7,906 results match your criteria group serotypes

Invasive pneumococcal disease in Canada 2010-2017: The role of current and next-generation higher-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 3. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In 2010-2011, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced the 7- or 10-valent vaccine (PCV7 and PCV10, respectively) in pediatric immunization programs across Canada. For adults aged ≥65 years, the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) has been publicly funded for several decades; PCV13 funding was not recommended in this population, partly due to expected ongoing vaccine-serotype disease decline stemming from herd effects of the pediatric program. Higher-valent PCVs (ie, 15- and 20-valent PCVs [PCV15 and PCV20, respectively]) currently in development may become available in Canada in the coming years. Read More

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The RD2 pathogenicity island modifies the disease potential of the group A .

Infect Immun 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, University of Nevada, Reno School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada, USA.

Serotype M28 isolates of the group A (GAS; ) are non-randomly associated with cases of puerperal sepsis, a potentially life-threatening infection that can occur in women following childbirth. Previously, we discovered that the 36.3 kb RD2 pathogenicity island, which is present in serotype M28 isolates but lacking from most other isolates, promotes the ability of M28 GAS to colonize the female reproductive tract. Read More

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Persistent High Leptospiral Shedding by Asymptomatic Dogs in Endemic Areas Triggers a Serious Public Health Concern.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Mar 26;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Laboratório de Bacteriologia Veterinária, Departamento de Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, 24210-130 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

(1) Background: Dogs are known as hosts of and can spread this bacterium to the environment. Although Canicola is responsible for determining chronic disease in dogs, when affected by incidental serogroups such as Icterohaemorrhagiae, acute disease may occur with a predominance of clinical signs with hepatic and renal changes. In endemic areas, it is a serious public health problem. Read More

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Changes in Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Caused by Serotype 1 Following Introduction of PCV10 and PCV13: Findings from the PSERENADE Project.

Microorganisms 2021 Mar 27;9(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

serotype 1 (ST1) was an important cause of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) globally before the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) containing ST1 antigen. The Pneumococcal Serotype Replacement and Distribution Estimation (PSERENADE) project gathered ST1 IPD surveillance data from sites globally and aimed to estimate PCV10/13 impact on ST1 IPD incidence. We estimated ST1 IPD incidence rate ratios (IRRs) comparing the pre-PCV10/13 period to each post-PCV10/13 year by site using a Bayesian multi-level, mixed-effects Poisson regression and all-site IRRs using a linear mixed-effects regression (N = 45 sites). Read More

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Use of seroprevalence to guide dengue vaccination plans for older adults in a dengue non-endemic country.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Apr 1;15(4):e0009312. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University (NTU), Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China.

A shift in dengue cases toward the adult population, accompanied by an increased risk of severe cases of dengue in the elderly, has created an important emerging issue in the past decade. To understand the level of past DENV infection among older adults after a large dengue outbreak occurred in southern Taiwan in 2015, we screened 1498 and 2603 serum samples from healthy residents aged ≥ 40 years in Kaohsiung City and Tainan City, respectively, to assess the seroprevalence of anti-DENV IgG in 2016. Seropositive samples were verified to exclude cross-reaction from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), using DENV/JEV-NS1 indirect IgG ELISA. Read More

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Pneumococcal vaccination during chemotherapy in children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2021 Mar 27:e28944. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Infectious Diseases Division, CHU Sainte Justine - Montreal University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at high risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). We assessed immunity to S. pneumoniae among children after ALL treatment, and the impact of pneumococcal immunization during and after chemotherapy. Read More

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Deconvolution of intergenic polymorphisms determining high expression of Factor H binding protein in meningococcus and their association with invasive disease.

PLoS Pathog 2021 Mar 26;17(3):e1009461. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

GSK, Siena, Italy.

Neisseria meningitidis is a strictly human pathogen and is the major cause of septicemia and meningitis worldwide. Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a meningococcal surface-exposed lipoprotein that binds the human Complement factor H allowing the bacterium to evade the host innate immune response. FHbp is also a key antigen in two vaccines against N. Read More

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Nasopharyngeal carriage of otitis media pathogens in infants receiving 10-valent non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10), 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) or a mixed primary schedule of both vaccines: A randomised controlled trial.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Heath Research, Charles Darwin University, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Northern Territory, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Aboriginal children in Northern Australia have a high burden of otitis media, driven by early and persistent nasopharyngeal carriage of otopathogens, including non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn). In this context, does a combined mixed primary series of Synflorix and Prevenar13 provide better protection against nasopharyngeal carriage of NTHi and Spn serotypes 3, 6A and 19A than either vaccine alone?

Methods: Aboriginal infants (n = 425) were randomised to receive Synflorix™ (S, PHiD-CV10) or Prevenar13™ (P, PCV13) at 2, 4 and 6 months (_SSS or _PPP, respectively), or a 4-dose early mixed primary series of PHiD-CV10 at 1, 2 and 4 months and PCV13 at 6 months of age (SSSP). Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 7 months of age. Read More

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Effect of a 2+1 schedule of ten-valent versus 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on pneumococcal carriage: Results from a randomised controlled trial in Vietnam.

Vaccine 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK; Infection and Immunity, Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) generate herd protection by reducing nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage. Two PCVs, PCV10 and PCV13, have been in use for over a decade, yet there are few data comparing their impact on carriage. Here we report their effect on carriage in a 2+1 schedule, compared with each other and with unvaccinated controls. Read More

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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from pasteurized dairy products from Bahia, Brazil.

J Dairy Sci 2021 Mar 16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Graduate Program in Food Science (PGAli), Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, 40170-115, Brazil; Laboratório de Inspeção e Tecnologia de Leite e Derivados (LAITLACTEOS), Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA, 40170-110, Brazil. Electronic address:

The presence of pathogenic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in dairy products represents a public health concern because of its ability to produce the toxins Stx1 and Stx2, which cause intestinal diseases. Monitoring the stages of milk production and checking dairy products for contamination are crucial steps to ensure dairy safety. This study aimed to report the occurrence of thermotolerant coliforms, E. Read More

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Invasive pneumococcal disease due to 22F and 33F in England: A tail of two serotypes.

Vaccine 2021 Apr 11;39(14):1997-2004. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Immunisation and Countermeasures Division, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, UK; Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, St. George's University of London, Cranmer Terrace, London SW17 0RE, UK. Electronic address:

Background: A 15-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV15) aims to protect against serotype 22F and 33F in addition to the serotypes within the 13-valent PCV (PCV13) which was introduced to the UK childhood immunisation programme in April 2010. Little is known about the specific epidemiology, clinical features or outcomes of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) due to these two serotypes.

Methods: Public Health England (PHE) conducts enhanced IPD surveillance in England. Read More

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Association of donor and recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus on graft and patient survival in liver transplant recipients.

Liver Transpl 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

University of Washington, Division of Transplant Surgery, Clinical and Bio-Analytics Transplant Laboratory (CBATL), Seattle, WA, USA.

Background And Aims: Among solid organ transplant recipients, donor CMV seropositive (D+), recipient seronegative (R-) status is associated with an increased risk of graft loss and mortality after kidney or lung transplant. Whether a similar relationship exists among liver transplant recipients (LTxR) is unknown.

Methods: We assessed graft loss and mortality among adult LTxRs from 1/1/2010 to 3/14/2020 in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) database. Read More

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Epitope and Paratope Mapping by HDX-MS Combined with SPR Elucidates the Difference in Bactericidal Activity of Two Anti-NadA Monoclonal Antibodies.

J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Protein Analysis Group, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.

Characterization of antigen-antibody interactions is crucial for understanding antibody-mediated protection against pathogens, biopharmaceutical development, as well as evaluation of the immune response post vaccination. Bexsero is a multicomponent vaccine against serogroup B in which one of the key vaccine antigens is Neisserial adhesin A (NadA), a trimeric coiled-coil protein. Two NadA-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from Bexsero-vaccinated individuals have been shown to have similar binding affinity and appear to recognize a similar antigen region, yet only one of the mAbs is bactericidal. Read More

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Interchangeability, immunogenicity and safety of a combined 10-valent pneumococcal protein D conjugate vaccine (Synflorix) and 13-valent-PCV (Prevenar13) schedule at 1-2-4-6 months: PREVIX_COMBO, a 3-arm randomised controlled trial.

Vaccine X 2021 Apr 15;7:100086. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Child Health Division, Menzies School of Heath Research, PO Box 41096, Casuarina, Australia.

Background: Aboriginal children living in remote communities are at high risk of early and persistent otitis media. and non-typeable (NTHi) are primary pathogens. Vaccines with potential to prevent early OM have not been evaluated in this population. Read More

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Spatial Epidemiology of Salmonellosis in Florida, 2009-2018.

Front Public Health 2020 11;8:603005. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Animal Sciences Department, Emerging Pathogens Institute and Food Systems Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States.

Non-typhoidal infections cause a high disease burden in the United States with an estimated 1.2 million illnesses annually. The state of Florida consistently has a relatively high incidence compared to other states in the United States. Read More

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January 2021

A Narrative Review of the Molecular Epidemiology and Laboratory Surveillance of Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Meningitis Agents: , , and .

Microorganisms 2021 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Laboratory for Vaccine Preventable Bacterial Diseases, National Microbiology Laboratory, Public Health Agency of Canada, 1015 Arlington Street, Winnipeg, MB R3E 3R2, Canada.

This narrative review describes the public health importance of four most common bacterial meningitis agents, , , , and (group B ). Three of them are strict human pathogens that normally colonize the nasopharynx and may invade the blood stream to cause systemic infections and meningitis. colonizes the genito-gastrointestinal tract and is an important meningitis agent in newborns, but also causes invasive infections in infants or adults. Read More

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February 2021

Genotypic Characterization of Antimicrobial Resistant spp. Strains from Three Poultry Processing Plants in Colombia.

Foods 2021 Feb 25;10(3). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Animal and Food Sciences Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA.

The poultry industry in Colombia has implemented several changes and measures in chicken processing to improve sanitary operations and control pathogens' prevalence. However, there is no official in-plant microbial profile reference data currently available throughout the processing value chains. Hence, this research aimed to study the microbial profiles and the antimicrobial resistance of isolates in three plants. Read More

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February 2021

Leptospira interrogans serogroup Pomona strains isolated from river buffaloes.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Mar 5;53(2):194. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Laboratório de Zoonoses Bacterianas, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva e Saúde Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

At present, little is known regarding the prevalence of buffalo leptospirosis worldwide, especially with respect to which Leptospira strains may infect this animal species. Furthermore, most investigations into this disease in buffaloes have only been performed with serological studies. In Brazil, particularly in the Amazon, buffalo production is growing and is just as important as cattle production, although few studies have been performed on buffalo compared to cattle. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 01(310):182-186

G. Eliava Institute of Bacteriophages, Microbiology and Virology

Streptococcus agalactiae, also known as group B streptococci, was first isolated from cow's milk with mastitis, and it was first identified in 1930 by Rebecca Lancefield. GBS or streptococcus agalacticae is a gram-positive cocci, beta-hemolytic, facultative anaerobic, which is a harmless inhabitant of the normal human microflora. About 30% of the population is an asymptomatic carrier of this microbe. Read More

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January 2021

Prevalence and phenotypic characterization of isolates from three species of wild marine turtles in Grenada, West Indies.

Vet World 2021 Jan 25;14(1):222-229. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, St. George's University, Grenada, West Indies.

Background And Aim: causes enteric disease in mammals and may potentially be transmitted from marine turtles that shed the pathogen in the environment. Marine turtle-associated human salmonellosis is a potential public health concern in Grenada, as the island supports populations of leatherback turtles (), hawksbill turtles (), and green turtles () that interface with veterinarians and conservation workers, the local population, and the thousands of visitors that frequent the island yearly. To date, the prevalence of has only been examined in a small subset of marine turtles in the Caribbean and no studies have been conducted in Grenada. Read More

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January 2021

High performance dengue virus antigen-based serotyping-NS1-ELISA (plus): A simple alternative approach to identify dengue virus serotypes in acute dengue specimens.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 26;15(2):e0009065. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Molecular Biology of Dengue and Flaviviruses Research Team, Medical Molecular Biotechnology Research Group, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok, Thailand.

Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is caused by infection with dengue virus (DENV). Four different serotypes (DENV1-4) co-circulate in dengue endemic areas. The viral RNA genome-based reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR) is the most widely used method to identify DENV serotypes in patient specimens. Read More

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February 2021

Fully automated point-of-care differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 25;15(2):e0009177. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Laboratory for MEMS Applications, IMTEK - Department of Microsystems Engineering, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Background: In this work, a platform was developed and tested to allow to detect a variety of candidate viral, bacterial and parasitic pathogens, for acute fever of unknown origin. The platform is based on a centrifugal microfluidic cartridge, the LabDisk ("FeverDisk" for the specific application), which integrates all necessary reagents for sample-to-answer analysis and is processed by a compact, point-of-care compatible device.

Methodology/principal Findings: A sample volume of 200 μL per FeverDisk was used. Read More

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February 2021

Middle-East OBGYN Graduate Education (MOGGE) Foundation practice guidelines: prevention of group B Streptococcus infection in pregnancy and in newborn. Practice guideline no. 02-O-20.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Feb 24:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Assiut School of Medicine, Assiut, Egypt.

Rectovaginal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS) is commonly encountered in pregnancy. GBS is the most common cause of early onset neonatal sepsis, which is associated with 12% case-fatality rate. Although screening protocols and prophylactic treatment are readily available worldwide, practice in low-resource countries is challenged by lack of awareness and limited implementation of these protocols. Read More

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February 2021

Vaccines for older adults.

BMJ 2021 02 22;372:n188. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

The proportion of the global population aged 65 and older is rapidly increasing. Infections in this age group, most recently with SARS-CoV-2, cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Major improvements have been made in vaccines for older people, either through the addition of novel adjuvants-as in the new recombinant zoster vaccine and an adjuvanted influenza vaccine-or by increasing antigen concentration, as in influenza vaccines. Read More

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February 2021

Serotyping of dengue virus in 2016-17 outbreak in Kudat, Sabah, Malaysia.

Trop Biomed 2020 Mar;37(1):58-65

Department of Pathobiology and Medical Diagnostics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Malaysian Sabah, Malaysia.

An outbreak of dengue in Kudat, northern Sabah in 2016-2017 provided an opportunity to investigate the circulating serotypes of dengue viruses of cases at Hospital Kudat. Between September 2016 and December 2017, a total of 156 dengue positive sera (tested positive by either NS1 antigen, or IgM and IgG antibody rapid test) were collected from dengue patients who had acute fever and showed signs and symptoms suggestive of dengue. RNA was extracted from the sera using QIAamp RNA Blood Mini Kit, and molecular amplification was performed using one-step RT-PCR kit, followed by nested PCR using HotStart Taq master mix kit with the primers of the dengue C-prM gene. Read More

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Molecular typing of group B Neisseria meningitidis'subcapsular antigens directly on biological samples demonstrates epidemiological congruence between culture-positive and -negative cases: A surveillance study of invasive disease over a 13-year period.

J Infect 2021 Apr 19;82(4):28-36. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Health Sciences, University of Florence and Meyer Children's University Hospital, viale Pieraccini 24, 50139 Florence, Italy.

Background: Surveillance of serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) subcapsular antigen variant distribution in invasive disease (IMD) is fundamental for multicomponent vaccine coverage prediction. IMD incidence in Tuscany in 2018 was 0.37/100,000 inhabitants, with MenB representing 57% of cases. Read More

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Review of clinical studies comparing meningococcal serogroup C immune responses induced by MenACWY-TT and monovalent serogroup C vaccines.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Feb 19:1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Vaccine Medical, Development, Scientific and Clinical Affairs, Pfizer Ltd , Tadworth, UK.

Many countries are replacing meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) conjugate vaccines (MCCV) with quadrivalent conjugate (MenACWY) vaccines, such as MenACWY-TT (Nimenrix®). This review examined eight studies comparing MenC immune responses induced by MenACWY-TT and MCCV to determine if these data support these changes. MenC serum bactericidal antibody levels using human (hSBA) or rabbit complement (rSBA) were evaluated at ~1 month postvaccination. Read More

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February 2021

Estimated strain coverage of serogroup B meningococcal vaccines: A retrospective study for disease and carrier strains in Greece (2010-2017).

Vaccine 2021 Mar 15;39(11):1621-1630. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Second Dept of Paediatrics, Medical School, National Kapodistrian University, Athens, Greece.

Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is associated with high case fatality rates and long-term sequelae among survivors. Meningococci belonging to six serogroups (A, B, C, W, X, and Y) cause nearly all IMD worldwide, with serogroup B meningococci (MenB) the predominant cause in many European countries, including Greece (~80% of all IMD). In the absence of protein-conjugate polysaccharide MenB vaccines, two protein-based vaccines are available to prevent MenB IMD in Greece: 4CMenB (Bexsero™, GlaxoSmithKline), available since 2014; and MenB-FHbp, (Trumenba™, Pfizer), since 2018. Read More

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VA-MENGOC-BC Vaccination Induces Serum and Mucosal Anti Neisseria gonorrhoeae Immune Responses and Reduces the Incidence of Gonorrhea.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Apr;40(4):375-381

From the Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Preclínicas "Victoria de Girón," Havana, Cuba.

Background: Overall, there are over 30 different sexually transmitted infections with Neisseria gonorrhoeae being the third most frequent with a reported 78 million cases per year. Gonococcal infection causes genital inflammation, which can be a risk factor for others sexually transmitted infections, particularly human immunodeficiency virus. Gonorrhea is a treatable disease, but recently an increase in antibiotic resistance has been of concern. Read More

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Impact of meningococcal B vaccine on invasive meningococcal disease in adolescents.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Vaccinology and Immunology Research Trials Unit, Women's and Children's Health Network, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: From 2017 a state-wide cluster randomized trial was conducted in South Australia to assess the impact of the meningococcal B vaccine 4CMenB on pharyngeal N. meningitidis carriage in adolescents. Senior schools were randomized to receive the vaccine in 2017 (intervention) or 2018 (control). Read More

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February 2021