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Improved low-dose PET image reconstruction using deep learned prior.

Phys Med Biol 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

MinFound Medical Systems Co., Ltd., Hangzhou , Zhejiang, CHINA.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a promising medical imaging technology that provides non-invasive and quantitative measurement of biochemical process in the human bodies. PET image reconstruction is challenging due to the ill-poseness of the inverse problem. With lower statistics caused by the limited detected photons, low-dose PET imaging lead to noisy reconstructed images with much quality degradation. Read More

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Guillain-Barre Syndrome Associated With COVID-19 Pneumonia-The First Documented Case in a U.S. Military Intensive Care Unit.

Mil Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Neurology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, HI 96859-5001, USA.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a significant cause for intensive care unit (ICU) admission worldwide. Most COVID-19 infections are associated with lower respiratory abnormalities but it has been increasingly associated with extra-pulmonary manifestations. Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is a rarely diagnosed but severe disease associated with COVID-19 infection. Read More

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Maternal exposure to low doses of bisphenol A affects learning and memory in male rat offspring with abnormal -methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the hippocampus.

Toxicol Ind Health 2021 Apr 21:748233720984624. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Medical Experiment Center, 107652Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, Shaanxi, China.

Bisphenol A (BPA), a component of polycarbonate and epoxy resins, has been reported to induce learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Growing evidence has suggested that -methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are involved in cognitive impairments. Read More

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Personality traits and body image in adults with oral piercing: a questionnaire analysis.

Quintessence Int 2021 Apr 21;0(0). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Objectives: Due to the growing popularity of body modifications, dental practitioners are increasingly confronted with oral piercing and its implications. Successful consultation and subsequent change of patient behavior require an understanding of the patient's personality and the deep reasons that explain this self-injurious behavior. This is the first study evaluating personality traits and aspects of body perception in a cohort of adults with oral piercing. Read More

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The role of probiotics and postbiotics in modulating the gut microbiome-immune system axis in the pediatric age.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Apr;73(2):115-127

Department of Translational Medical Science, Federico II University, Naples, Italy -

The complex microbial community of the gut microbiome plays a fundamental role in driving development and function of the human immune system. This phenomenon is named the gut microbiome-immune system axis. When operating optimally, this axis influences both innate and adaptive immunity, which orchestrates the maintenance of crucial elements of host-microorganisms symbiosis, in a dialogue that modulates responses in the most beneficial way. Read More

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Inclusion of dicopper oxide instead of copper sulfate in diets for growing-finishing pigs results in greater final body weight and bone mineralization, but reduced accumulation of copper in the liver.

J Anim Sci 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, 61801, United States of America.

An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that inclusion of Cu oxide (Cu2O) in diets for growing-finishing pigs improves body weight (BW) and bone mineralization, and reduces accumulation of Cu in the liver compared with pigs fed diets containing Cu sulfate (CuSO4). Two hundred growing pigs (initial BW: 11.5 ± 0. Read More

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Fatty Acids from Different Fat Sources and Dietary Calcium Concentration Differentially Affect Fecal Soap Formation in Growing Pigs.

J Nutr 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

Background: Calcium (Ca) can complex with free fatty acids in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), leading to the formation of insoluble unabsorbable Ca-fatty acid soaps, contributing to the proposed effect of Ca on weight loss in humans.

Objectives: We determined the effect of dietary Ca concentration and the individual long-chain fatty acids on Ca-fatty acid soap formation and fatty acid digestibility.

Methods: Nine-week-old crossbreed male pigs (n = 144; mean ± SD body weight: 21. Read More

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Risk of Dysglycemia in Pregnancy amongst Kenyan Women with HIV Infection: A Nested Case-Control Analysis from the STRiDE Study.

J Diabetes Res 2021 5;2021:8830048. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Division of Health Sciences, Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, UK.

Introduction: Gestational diabetes is a common complication, whose incidence is growing globally. There is a pressing need to obtain more data on GDM in low- and middle-income countries, especially amongst high-risk populations, as most of the data on GDM comes from high-income countries. With the growing awareness of the role HIV plays in the progression of noncommunicable diseases and the disproportionate HIV burden African countries like Kenya face, investigating the potential role HIV plays in increasing dysglycemia amongst pregnant women with HIV is an important area of study. Read More

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Safety and Outcomes of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy in a General Surgery Residency Program.

JSLS 2021 Jan-Mar;25(1)

Obesity Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Roma, Italy.

Background: With the escalation of surgical treatment of morbid obesity, there is a growing interest in the training of bariatric surgeons. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) gained popularity both as a first-stage approach and as a stand-alone procedure.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess detectable differences in LSG with intra-operative resident involvement. Read More

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Preparation of an experimental mouse model lacking selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activities by feeding a selenium-deficient diet.

J Clin Biochem Nutr 2021 Mar 17;68(2):123-130. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Quantitative RedOx Sensing Group, Department of Basic Medical Sciences for Radiation Damages, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Quantum Medical Science Directorate, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 263-8555, Japan.

Relatively young (4-week-old) selenium deficient (SeD) mice, which lack the activity of selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) isomers, were prepared using torula yeast-based SeD diet. Mice were fed the torula yeast-based SeD diet and ultra-pure water. Several different timings for starting the SeD diet were assessed. Read More

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Lifestyle interventions for type 2 diabetes management among migrants and ethnic minorities living in industrialized countries: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Apr;9(1)

Translational Health Research Institute (THRI), Western Sydney University, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions to improve the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among migrants and ethnic minorities. Major searched databases included MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE (via Ovid) and CINAHL. The selection of studies and data extraction followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Read More

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Host Immunity Alters Community Ecology and Stability of the Microbiome in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model.

mSystems 2021 Apr 20;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Biology Department, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA

A growing body of data suggests that the microbiome of a species can vary considerably from individual to individual, but the reasons for this variation-and the consequences for the ecology of these communities-remain only partially explained. In mammals, the emerging picture is that the metabolic state and immune system status of the host affect the composition of the microbiome, but quantitative ecological microbiome studies are challenging to perform in higher organisms. Here, we show that these phenomena can be quantitatively analyzed in the tractable nematode host Mutants in innate immunity, in particular the DAF-2/insulin growth factor (IGF) pathway, are shown to contain a microbiome that differs from that of wild-type nematodes. Read More

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Efficacy and safety of mesenchymal stem cells co-infusion in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Apr 20;12(1):246. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Admin Office of Southwest Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), #30 Gaotanyan Street, Shapingba District, Chongqing, 400038, People's Republic of China.

Background: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is life-saving for severe hematological conditions. However, its outcomes need further improvement, and co-infusion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) may show promise. A growing body of research on this subject exists, while the results of different trials are conflicting. Read More

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Height Versus Body Surface Area to Normalize Cardiovascular Measurements in Children Using the Pediatric Heart Network Echocardiographic Z-Score Database.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Normalizing cardiovascular measurements for body size allows for comparison among children of different ages and for distinguishing pathologic changes from normal physiologic growth. Because of growing interest to use height for normalization, the aim of this study was to develop height-based normalization models and compare them to body surface area (BSA)-based normalization for aortic and left ventricular (LV) measurements. The study population consisted of healthy, non-obese children between 2 and 18 years of age enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Echo Z-Score Project. Read More

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Does getting defensive get you anywhere?-Seasonal balancing selection, temperature, and parasitoids shape real-world, protective endosymbiont dynamics in the pea aphid.

Mol Ecol 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Biology, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Facultative, heritable endosymbionts are found at intermediate prevalence within most insect species, playing frequent roles in their hosts' defence against environmental pressures. Focusing on Hamiltonella defensa, a common bacterial endosymbiont of aphids, we tested the hypothesis that such pressures impose seasonal balancing selection, shaping a widespread infection polymorphism. In our studied pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) population, Hamiltonella frequencies ranged from 23. Read More

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Interventional radiologists have a higher rate of chromosomal damage due to occupational radiation exposure: a dicentric chromosome assay.

Eur Radiol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Laboratory of Biological Dosimetry, National Radiation Emergency Medical Center, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: There are growing concerns regarding radiation exposure in medical workers who perform interventional fluoroscopy procedures. Owing to the nature of certain interventional procedures, workers may be subjected to partial-body radiation exposure that is high enough to cause local damage. We aimed to investigate the level of radiation exposure in interventional radiologists in South Korea by performing cytogenetic biodosimetry, particularly focusing on partial-body exposure. Read More

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Population Modelling in Affective Disorders.

Authors:
Erdem Pulcu

Curr Behav Neurosci Rep 2021 Apr 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Oxford Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, Oxford, OX3 7JX UK.

Purpose Of Review: The prevalence of affective disorders is on the rise. This upward trajectory leads to a substantial personal and societal cost. There is growing body of literature demonstrating decision-making impairments associated with affective disorders, and more studies are using computational modelling methods to infer underlying mechanisms of these impairments from participant choice behaviour. Read More

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Respiratory muscle function in the newborn: a narrative review.

Pediatr Res 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Patras, Patras, Greece.

Our aim was to summarise the current evidence and methods used to assess respiratory muscle function in the newborn, focusing on current and future potential clinical applications. The respiratory muscles undertake the work of breathing and consist mainly of the diaphragm, which in the newborn is prone to dysfunction due to lower muscle mass, flattened shape and decreased content of fatigue-resistant muscle fibres. Premature infants are prone to diaphragmatic dysfunction due to limited reserves and limited capacity to generate force and avoid fatigue. Read More

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Tansley Review No. 45 Wall growth, protein excretion and morphogenesis in fungi.

New Phytol 1993 Mar;123(3):397-413

Department of Plant Biology, University of Groningen, Kerklaan 30, 9751 NN Haren, The Netherlands.

With the exception of the unicellular yeasts, fungi typically grow by means of hyphae that extend only at their apices and ramify into a mycelium. This mode of growth provides fungi with a certain mobility and the ability to invade dead and living organic substrata. They are thus the main decomposers of plant residues but they also have established intricate symbiotic relationships with plants, both mutualistic and parasitic. Read More

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Soil community feedback and the coexistence of competitors: conceptual frameworks and empirical tests.

Authors:
James D Bever

New Phytol 2003 Mar;157(3):465-473

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47401, USA.

A growing body of empirical work suggests that soil organisms can exert a strong role in plant community dynamics and may contribute to the coexistence of plant species. Some of this evidence comes from examining the feedback on plant growth through changes in the composition of the soil community. Host specific changes in soil community composition can generate feedback on plant growth and this feedback can be positive or negative. Read More

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The first prior: From co-embodiment to co-homeostasis in early life.

Conscious Cogn 2021 Apr 15;91:103117. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Research Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

The idea that our perceptions in the here and now are influenced by prior events and experiences has recently received substantial support and attention from the proponents of the Predictive Processing (PP) and Active Inference framework in philosophy and computational neuroscience. In this paper we look at how perceptual experiences get off the ground from the outset, in utero. One basic yet overlooked aspect of current PP approaches is that human organisms first develop within another human body. Read More

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Identifying and classifying macroinvertebrate indicator signature traits and ecological preferences along urban pollution gradient in the Niger Delta.

Environ Pollut 2021 Apr 9;281:117076. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Animal Biology (Applied Hydrobiology and Ecotoxicology Unit), Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. Electronic address:

Urbanisation of riverine landscape is an increasing threat to the functionality of river ecosystems. In this study, we identify and classify macroinvertebrates indicator signature traits and ecological preferences.We hypothesised that urban pollution would differentially influence the distribution of macroinvertebrate traits and ecological preferences along a gradient of water quality deterioration. Read More

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Limitations in the Literature Regarding Mohs Surgery and Staged Excision for Melanoma: A Critical Review of Quality and Data Reporting.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

NYU Langone Health, Department of Dermatology, New York, NY 10016.

Background And Objectives: The literature supporting Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) and staged excision (SE) in treating primary cutaneous melanoma is growing but has not been critically reviewed for bias.

Methods: Articles concerning MMS/SE for melanoma were assessed using a modified "Risk of Bias in Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions" (ROBINS-I) criteria which measures bias in seven categories.

Results: 47/48 (97. Read More

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Addressing Hospital-Acquired Hypoglycemia.

Am J Nurs 2021 May;121(5):56-61

Lucille Hughes is director of diabetes education and Maura Caragher is inpatient diabetes education coordinator at Mount Sinai South Nassau, Oceanside, NY. Contact author: Lucille Hughes, The authors have disclosed no potential conflicts of interest, financial or otherwise.

Background: Hospitalized patients who have diabetes often experience hospital-acquired hypoglycemia, a potentially serious adverse event; as a result, management of this condition has become an important quality of care indicator in the inpatient environment. A growing body of research and evidence-based clinical guidelines support proper timing of point of care (POC) blood glucose (BG) measurements, mealtime insulin administration, and meal delivery to reduce the incidence of both hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic events. Monitoring and improving the timing of these three patient care interventions are recognized as a crucial step in the safe and effective care of patients with diabetes. Read More

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Growth performance, tissue precipitation, metallothionein and cytokine transcript expression and economics in response to different dietary zinc sources in growing rabbits.

J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Animal Wealth Development, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.

The impact of different dietary zinc sources on the growth, serum metabolites, tissue zinc content, economics and relative expression of cytokine and metallothionein genes was evaluated in this study. A total of 120 35-day-old male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were randomly distributed into four dietary experimental groups with 10 replicates per group and 3 animals per replicate. The control group was fed basal diet with a Zn-free vitamin-mineral premix; the other three groups received control basal diet supplemented with 50 mg/kg level with zinc oxide (ZnO; as inorganic source), Zn-methionine (Zn-Met; as organic source) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (nano-ZnO). Read More

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The Association of Mitochondrial Copy Number with Sarcopenia in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.

Background: Adult childhood cancer survivors are at risk for frailty, including low muscle mass and weakness (sarcopenia). Using peripheral blood (PB) mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) as a proxy for functional mitochondria, this study describes cross-sectional associations between mtDNAcn and sarcopenia among survivors.

Methods: Among 1,762 adult childhood cancer survivors (51. Read More

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Longitudinal changes in maximal oxygen uptake in adolescent girls and boys with different training backgrounds.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Apr;31 Suppl 1:65-72

Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-volume endurance training on the development of maximal oxygen uptake (VO ) in physically active boys and girls between the ages of 12 and 15 years, using a longitudinal design. The children participated in organized training in sports clubs for an average of 7-10 hours per week, with one group undertaking a high volume of endurance training (~7 hours per week; End boys, n = 23 and End girls, n = 17) and the other group having a primary focus on technical and tactical skill development, undertaking low volumes of endurance training (~1.6 hours per week; non-End boys, n = 29 and non-End girls, n = 9). Read More

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Baricitinib: From Rheumatoid Arthritis to COVID-19.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Molecular Immunology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Baricitinib is a JAK1/2 inhibitor first approved for treating moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis but later showed considerable efficacy in the control of exaggerated inflammatory responses that occur in a wide range of diseases. There is a growing body of evidence, obtained from clinical trials and case reports, demonstrating clinical and paraclinical improvement in patients following administration of baricitinib including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, alopecia areata, interferon-mediated auto-inflammatory diseases, graft versus host disease, diabetic kidney disease, and recently, coronavirus disease-19. However, despite overall encouraging results, many adverse effects have been observed in baricitinib-treated patients ranging from simple infections to increased risk of malignancies, particularly in long-term use. Read More

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Hidden limbs in the "limbless skink" Brachymeles lukbani: Developmental observations.

J Anat 2021 Apr 18. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.

Reduced limbs and limblessness have evolved independently in many lizard clades. Scincidae exhibit a wide range of limb-reduced morphologies, but only some species have been used to study the embryology of limb reduction (e.g. Read More

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Rethinking the biology of metastatic melanoma: a holistic approach.

Cancer Metastasis Rev 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, GROW-School for Oncology & Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, MUMC+, PO Box 5800, 6202, AZ, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Over the past decades, melanoma-related mortality has remained nearly stable. The main reason is treatment failure of metastatic disease and the inherently linked knowledge gap regarding metastasis formation. In order to elicit invasion, melanoma cells manipulate the tumor microenvironment, gain motility, and adhere to the extracellular matrix and cancer-associated fibroblasts. Read More

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