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Outcomes of surgical and/or medical treatment in patients with prolactinomas during long-term follow-up: a retrospective single-centre study.

Horm Mol Biol Clin Investig 2020 Dec 17;42(2):153-157. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Cukurova University, Adana, Turkey.

Objectives: Prolactinoma is the most common cause of pituitary tumours. Current medical guidelines recommend dopamine agonists (cabergoline or bromocriptine) as the initial therapy for prolactinoma. However, surgical removal can also be considered in selected cases, such as patients with macroadenomas with local complications (bleeding or optic chiasm pressure) or those not responding to medical treatment. Read More

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December 2020

The "Three on a Stick" Incision-A Curvilinear Solution for the Occipital and Suboccipital Region.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Neurosurgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Clalit Health System, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Different conditions of the posterior fossa such as Chiari malformations, tumors, and arachnoid cysts require surgery through a suboccipital approach, for which a typical midline vertical linear incision is used. Curvilinear incisions have been carried in all other scalp regions other than the sub region for better cosmetic outcomes; a vertical curvilinear incision in the occipital and suboccipital region has not been reported.

Objective: To evaluate the cosmetic value and safety of the "3 on a stick" vertical suboccipital curvilinear incision. Read More

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Pilates improves physical performance and decreases risk of falls in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Physiotherapy 2021 Jun 7;112:163-177. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Universidad de Castilla La-Mancha, Health and Social Research Center, Cuenca, Spain; Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Autónoma de Chile, Talca, Chile.

Background: Falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths in older adults. Physical exercise is a suitable strategy to reduce the risk of falls, but there is little research on the effectiveness of specific exercise modalities.

Objectives: To estimate the effectiveness of Pilates compared to habitual or non-exercise on physical performance and the risk of falls in older adults. Read More

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Ecotoxicological effects of DBPs on freshwater phytoplankton communities in co-culture systems.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 17;421:126679. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment of Harbin Institute of Technology, Shenzhen 518055, PR China. Electronic address:

Intensive disinfection of wastewater during the COVID-19 pandemic might elevate the generation of toxic disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which has triggered global concerns about their ecological risks to natural aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the toxicity of 17 DBPs typically present in wastewater effluents on three representative microalgae, including Scenedesmus sp. (Chlorophyta), Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanophyta), and Cyclotella sp. Read More

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Investigation into the impact of aged microplastics on oil behavior in shoreline environments.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 21;421:126711. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Building, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, QC H3G 1M8, Canada.

Understanding the interactions between oil and other particles in shoreline can help determine the environmental risk and cleanup strategy after oil spill. Nevertheless, far less has been known regarding the impact of aged MPs on oil behavior in the shoreline environment. In this study, the aging course of polyethylene (PE) in shaking seawater and ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions was investigated. Read More

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MRI study of changes in knee bone marrow edema-like signal in asymptomatic amateur marathon runners before and after half-marathon running.

Clin Imaging 2021 May 18;80:150-157. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Radiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University, No. 126, Wenzhou Road, Gongshu District, Hangzhou 310000, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To evaluate the incidence of knee bone marrow edema-like signal and its changes before and after running a half marathon running in asymptomatic amateur marathon runners to explore the impact of the half marathon on knee bone marrow edema-like signal.

Methods: 50 asymptomatic amateur marathon runners (30 males, 20 females) were recruited. T1-weighted imaging (T1WI), fat-suppressed protein density weighted imaging (fs-PDWI) and three-dimensional double-echo steady-state (3D-DESS) sequence on the right knee were performed before and within 3 h after a half-marathon running. Read More

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High-dose biotin for multiple sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 21;55:103159. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, St. Michael\220s Hospital, University of Toronto, ON M5B 1W8, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Biotin may activate the acetyl-CoA-, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA-, propionyl-CoA-, and pyruvate carboxylases to increase myelin repair and/or synthesis, and may enhance the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which may be essential to prevent neurodegeneration. The purpose of this review was to determine the effectiveness and safety of high-dose biotin (HDB) in multiple sclerosis via a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

Methods: We searched the following electronic databases for relevant articles: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Scopus, and ClinicalTrials. Read More

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Therapeutic plasma exchange in MS refractory relapses: Long-term outcome.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 25;55:103168. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Neurology. Fleni. Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:

Introduction: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is considered a treatment option for steroid-refractory multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses. Our objective was to assess long-term clinical response to TPE in MS steroid-refractory exacerbations.

Methods: Retrospective study of relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients presenting intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMPS)-refractory relapses, who underwent TPE. Read More

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Trends in renewable energy production employing biomass-based biochar.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 23;340:125644. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Biological Engineering, College of Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul-05029, Republic of Korea; Institute for Ubiquitous Information Technology and Application, Konkuk University, Seoul-05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Tremendous population growth and industrialization have increased energy consumption unprecedentedly. The depletion of fossil-based energy supplies necessitates the exploration of solar, geothermal, wind, hydrogen, biodiesel, etc. as a clean and renewable energy source. Read More

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Competitive adsorption of methanol co-solvent and dioctyl phthalate on functionalized graphene sheet: Integrated investigation by molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 24;605:354-363. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Hypothesis: Organic co-solvents, which are universally employed in adsorption studies of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs), can inhibit HOC adsorption by competing for active sites on the adsorbent. The adsorbent structure can influence co-solvent interference of HOC adsorption; however, this effect remains unclear, leading to an incomplete understanding of the adsorption mechanism.

Experiments: In this study, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) was used to investigate competitive adsorption on functionalized graphene sheet in a water-methanol co-solvent system through molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemical calculations. Read More

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Lesser toe deformity classification: A simplified approach with treatment influence.

Foot (Edinb) 2021 May 4;48:101819. Epub 2021 May 4.

Podiatric Medicine and Surgery Residency and Fellowship Program, Director, Department of Orthopedics, University of Louisville, 142 Chenoweth Lane, Louisville, KY, 40207, USA.

Deformities of the lesser toes are one of the most commonly treated conditions by foot and ankle surgeons. Despite their frequency, a standardized classification has yet to take hold among providers. Generic nomenclature with the addition of multiple adjunctive descriptors continues to be the standard leading to international confusion. Read More

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Research progress and prospects for using biochar to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions during composting: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 26;798:149294. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Key Laboratory of Northwest Water Resource, Environment and Ecology, MOE, School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, No. 13 Yanta Road, Xi'an 710055, PR China; International S&T Cooperation Center for Urban Alternative Water Resources Development, Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, No. 13 Yanta Road, Xi'an 710055, PR China. Electronic address:

Biochar possesses a unique porous structure and abundant surface functional groups, which can potentially help mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from compost. This review summarizes the properties and functions of biochar, and the effects of biochar on common GHGs (methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO)) and ammonia (NH, an indirect GHG) during composting. Studies have shown that it is possible to improve the mitigation of GHG emissions during composting by adjusting the biochar amount, type of raw material, pyrolysis temperature, and particle size. Read More

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Added burden of major depressive disorder on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with cardiovascular disease and the modifying effects of antidepressants: A national retrospective cohort study.

J Affect Disord 2021 Jul 22;294:580-585. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Taiwan; Department of Psychology, Asia University, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: To evaluate the likelihood of a future cardiovascular event (i.e., in-hospital mortality or cardiovascular disease [CVD] complications/interventions) among patients with CVD and major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to those without MDD, and the antidepressant use on future cardiovascular events between the two groups. Read More

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Non-invasive vagal nerve stimulation enhances cognitive emotion regulation.

Behav Res Ther 2021 Jul 24;145:103933. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Head and Skin, Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Ghent Experimental Psychiatry (GHEP) Lab, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Experimental Clinical and Health Psychology, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has been proposed as a potential new tool in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Prior studies have demonstrated that taVNS enhances cognitive control and is able to modulate brain activity in key regions involved in cognitive emotion regulation, such as the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex, which is known to be impaired in depressed patients. Preclinical studies are lacking but may provide important insights into the working mechanisms of taVNS on cognitive emotion regulatory processes. Read More

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Road injury burden in Mexico 1990 to 2019: Secondary data analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Accid Anal Prev 2021 Jul 29;160:106316. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico. Electronic address:

Road injuries have been a major cause of premature mortality and disability in Mexico. The objective of this paper is to report the findings from the Global Burden of Disease study (GBD-2019) on road injuries in Mexico at a national and subnational scale from 1990 to 2019, and to assess the association between road injury burden and the socio-demographic index. Following the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study road injury mortality, premature mortality, the years lived with disability and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) are reported. Read More

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Cognitive recovery in people with relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis: A randomized clinical trial on virtual reality-based neurorehabilitation.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Jul 21;208:106828. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

IRCCS Centro Neurolesi "Bonino Pulejo", Messina, Italy.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can adversely affect several domains of cognitive function, including attention, information processing, memory and learning, executive functions and visuospatial skills. In recent years, technological innovations have proven effective in improving motor and cognitive impairment in neurological patients, including those affected by MS.

Objective: The study aims to evaluate cognitive outcomes after rehabilitation training with the Virtual Reality rehabilitation system (VRRS) in patients suffering from MS. Read More

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Dystrophin and metalloproteinase 9 in myocardial ischemia: A post-mortem immunohistochemical study.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Jul 25;53:101948. Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Department of Biomedical and Dental Sciences and Morphofunctional Imaging, University of Messina, via Consolare Valeria, 1, 98125 Messina, Italy.

The presented study evaluated the expression of dystrophin and MMP-9 in cases of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) in order to analyze the characteristics and the chronology of their expression, providing evidence on the possible role in post-mortem diagnosis of myocardial ischemia. The expression of these proteins was also compared to C5b-9 complex and fibronectin expression to evaluate any differences. Two groups of CAD-related SCD, respectively group 1 with gross and/or histological evidence and group 2 with no specific histological signs of myocardial ischemia, were used. Read More

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What do we know about non-epileptic seizures in adults with intellectual disability: A narrative review.

Seizure 2021 Jul 23;91:437-446. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Academic Neurology Unit, University of Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) superficially resemble epileptic seizures, but are not associated with abnormal electrical activity in the brain. PNES are a heterogeneous entity and while there is increasing interest in the characterisation of PNES sub-groups, little is known about individuals with PNES who have an intellectual disability (ID). ID is a lifelong condition characterised by significant limitations in cognitive, social and practical skills. Read More

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Comparative transcriptome analysis provides insight into nitric oxide suppressing lignin accumulation of postharvest okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) during cold storage.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 27;167:49-67. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210095, China. Electronic address:

In plants, NO has been proved the function of improving abiotic stress resistance. However, the role of NO in the lignin metabolism of okra under cold stress has not been clarified. Here, histochemical staining and lignin content analysis showed that cold stress promoted the lignin accumulation of cold stored okra pods, and NO inhibited the lignin accumulation and delayed lignification process. Read More

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Do socio-structural factors moderate the effects of health cognitions on COVID-19 protection behaviours?

Soc Sci Med 2021 Jul 23;285:114261. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

University of Sheffield, UK.

Objective: Adherence to protection behaviours remains key to curbing the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19, but there are substantial differences in individual adherence to recommendations according to socio-structural factors. To better understand such differences, the current research examines whether relationships between health cognitions based on the Reasoned Action Approach (RAA) and eight COVID-19 protection behaviours vary as a function of participant-level socio-structural factors.

Methods: Within-person design with behaviours nested within participants in a two-wave online survey (one week delay) conducted during the UK national lockdown in April 2020. Read More

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Assessment of patients' cumulative doses in one year and collective dose to population through CT examinations.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jul 22;142:109871. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CRCHUS), Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada; Centre intégré universitaire de santé et de services sociaux de l'Estrie - Centre hospitalier universitaire de Sherbrooke (CIUSSS de l'Estrie - CHUS), Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada; Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiobiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada.

Purpose: To estimate percentage of patients undergoing multiple CT exams leading to cumulative effective dose (CED) of more than 25, 50, 75 and 100 mSv in one year and assess per capita and the collective effective dose.

Methods: Data from a regional hospital network was collected retrospectively using radiation dose monitoring system at 6 facilities with 8 CT scanners. The data was analyzed to find number of patients in different dose groups, their age, gender, number of CT exams and exams needed to reach 100 mSv based on age groups. Read More

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Synthesis, antiepileptic effects, and structure-activity relationships of α-asarone derivatives: In vitro and in vivo neuroprotective effect of selected derivatives.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 15;115:105179. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Drug Targeting and Drug Delivery System of the Education Ministry and Sichuan Province, Sichuan Engineering Laboratory for Plant-Sourced Drug and Sichuan Research Center for Drug Precision Industrial Technology, West China School of Pharmacy, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China. Electronic address:

In the present study, we compared the antiepileptic effects of α-asarone derivatives to explore their structure-activity relationships using the PTZ-induced seizure model. Our research revealed that electron-donating methoxy groups in the 3,4,5-position on phenyl ring increased antiepileptic potency but the placement of other groups at different positions decreased activity. Besides, in allyl moiety, the optimal activity was reached with either an allyl or a 1-butenyl group in conjugation with the benzene ring. Read More

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Anxiety and depressive symptoms in U.S. Census Bureau assessments of adults: Trends from 2019 to fall 2020 across demographic groups.

J Anxiety Disord 2021 Jul 23;83:102455. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Florida State University, United States.

Background: Events from spring to fall 2020, including the COVID-19 pandemic, hate crimes, and social unrest, may have impacted mental health, particularly mood and anxiety disorders. This study compares rates of positive screens for anxiety and depressive disorders in separate U.S. Read More

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Nile tilapia skin (Oreochromis niloticus) for burn treatment: ultrastructural analysis and quantitative assessment of collagen.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jul 29;123(6):151762. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Post Graduate Program in Dentistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Drugs Research and Development Center, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) skin is a well-known biomaterial used as an occlusive dressing for burn treatment. It is also an inexpensive and important source of collagen. This study aims to describe the ultrastructural aspects of Nile tilapia skin, assess its collagen amount and organization, and compare quantitative methods of histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis (in all sterilization steps for use in burn dressings). Read More

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Age affects white matter microstructure and episodic memory across the older adult lifespan.

Neurobiol Aging 2021 Jul 4;106:282-291. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA.

Diffusion imaging studies have observed age-related degradation of white matter that contributes to cognitive deficits separately in younger-old (ages 65-89) and oldest-old (ages 90+) adults. But it remains unclear whether these age effects are magnified in advanced age groups, which may reflect disease-related pathology. Here, we tested whether age-related differences in white matter microstructure followed linear or nonlinear patterns across the entire older adult lifespan (65-98 years), these patterns were influenced by oldest-old adults at increased risk of dementia (cognitive impairment no dementia, CIND), and they explained age effects on episodic memory. Read More

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Missed HIV diagnoses when screening only emergency department patients who have blood samples obtained for other clinical purposes.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 Jul 21;50:102-105. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Emergency departments (EDs) are highly valued settings for HIV screening. Most large-volume ED HIV screening programs have attenuated operational barriers by screening only ED patients who already have a blood sample available for other clinical reasons. Our objective was to estimate the proportion of HIV positive patients who are missed when an ED excludes patients for whom HIV screening would be the only indication to obtain a blood sample. Read More

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The unwritten history of medical treatment: Evidence for ritual-healers and their activities in the pre-literate past.

Int J Paleopathol 2021 Jul 28;34:206-216. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

De la Préhistoire à l'Actuel: Culture, Environnement, et Anthropologie (PACEA), Université de Bordeaux, UMR 5199 PACEA, Bâtiment B8, Allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, CS 50023, Pessac Cedex, 33615, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To reveal the presence and activities of healers from funerary contexts.

Materials: Ethnohistoric and ethnographic textual descriptions and the bioarchaeological record.

Methods: A synthesis of human remains, grave contexts, and funerary objects. Read More

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Decreased ventricular size and mass mediate the reduced exercise capacity in adolescents and adults born premature.

Early Hum Dev 2021 Jul 24;160:105426. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States of America.

Background: Premature birth is associated with lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) but the underlying mechanisms responsible remain unclear. This study assessed whether differences in cardiac morphology or function mediate differences in CRF among adolescents and young adults born preterm.

Methods: Adolescents and young adults born moderately to extremely premature (gestational age ≤ 32 weeks or birth weight < 1500 g) and age-matched term born participants underwent resting cardiac MRI and maximal exercise testing. Read More

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Frequent Eczematous Dermatitis in Unrelated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients Compared to Other Donor Types.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; University of Washington, Seattle, WA; Seattle Cancer Care Alliance. Electronic address:

Background: We have consistently noticed in our clinical practice eczematous dermatitis (EcD) without other pathologic findings of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in recipients of unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT). We hypothesized that the incidence of EcD was higher in CBT compared to other donor types.

Objective: To compare the frequency, clinical course, and response to therapy of EcD among CBT and non-CBT recipients. Read More

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Campylobacter coli isolated in Brazil typed by core genome Multilocus Sequence Typing shows high genomic diversity in a global context.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 Jul 28:105018. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto- Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Campylobacter has been one of the most common causative agent of bacterial food-borne gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. However, in Brazil the campylobacteriosis has been a neglected disease and there is insufficient data to estimate the incidence of this pathogen in the country.

Aims: The current study aimed to determine the phylogenetic relationships among Campylobacter coli strains isolated in Brazil and to compare them with international Campylobacter isolates available in some public databases. Read More

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