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Prevalence of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Among Medicare Fee-For-Service Beneficiaries - United States, 2001-2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2021 May 14;70(19):698-701. Epub 2021 May 14.

Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The number of affected persons worldwide has increased from 3.7 million in 1990 to 6. Read More

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Alcohol use and related consequences for monoracial and multiracial Native American/American Indian college students.

Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Duke University.

Native American/American Indian (NA/AI) and Multiracial people (those who claim multiple racial identities) report notably high alcohol use compared to other racial groups in the United States. Nearly half of the NA/AI population is also Multiracial, yet NA/AI and Multiracial college students report different motivations for drinking alcohol. Therefore, it remains unclear if NA/AI individuals who are also Multiracial are at different risk for alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, and if there are distinct patterns of risk factors in these understudied populations. Read More

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Examination of a distress screening intervention for rural cancer survivors reveals low uptake of psychosocial referrals.

J Cancer Surviv 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

University of Virginia Cancer Center, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Purpose: To determine the impact of a telemedicine-delivered intervention aimed at identifying unmet needs and cancer-related distress (CRD) following the end of active treatment on supportive care referral patterns.

Methods: We used a quasi-experimental design to compare supportive care referral patterns between a group of rural cancer survivors receiving the intervention and a control group (N = 60). We evaluated the impact of the intervention on the number and type of referrals offered and whether or not the participant accepted the referral. Read More

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Activities and participation of 65-91-year-old adults: population-based study among residents of a sparsely populated and remote area in Iceland.

Int J Circumpolar Health 2021 Dec;80(1):1903778

Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

Southern Westfjords of Iceland is a sparsely populated, remote area with rather high proportion of older residents. This study´s aim was to investigate activities and participation in this population, using a descriptive cross-sectional population-based design. The participants were 129 community-dwelling residents, 65-91 years old. Read More

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December 2021

Temporal trends in between and within-country inequalities in caesarean delivery in low- and middle-income countries: a Bayesian analysis.

BJOG 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Institute for Social Science Research, The University of Queensland, Indooroopilly, Queensland, 4068, Australia.

Objective: To provide updated information about between-country variations, temporal trends, and changes in inequalities within countries in caesarean delivery (CD) rates.

Design: Cross-sectional study of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) during 1990-2018 SETTING: 74 low- and middle-income countries POPULATION: Women 15-49 years of age who had live births in the last three years METHODS: Bayesian linear regression analysis was performed, and absolute differences were calculated MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Population-level CD by countries and socio-demographic characteristics of mothers over time.

Results: CD rates, based on the latest DHS rounds, varied substantially between the study countries, from 1. Read More

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Patterns of Growth in Childhood in Relation to Adult Schooling Attainment and Intelligence Quotient in 6 Birth Cohorts in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Evidence from the Consortium of Health-Oriented Research in Transitioning Societies (COHORTS).

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Nutrition and Health Sciences, Laney Graduate School, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Growth faltering has been associated with poor intellectual performance. The relative strengths of associations between growth in early and in later childhood remain underexplored.

Objectives: We examined the association between growth in childhood and adult human capital in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Read More

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Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and Cognitive Dysfunction in Rural West Elderly Texans.

J Alzheimers Dis Rep 2021 Mar 19;5(1):213-226. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Julia Jones Matthews Department of Public Health, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Background: The prevalence of cognitive dysfunction increases in elderly due to cardiovascular disease related risk factors in rural communities like West Texas.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to find risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) related to cognitive dysfunction and their impact on elderly adults in rural West Texans.

Methods: Statistical methods such as Pearson's chi-squared and a multinomial logistic regression were utilized to analyze data. Read More

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Contribution of Satellite-Derived Aerosol Optical Depth PM Bayesian Concentration Surfaces to Respiratory-Cardiovascular Chronic Disease Hospitalizations in Baltimore, Maryland.

Atmosphere (Basel) 2020 18;11(2):209. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

I. M. Systems Group, 5825 University Research Ct, Suite 3250, College Park, MD 20740, USA.

The fine particulate matter baseline (PMB), which includes PM monitor readings with Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model predictions, using the Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM), is less accurate in rural areas without monitors. To address this issue, an upgraded HBM was used to form four experimental aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM concentration surfaces. A case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression evaluated the contribution of the AOD-PM surfaces and PMB to four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in all 99 12 km CMAQ grids, and in grids with and without ambient air monitors. Read More

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February 2020

Effect of a bioconverted product of Lotus corniculatus seed on the axillary microbiome and body odor.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10138. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

The skin microbiome, especially the axillary microbiome, consists of odor-causing bacteria that decompose odorless sweat into malodor compounds, which contributes to the formation of body odor. Plant-derived products are a cheap source of bioactive compounds that are common ingredients in cosmetics. Microbial bioconversion of natural products is an ecofriendly and economical method for production of new or improved biologically active compounds. Read More

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Awareness, treatment, control, and determinants of dyslipidemia among adults in China.

Sci Rep 2021 May 12;11(1):10056. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, No. 13 Hangkong Road, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Effective management of dyslipidemia is important. This study aimed to determine the awareness, treatment, control, and determinants of dyslipidemia in middle-aged and older Chinese adults in China. Using data from the 2015 China National Stroke Screening and Prevention Project (CNSSPP), a nationally representative sample of 135,403 Chinese adults aged 40 years or more were included in this analysis. Read More

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Participants' and caregivers' experiences of a multidisciplinary programme for healthy lifestyle change in Aotearoa/New Zealand: a qualitative, focus group study.

BMJ Open 2021 May 11;11(5):e043516. Epub 2021 May 11.

Kōhatu-Centre for Hauora Māori, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Objective: Child and adolescent obesity continues to be a major health issue internationally. This study aims to understand the views and experiences of caregivers and participants in a child and adolescent multidisciplinary programme for healthy lifestyle change.

Design: Qualitative focus group study. Read More

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Prevalence of CVD risk factors among some tribal and nontribal populations of Jharkhand - A comparative survey.

Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol 2021 Jun 19;37:100419. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Zoology, DSPMU, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Electronic address:

Background: World especially India had been witnessing a sharp increase of death and disability due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Prevention, cure and management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) necessitate true picture of the spread of CVD risk factors throughout the country. Among few surveys in India, very little reports were from state Jharkhand. Read More

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Meta-analysis of the effects of smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregation on birth outcome.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2021 May 12;21(1):374. Epub 2021 May 12.

Key Laboratory of Combining Farming and Animal Husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Animal Husbandry Research Institute, No. 368 Xuefu Road, Harbin, 150086, People's Republic of China.

Background: Smooth endoplasmic reticulum aggregation (SERa, SER+) has been reported to increase the risk of birth malformations and other abnormal outcomes, miscarriage, and perinatal complications. Other studies, however, suggest that SER+ embryos may develop into healthy infants. One report indicates that 25% of in vitro fertilization (IVF) centers discard SER+ oocytes. Read More

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BEFRIENding for Depression, Anxiety and Social support in older adults living in Australian residential aged care facilities (BEFRIENDAS): randomised controlled trial protocol.

BMC Geriatr 2021 May 12;21(1):305. Epub 2021 May 12.

Aged Care Division, National Ageing Research Institute, Poplar Road, Parkville, 3052, Australia.

Background: This protocol describes an ongoing study of the impact of befriending on depression, anxiety and loneliness in older people living in residential aged care facilities in Australia. While systematic reviews of befriending have indicated positive benefits of befriending for people in a range of ages and settings, there have been no randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of befriending for older people living in residential aged care with depression and no studies of the cost effectiveness of befriending in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) in Australia.

Methods And Analysis: We are conducting a single blind pragmatic RCT comparing two groups of older people living in RACFs, one receiving an intervention consisting of weekly befriending for 4 months from a trained volunteer and the other receiving treatment as usual. Read More

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Echocardiographic left ventricular geometry profiles for prediction of stroke, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality in the Chinese community: a rural cohort population study.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 May 12;21(1):238. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Cardiology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, No.155 Nanjing Bei Street, Heping District, Shenyang, 110001, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China.

Background: The utility of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) geometry in the prediction of stroke/coronary heart disease (CHD) and all-cause mortality is not well characterized. This study aimed to evaluate the overall and sex-specific prognostic value of different geometric patterns on the incidence of stroke/CHD and all-cause mortality in a Chinese population-based cohort.

Methods: We conducted a prospective study in the general population in Northeast China, and a total of 9940 participants aged ≥ 35 years underwent echocardiography for LV geometry and were successfully followed up for incident stroke/CHD and all-cause death. Read More

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Rectal cancer patients from rural areas in northern Sweden report more pain and problems with stoma care than those from urban areas.

Rural Remote Health 2021 May 13;21(2):5471. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery, Umeå University, Norrlands universitetssjukhus, Umeå, Västerbotten 90185, Sweden

Introduction: Having a stoma after bowel surgery is associated with inferior quality of life (QoL). The county of Västerbotten in Sweden is a large and sparsely populated area. Competence regarding stoma-related problems is restricted to hospital-based stoma nurses and surgeons. Read More

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Maternal Overweight and Obesity during Pregnancy Are Associated with Neonatal, but Not Maternal, Hepcidin Concentrations.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Background: Overweight or obesity among pregnant women may compromise maternal and neonatal iron status by upregulating hepcidin.

Objectives: This study determined the association of 1) maternal and neonatal iron status with maternal and neonatal hepcidin concentrations, and 2) maternal prepregnancy weight status with maternal and neonatal hepcidin concentrations.

Methods: We examined hematologic data from 405 pregnant women and their infants from the placebo treatment group of a pregnancy iron supplementation trial in rural China. Read More

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Triatomine and Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units distribution in a semi-arid area of northeastern Brazil.

Acta Trop 2021 May 9:105950. Epub 2021 May 9.

Graduate Program in Parasitic Biology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Electronic address:

The occurrence of triatomine species, their bloodmeal sources, and the discrete typing units (DTUs) of Trypanosoma cruzi isolated from them were determined in different municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Triatomine captures were carried out in the rural areas of 23 municipalities. The genotyping of T. Read More

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FoxO1 in Micropterus salmoides: Molecular characterization and its roles in glucose metabolism by glucose or insulin-glucose loading.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 May 9:113811. Epub 2021 May 9.

National Aquafeed Safety Assessment Center, Institute of Feed Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, China. Electronic address:

Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1), a nuclear transcription factor, plays an important role in insulin-mediated glucose metabolism. In this study, FoxO1 gene from largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) was cloned and characterized, and its effects on hepatic glucose metabolism regulated by insulin-AKT pathway were investigated in response to glucose or insulin-glucose injection. The full-length cDNA of FoxO1 consisted of 2541 bp and encoded 680 amino acids. Read More

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Telephone veteran peer coaching for mental health treatment engagement among rural veterans: The importance of secondary outcomes and qualitative data in a randomized controlled trial.

J Rural Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Southeast Louisiana Veterans Health Care System, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of telephone motivational coaching delivered by veteran peers to improve mental health (MH) treatment engagement among veterans.

Methods: Veterans receiving primary care from primarily rural VA community-based outpatient clinics were enrolled. Veterans not engaged in MH treatment screening positive for ≥1 MH problem(s) were randomized to receive veteran peer-delivered feedback on MH screen results and referrals plus 4 sessions of telephone motivational coaching (intervention) versus veteran peer-delivered MH results and referrals without motivational coaching (control). Read More

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The Path to Eldership: Results from a Contemporary Indigenous Australian Community.

Gerontologist 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Traditionally, Elders have held a unique social position within Indigenous Australian communities. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of Indigenous Elders that distinguish them from other people in their community.

Research Design And Methods: Using a community-based participatory research approach, the study was conducted in a regional Indigenous community in Southeast Queensland. Read More

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Sweet potato ( L.) leaf polyphenols ameliorate hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice.

Food Funct 2021 May;12(9):4117-4131

Laboratory of Food Chemistry and Nutrition Science, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences; Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan West Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, P.R. China.

The hypoglycemic effects and potential mechanism of sweet potato leaf polyphenols (SPLP) on type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated. Results showed that oral administration of SPLP to mice could alleviate body weight loss, decrease fasting blood glucose levels (by 64.78%) and improve oral glucose tolerance compared with those of untreated diabetic mice. Read More

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Palestinian children living amidst political and military violence deploy active protection strategies against psychological trauma: How agency can mitigate traumatic stress via life satisfaction.

J Child Health Care 2021 May 12:13674935211017727. Epub 2021 May 12.

University of Milano-Bicocca, Italy.

This exploratory study assessed the association between agency and life satisfaction, as well as the potential for life satisfaction, in its turn, to alleviate trauma symptoms and reduce negative emotion in a group of children exposed to war and military violence in Palestine. Two hundred and fifty Palestinian children, who had been recruited at primary schools in urban and rural areas, and refugee camps, completed the Multilevel Student's Life Satisfaction Scale, Children's Hope Scale (CHS), Children's Impact of Event Scale (CRIES) and Positive and Negative Affect Scales. We performed structural equation modelling to evaluate the effects of agency on negative emotions and trauma symptoms via life satisfaction. Read More

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Sustainability Assessment of a District-Wide Quality Improvement on Newborn Care Program in Rural Rwanda: A Mixed-Method Study.

Ann Glob Health 2021 Apr 19;87(1):40. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, USA.

Background: Neonatal mortality continues to be a global challenge, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. There is growing work to reduce mortality through improving quality of systems and care, but less is known about sustainability of improvements in the setting post initial implementation. We conducted a 12-month sustainability assessment of All Babies Count (ABC), a district-wide quality improvement project including mentoring and improvement collaborative designed to improve quality and reduce neonatal mortality in two districts in rural Rwanda. Read More

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Association between body mass index and blood pressure levels across socio-demographic groups and geographical settings: analysis of pooled data in Peru.

PeerJ 2021 21;9:e11307. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

CRONICAS Center of Excellence in Chronic Diseases, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru.

Background: Understanding the relationship between BMI and blood pressure requires assessing whether this association is similar or differs across population groups. This study aimed to assess the association between body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure levels, and how these associations vary between socioeconomic groups and geographical settings.

Methods: Data from the National Demographic Health Survey of Peru from 2014 to 2019 was analyzed considering the complex survey design. Read More

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Barriers and Facilitators of Community-Based Health Insurance Membership in Rural Amhara Region, Northwest Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 3;13:343-348. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Health Systems and Policy, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: More than 150 million people encounter huge cost of health expenses every year, and most of these treatment seekers face poverty owing to out-of-pocket payments. Community-based health insurance (CBHI) won popularity as a makeshift health financing mechanism for out-of-pocket payments in poor communities. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the facilitators and impediments of enrollment to community-based health insurance in rural parts of the Amhara region, Ethiopia. Read More

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First comprehensive quantification of annual land use/cover from 1990 to 2020 across mainland Vietnam.

Sci Rep 2021 May 11;11(1):9979. Epub 2021 May 11.

Faculty of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennoudai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8572, Japan.

Extensive studies have highlighted a need for frequently consistent land cover information for interdisciplinary studies. This paper proposes a comprehensive framework for the automatic production of the first Vietnam-wide annual land use/land cover (LULC) data sets (VLUCDs) from 1990 to 2020, using available remotely sensed and inventory data. Classification accuracies ranged from 85. Read More

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Chronic airflow obstruction and ambient particulate air pollution.

Thorax 2021 May 11. Epub 2021 May 11.

Medicine, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun, Nigeria.

Smoking is the most well-established cause of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO) but particulate air pollution and poverty have also been implicated. We regressed sex-specific prevalence of CAO from 41 Burden of Obstructive Lung Disease study sites against smoking prevalence from the same study, the gross national income per capita and the local annual mean level of ambient particulate matter (PM) using negative binomial regression. The prevalence of CAO was not independently associated with PM but was strongly associated with smoking and was also associated with poverty. Read More

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Prevalence of late-stage presentation and associated factors of cervical cancer patients in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital, Ethiopia: institutional based cross-sectional study.

Infect Agent Cancer 2021 May 11;16(1):30. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Child Health Nursing, School of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Background: Cancer of the uterine cervix remains a main public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. About two-thirds of patients with cervical cancer were diagnosed at late stage with contributing factors of out-of-pocket medical bill, looking for care out of conventional health settings and multiple visits to healthcare facilities before diagnostic confirmations in Addis Ababa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify prevalence of late-stage presentation and associated factors among cervical cancer patients in Tikur Anbesa Specialized Hospital (TASH). Read More

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Medication risk management and health equity in New Zealand general practice: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

Int J Equity Health 2021 May 11;20(1):119. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of General Practice and Rural Health, Otago Medical School - Dunedin Campus, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Background: Despite an overt commitment to equity, health inequities are evident throughout Aotearoa New Zealand. A general practice electronic alert system was developed to notify clinicians about their patient's risk of harm due to their pre-existing medical conditions or current medication. We aimed to determine whether there were any disparities in clinician action taken on the alert based on patient ethnicity or other demographic factors. Read More

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