

In sub-Saharan Africa growing season precipitation is affected by climate change. Due to this, in Cameroon, it is uncertain how some crops are vulnerable to growing season precipitation. Here, an assessment of the vulnerability of maize, millet, and rice to growing season precipitation is carried out at a national scale and validated at four sub-national scales/sites. Read More

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Assembly of the Microbiome Is Temporally Dynamic and Determined by Selective and Stochastic Factors.

mSphere 2021 Jun 9:e0131620. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

Recent work shows that the plant microbiome, particularly the initial assembly of this microbiome, influences plant health, survival, and fitness. Here, we characterize the initial assembly of the microbiome across ten genotypes belonging to two poplar species in a common garden using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region amplicon sequencing of the leaf endosphere, leaf surface, root endosphere, and rhizosphere. We sampled these microbiomes three times throughout the first growing season and found that the composition of the microbiome changed dramatically over time across all plant-associated habitats and host genotypes. Read More

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Effects of season, genotype and rearing system on some meat quality traits for broilers raised in semi-intensive systems.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Jun 9;53(3):352. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Research and Development Project Branch Office, Antalya Metropolitan Municipality, Antalya, Turkey.

We compared fast-growing and slow-growing broilers raised in extensive indoor, free-range, and traditional free-range systems in terms of meat quality in spring and summer. Five different semi-intensive broiler production applications (fast- in extensive indoor, slow- in extensive indoor, fast- in free-range, slow- in free-range and slow- in traditional free-range) were used according to EU standards. Extensive indoor and free-range birds were slaughtered at 57 days of age and traditional free-range chickens at 82 days. Read More

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Riparian Forest Cover Modulates Phosphorus Storage and Nitrogen Cycling in Agricultural Stream Sediments.

Environ Manage 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

U.S. Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Water Science Center, Moundsview, MN, USA.

Watershed land cover affects in-stream water quality and sediment nutrient dynamics. The presence of natural land cover in the riparian zone can reduce the negative effects of agricultural land use on water quality; however, literature evaluating the effects of natural riparian land cover on stream sediment nutrient dynamics is scarce. The objective of this study was to assess if stream sediment phosphorus retention and nitrogen removal varies with riparian forest cover in agricultural watersheds. Read More

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Getting the First Thousand-Optimizing Instagram Residency Content to Increase Followers During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Educ Perioper Med 2021 Apr-Jun;23(2):E660. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Background: Social media remains a growing platform for physicians to facilitate learning, network, and disseminate information. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged traditional medical student recruitment and outreach. Instagram is a platform that can be used by residency programs to increase engagement and as a potential recruitment tool. Read More

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Divergent effects of hydrological alteration and nutrient addition on greenhouse gas emissions in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China.

Water Res 2021 May 28;201:117308. Epub 2021 May 28.

Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, PR China; Center for Plant Ecology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

Changes in global rainfall patterns and construction of artificial dams have led to widespread alteration of hydrological processes in riparian ecosystems. At the same time, many riparian ecosystems, such as those associated with the Yangtze, are being subjected to enhanced inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) due to intensified agricultural activity in surrounding uplands. Together, these environmental changes may alter the magnitude and direction of greenhouse gasses (GHGs) fluxes from riparian soils. Read More

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Residential airborne culturable fungi under general living scenario: On-site investigation in 12 typical cities, China.

Environ Int 2021 Jun 5;155:106669. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100021, China. Electronic address:

Background: Residential airborne fungi may present obvious risk to human health. However, many countries do not recognize the necessarily need to control residential airborne culturable fungi (RAF). In China, few systemic investigations have been conducted to illustrate the distribution of residential airborne fungi and identify the association between indoor influencing variables and RAF under general living scenario in China. Read More

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Factors Affecting Foliar Oregonin and Condensed Tannin in Red Alder (Alnus rubra Bong.): Phytochemicals Implicated In Defense Against Western Tent Caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum Packard).

J Chem Ecol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Forest Biology and Department of Biology, University of Victoria, 3800 Finnerty Rd, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada.

Past work shows a significant negative correlation between foliar oregonin concentration and western tent caterpillar (Malacosoma californicum Packard) feeding on red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.). Above an oregonin threshold of 20% leaf dry weight, little feeding by caterpillars is observed. Read More

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The National Interscholastic Cycling Association Mountain Biking Injury Surveillance System: 40,000 Student-Athlete-Years of Data.

Curr Sports Med Rep 2021 Jun;20(6):291-297

Division of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Abstract: A web-based injury surveillance system was implemented through a collaboration between University of Utah researchers and the National Interscholastic Cycling Association (NICA) to better understand injury characteristics in mountain biking. Data were collected from NICA leagues during the 2018 and 2019 seasons. Injuries were tracked in 41,327 student-athlete-years, identifying 1750 unique injuries during 1155 injury events. Read More

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Cover crops differentially influenced nitrogen and phosphorus loss in tile drainage and surface runoff from agricultural fields in Ohio, USA.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 4;293:112910. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Food, Agricultural and Biological Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from crop production agriculture is transported to adjacent and downstream water bodies, resulting in negative environmental impacts including harmful and nuisance algal blooms. Cover crops are a conservation management practice that replaces bare soil with vegetation outside of the cash crop growing season, purportedly reducing N and P loss by increasing water and nutrient demand in agroecosystems. In this study, we compared nitrate (NO-N), total N (TN), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and total P (TP) loads in subsurface (tile) drainage and surface runoff from fields with cover crop management (CC) and fields without cover crop management (NoCC) using continuous monitoring data from 40 agricultural fields located throughout northcentral Ohio, United States (US). Read More

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Nitrogen fertiliser value of biogas slurry and cattle manure for maize ( L.) production.

Heliyon 2021 May 22;7(5):e07077. Epub 2021 May 22.

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice, 5700, South Africa.

Recovery of nutrients from biogas slurry (BGS) as a soil amendment, on low input smallholder farms in sub-Saharan Africa, could improve agricultural production and minimize contribution of the agroecosystems to CO emissions. Comparative effects of BGS and cattle manure (CM) on maize dry matter, grain yield, uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), and soil total N, extractable P and exchangeable K after harvest were studied, relative to chemical fertiliser (CF). The field experiment was conducted in the 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 growing seasons and was arranged in a randomized complete block design replicated four times with (i) BGS, (ii) CM and (iii) CF as the treatments. Read More

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as new pathogen involved in bacterial canker of Russian olive.

3 Biotech 2021 Jun 21;11(6):286. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Plant Pathology, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.

Russian olive () is an economically important ornamental and crop plant. It has a wide range of biologically active compounds and is regarded as a unique medicinal plant with multiple applications. Members of the order isolated from trees are often associated with bacterial canker. Read More

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Nitrogen Availability and Use Efficiency in Wheat Crop as Influenced by the Organic-Input Quality Under Major Integrated Nutrient Management Systems.

Front Plant Sci 2021 19;12:634448. Epub 2021 May 19.

Regional Research Station, ICAR-Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Lucknow, India.

Purpose: One of the serious constraints for the integration of organics in soil fertility plans is the release and availability of nitrogen (N) to match the critical growth stages of a crop. The interplay between organic amendment characteristics and soil moisture conditions can significantly affect the nutrient release and availability, especially for dryland crops like wheat. In this study, the effects of integrated nutrient management strategies using diverse qualities of organic amendments on daily N mineralization and its availability to plants during the full growing season of the wheat crop were analyzed in a 10-year experiment. Read More

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Brand-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates during 2019/20 season in Europe - Results from the DRIVE EU study platform.

Vaccine 2021 Jun 3;39(29):3964-3973. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

P95 Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

DRIVE (Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness) is an IMI funded public-private platform that aims to annually estimate brand-specific influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE), for public health and regulatory purposes. IVE analyses and reporting are conducted by public partners in the consortium. In 2019/20, four primary care-based test-negative design (TND) studies (Austria, England, Italy (n = 2)), eight hospital-based TND studies (Finland, France, Italy, Romania, Spain (n = 4)), and one population-based cohort study (Finland) were conducted. Read More

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Annual precipitation explains variability in dryland vegetation greenness globally but not locally.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 5. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

ARC Centre of Excellence for Climate Extremes and Climate Change Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Dryland vegetation productivity is strongly modulated by water availability. As precipitation patterns and variability are altered by climate change, there is a pressing need to better understand vegetation responses to precipitation variability in these ecologically fragile regions. Here we present a global analysis of dryland sensitivity to annual precipitation variations using long-term records of Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). Read More

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The effects of continentality, marine nature and the recirculation of air masses on pollen concentration: Olea in a Mediterranean coastal enclave.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 24;790:147999. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Cartagena, Cartagena, Spain. Electronic address:

Olea pollen concentrations have been studied in relation to the typology of air masses, pollen grain sources and marine nature during advections in a coastal enclave in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula. Since Spain is the world's leading olive producer, and olive growing extends throughout the Mediterranean basin, this location is ideal for the study of long-distance transport events (LTD) during the main pollen season (MPS). The air masses were classified using the calculation of 48-h back trajectories at 250, 500 and 750 m above ground level using the HYSPLIT model. Read More

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Coastal reservoirs as a source of nitrous oxide: Spatio-temporal patterns and assessment strategy.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 21;790:147878. Epub 2021 May 21.

School of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China.

Coastal reservoirs are widely regarded as a viable solution to the water scarcity problem faced by coastal cities with growing populations. As a result of the accumulation of anthropogenic wastes and the alteration of hydroecological processes, these reservoirs may also become the emission hotspots of nitrous oxide (NO). Hitherto, accurate global assessment of NO emission suffers from the scarcity and low spatio-temporal resolution of field data, especially from small coastal reservoirs with high spatial heterogeneity and multiple water sources. Read More

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