25,044 results match your criteria group pathogens


Pathogens and extracellular vesicles: New paths and challenges to understanding and treating diseases. Editorial opinion.

Mol Immunol 2021 Sep 17;139:155-156. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Àrea de Parasitologia, Departament de Farmàcia i Tecnologia Farmacèutica i Parasitologia, Universitat de València, Av. V.A. Estellés, s/n, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been described in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells as released membranous structures loaded with biomolecules including nucleic acids, glycoconjugates, lipids and proteins. Two main groups of vesicles with different biogenesis and size are considered to be the most predominant, Exosomes (30-100 nm) originating from multivesicular bodies, and microvesículas (100-1000 nm) originating from plasma membrane. EVs participate in cellular communication between different organisms and can alter neighbour cells, participating in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Read More

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September 2021

Incursions of divergent genotypes, evolution of virulence and host jumps shape a continental clonal population of the stripe rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis.

Mol Ecol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Plant Breeding Institute, The University of Sydney, 107 Cobbitty Road, Cobbitty, NSW, 2570, Australia.

Long-distance migration and host adaptation by transboundary plant pathogens often brings detrimental effects to important agroecosystems. Efficient surveillance as a basis for responding to the dynamics of such pathogens is often hampered by a lack of information on incursion origin, evolutionary pathways and the genetic basis of rapidly evolving virulence across larger timescales. Here, we studied these genetic features by using historical isolates of the obligate biotrophic pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. Read More

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September 2021

Pelvic inflammatory disease and causative pathogens in older women in a medical center in eastern Taiwan: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(9):e0257627. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, Taiwan.

Objectives: Most research into the management of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is in younger women and focuses on sexually transmitted pathogens such as N. gonorrhoeae or C. trachomatis. Read More

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September 2021

Prophylactic inhibition of colonization by with the secondary bile acid metabolite deoxycholic acid.

Infect Immun 2021 Sep 20:IAI0046321. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA.

(Spn) colonizes the nasopharynx of children and the elderly but also kills millions worldwide yearly. The secondary bile acid metabolite, deoxycholic acid (DoC), affects the viability of human pathogens but also plays multiple roles in host physiology. We assessed the antimicrobial activity of DoC and investigated its potential to eradicate Spn colonization using a model of human nasopharyngeal colonization and an mouse model of colonization. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Silver Nanoparticles and L-Carnitine Supplement on Mixed Vaginitis Caused by Candida albicans/ Staphylococcus aureus in Mouse Models: An Experimental Study.

Curr Microbiol 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

The evolution of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens is a global health and development threat. Nanomedicine is rapidly becoming the main driving force behind ongoing changes in antimicrobial studies. Among nanoparticles, silver (AgNPs) have attracted attention due to their versatile properties. Read More

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September 2021

EQUAL Score Scedosporiosis/Lomentosporiosis 2021: a European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) tool to quantify guideline adherence.

J Antimicrob Chemother 2021 Sep 20. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, Department I of Internal Medicine, Excellence Center for Medical Mycology (ECMM), University of Cologne, Cologne, NRW, Germany.

Background: Invasive scedosporiosis and lomentosporiosis are life-threatening fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with complex diagnostic and treatment patterns.

Objectives: To develop a scoring tool to facilitate and quantify adherence to current guideline recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of invasive scedosporiosis and lomentosporiosis.

Methods: Experts from European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) excellence centres reviewed current guidelines for scedosporiosis and lomentosporiosis. Read More

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September 2021

ARP2/3 Phosphorylation Assay in the Presence of Recombinant Bacterial Effectors.

Bio Protoc 2017 Apr 5;7(7):e2208. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

International Centre for Infectiology Research (CIRI), Legionella pathogenesis group, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France.

The Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex is an actin nucleator that generates a branched actin network in mammalian cells. In addition to binding nucleation promoting factors, LeClaire demonstrated that its phosphorylation state is essential key for its activity ( LeClaire , 2008 ). In cells, the ARP2/3 complex is phosphorylated on threonine and tyrosine residues of the ARP2, ARP3, and ARPC1 subunits ( Vadlamudi , 2004 ; LeClaire , 2008 ; Narayanan , 2011 ; LeClaire , 2015 ). Read More

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ELISPOT Assay to Measure Peptide-specific IFN-γ Production.

Bio Protoc 2017 Jun 5;7(11):e2302. Epub 2017 Jun 5.

Singapore Immunology Network, Agency for Science, Technology and Research (ASTAR), Singapore, Singapore.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens and for tumor control. It is produced predominantly by natural killer (NK) and natural killer T cells (NKT) as well as by antigen-specific Th1 CD4 and CD8 effector T cells. When investigating immune responses against pathogens and cancer cells, measuring antigen-specific cytokine-responses by cells of adaptive immunity offers an advantage over total non-specific cytokine responses. Read More

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Study on the related risk factors and targeted nursing effects in multi-drug resistant bacteria infections in elderly patients with stroke-associated pneumonia.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(8):9860-9865. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Cadre Sanatorium of Hainan & Geriatric Hospital of Hainan (CSH) Haikou, Hainan, China.

Purpose: to explore the related risk factors and targeted nursing effects in multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRB) infection in elderly patients with stroke-associated pneumonia.

Methods: We selected 100 elderly patients with MDRB who received SAP in the hospital encephalology department from May 2011 to November 2014, and pathogenic detection and drug susceptibility tests were performed on the specimens sent for inspection. In addition, we observed the pathogenic characteristics of MDRB, and carried out univariate and multivariate regression analysis of related risk factors. Read More

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Bacterial Engulfment Mechanism Is Strongly Conserved in Evolution Between Earthworm and Human Immune Cells.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:733541. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, Clinical Center, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Invertebrates, including earthworms, are applied to study the evolutionarily conserved cellular immune processes. Earthworm immunocytes (so-called coelomocytes) are functionally similar to vertebrate myeloid cells and form the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Hereby, we compared the engulfment mechanisms of THP-1 human monocytic cells, differentiated THP-1 (macrophage-like) cells, and coelomocytes towards and bacteria applying various endocytosis inhibitors [amantadine, 5-(-ethyl--isopropyl) amiloride, colchicine, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D, methyl-ß-cyclodextrin, and nystatin]. Read More

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September 2021

Endophytes of Brazilian Medicinal Plants With Activity Against Phytopathogens.

Front Microbiol 2021 1;12:714750. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Postgraduate Program of Microbiology, Parasitology and Pathology, Department of Pathology, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.

Plant diseases caused by phytopathogens are responsible for significant crop losses worldwide. Resistance induction and biological control have been exploited in agriculture due to their enormous potential. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi of leaves and petioles of medicinal plants and located in two regions of high diversity in Brazil, Pantanal, and Cerrado, respectively. Read More

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September 2021

Why do parasites exhibit reverse latitudinal diversity gradients? Testing the roles of host diversity, habitat and climate.

Glob Ecol Biogeogr 2021 Sep 28;30(9):1810-1821. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

Aim: The latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG) - in which species richness decreases from the equator toward the poles - is among the most fundamental distributional patterns in ecology. Despite the expectation that the diversity of parasites tracks that of their hosts, available evidence suggests that many parasites exhibit reverse latitudinal gradients or no pattern, yet the rarity of large-scale datasets on host-parasite interactions calls into question the robustness of such trends. Here, we collected parasitological data from a host group of conservation importance - lentic-breeding amphibians - to characterize the form and direction of relationships among latitude, parasite richness, and parasite load. Read More

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September 2021

Forecasting parasite sharing under climate change.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Nov 20;376(1837):20200360. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Departments of Botany and Forest and Conservation Sciences, University of British Columbia, Canada.

Species are shifting their distributions in response to climate change. This geographic reshuffling may result in novel co-occurrences among species, which could lead to unseen biotic interactions, including the exchange of parasites between previously isolated hosts. Identifying potential new host-parasite interactions would improve forecasting of disease emergence and inform proactive disease surveillance. Read More

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November 2021

Drivers of parasite β-diversity among anuran hosts depend on scale, realm and parasite group.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Nov 20;376(1837):20200367. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Laboratório de Síntese Ecológica e Conservação da Biodiversidade [Ecological Synthesis and Biodiversity Conservation Lab], Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

A robust understanding of what drives parasite β-diversity is an essential step towards explaining what limits pathogens' geographical spread. We used a novel global dataset (latitude -39.8 to 61. Read More

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November 2021

Genome-wide identification and analysis of Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinases in Nicotiana benthamiana.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Sep 18;21(1):425. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

State Key Laboratory for Managing Biotic and Chemical Threats to the Quality and Safety of Agro-products, Key Laboratory of Biotechnology in Plant Protection of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Institute of Plant Virology, Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.

Background: The Catharanthus roseus RLK1-like kinase (CrRLK1L) is a subfamily of the RLK gene family, and members are sensors of cell wall integrity and regulators of cell polarity growth. Recent studies have also shown that members of this subfamily are involved in plant immunity. Nicotiana benthamiana is a model plant widely used in the study of plant-pathogen interactions. Read More

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September 2021

Quantitative characterization and effective inactivation of biological hazards in struvite recovered from digested poultry slurry.

Water Res 2021 Sep 13;204:117659. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Agroecology, Aarhus University, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele, Denmark. Electronic address:

Struvite formed from digested poultry slurries can serve as an alternative to chemical fertilizers; however, the biological safety of such products is questionable. Therefore, quantification and inactivation of foodborne pathogens existing in struvite are important. Herein, the dynamics of foodborne pathogens' (Streptococcus faecalis, S. Read More

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September 2021

The Microbiology of Infective Native Aortic Aneurysms in a Population-based Setting.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Vascular Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, and Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: The aim was to describe the microbiology of surgically treated infective native (mycotic) aortic aneurysms (INAAs), and associated survival and development of infection-related complications (IRCs).

Methods: Data were pooled from two nationwide studies on surgically treated patients with INAAs in Sweden, between 1994-2016. Patients were grouped and analysed according to culture results: 1) Staphylococcus aureus, 2) Streptococcus species (sp. Read More

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September 2021

Benefits and risks of agricultural reuse of digestates from plastic tubular digesters in Colombia.

Waste Manag 2021 Sep 15;135:220-228. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

GEMMA - Group of Environmental Engineering and Microbiology, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya·BarcelonaTech (UPC), c/ Jordi Girona, 1-3, Building D1, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain.

The aim of this study is to characterize the digestates from three plastic tubular digesters implemented in Colombia fed with: i) cattle manure; ii) cattle manure mixed with cheese whey; iii) pig manure. All the digesters worked under psychrophilic conditions. Physico-chemical characteristics, heavy metals, pathogens, and agronomic quality were investigated. Read More

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September 2021

Evaluation of renal effects of liposomal amphotericin B in children with malignancies with KDIGO and RIFLE criteria.

Nephrol Ther 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of pediatric infectious diseases, Dr Behçet Uz children's diseases and surgery training and research hospital, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: Amphotericin B is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent and is the backbone of the treatment for medically important opportunistic fungal pathogens in children. This study aimed to compare the nephrotoxicity associated with L-AmB in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

Materials And Methods: A total of 112 pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia or acute myeloid leukemia patients who received treatment with L-AmB (Ambisome®) at the University of Health Sciences Dr Behcet Uz Children's Hospital over 7 years were included. Read More

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September 2021

The aetiology of pharyngotonsillitis in primary health care: a prospective observational study.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Sep 17;21(1):971. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Family Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Few studies on pharyngotonsillitis have examined the clinical presentation of different aetiologies where pathogens have been detected using molecular methods. We aimed to assess how well clinical signs and symptoms can predict (1) the presence or absence of a broad range of viruses and bacteria, and (2) reconsultations for a sore throat or a complication.

Methods: In this descriptive observational prospective study in primary health care 220 patients aged 15-45 with suspected pharyngotonsillitis were sampled from nose, throat and blood and screened for 20 bacteria and viruses using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture and serology. Read More

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September 2021

14-year trends and resistance patterns of blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures in children under three years old.

J Infect 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom; Oxford Vaccine Group, Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, United Kingdom; NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Level 2, Children's Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom; Paediatric Infectious Diseases Research Group, Institute of Infection and Immunity, St George's, University of London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Objectives: Bacterial infections are a major cause of UK paediatric hospitalisations, yet longitudinal data on causative organisms or antimicrobial resistance are scarce. This retrospective analysis describes trends in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and resistance patterns in children under three years old from a large UK centre.

Methods: All culture results, and resistance data for Gram-negative rods (GNR) in blood cultures, collected between January 2005 and December 2018 were extracted from Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust microbiology database. Read More

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September 2021

Association of enteropathogen detection with diarrhoea by age and high versus low child mortality settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet Glob Health 2021 Oct;9(10):e1402-e1410

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: The odds ratio (OR) comparing pathogen presence in diarrhoeal cases versus asymptomatic controls is a measure for diarrhoeal disease cause that has been integrated into burden of disease estimates across diverse populations. This study aimed to estimate the OR describing the association between pathogen detection in stool and diarrhoea for 15 common enteropathogens by age group and child mortality setting.

Methods: We did a systematic review to identify case-control and cohort studies published from Jan 1, 1990, to July 9, 2019, which examined at least one enteropathogen of interest and the outcome diarrhoea. Read More

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October 2021

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nasal carriage among patients with diabetes at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(9):e0257004. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu, Accra, Ghana.

Aim: To investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus and MRSA nasal carriage among people with diabetes at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, including the prevalence, predictors of carriage, and antibiotic resistance.

Methodology: This study was cross-sectional, involving 300 diabetes patients and 106 non-diabetic individuals. Read More

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September 2021

Liver and/or Kidney Transplantation After SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Prevalence, Short-Term Outcome and Kinetics of Serum IgG Antibodies.

Transplantation 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, University Hospitals Leuven; Laboratory of Hepatology, Department of Chronic Diseases and Metabolism (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Clinical Department of Laboratory Medicine and National Reference Center for Respiratory Pathogens, University Hospitals Leuven; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Department of Abdominal Transplant Surgery, University Hospitals Leuven; Transplantation Research Group, Lab of Abdominal Transplantation, Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Department of Respiratory Diseases, University Hospitals Leuven; Laboratory of Respiratory Diseases and Thoracic Surgery (BREATHE), Department of Chronic Diseases and Metabolism (CHROMETA), KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Department of Cardiology, University Hospitals Leuven; Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium Department of Nephrology & Renal Transplantation, University Hospitals Leuven; Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Transplantation, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: There is paucity of data on the prevalence, adequate timing and outcome of solid organ transplantation after SARS-CoV-2 infection and the kinetics of IgG antibodies in these patients.

Methods: SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgG and PCR via nasopharyngeal swab were analyzed in all patients within 24h before liver and/or kidney transplantation. Kinetics of IgG antibodies were analysed and compared with an immune-competent cohort. Read More

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September 2021

Do Preoperative Nasal Antiseptic Swabs Reduce the Rate of Surgical Site Infections After Adult Thoracolumbar Spine Surgery?

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 09 17;5(9). Epub 2021 Sep 17.

From the Twin Cities Spine Center, Minneapolis, MN.

Introduction: Surgical site infection (SSI) remains a major complication after adult spinal surgery. We investigated whether adding preoperative nasal decontamination by antiseptic swab (skin and nasal antiseptic povidone-iodine, SNA-PI) to our antimicrobial protocol reduces the SSI rate among our patients undergoing thoracolumbar spinal surgery.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all adult thoracolumbar spinal surgeries performed between June 2015 and May 2017 at a single hospital. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of over a 23-year period in France, 1996 to 2018.

Euro Surveill 2021 09;26(37)

Institut Pasteur, Biodiversity and Epidemiology of Bacterial Pathogens, Paris, France.

Background is the main agent of whooping cough. Vaccination with acellular pertussis vaccines has been largely implemented in high-income countries. These vaccines contain 1 to 5 antigens: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and/or fimbrial proteins (FIM2 and FIM3). Read More

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September 2021

RNA-Based Analysis Reveals High Diversity of Plant-Associated Active Fungi in the Atmosphere.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:683266. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Fungi are ubiquitous in nature; that is, they are present everywhere on the planet; understanding the active state and functional capacity of airborne microbes associated with health of human, animal, and plant is critical for biosafety management. Here, we firstly and directly proved that there were about 40% active fungi in the air rRNA amplicon sequencing and imaging flow cytometry simultaneously. Amplicon sequencing analysis showed differences between structures of active and total fungal community; Ascomycota were dominant in the active community, while Basidiomycota have low transcriptional activity across all samples. Read More

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The Th1 cell regulatory circuitry is largely conserved between human and mouse.

Life Sci Alliance 2021 Nov 16;4(11). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Regulatory Genomics Group, UCL Cancer Institute and CRUK UCL Centre, University College London, London, UK

Gene expression programs controlled by lineage-determining transcription factors are often conserved between species. However, infectious diseases have exerted profound evolutionary pressure, and therefore the genes regulated by immune-specific transcription factors might be expected to exhibit greater divergence. T-bet (Tbx21) is the immune-specific, lineage-specifying transcription factor for T helper type I (Th1) immunity, which is fundamental for the immune response to intracellular pathogens but also underlies inflammatory diseases. Read More

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November 2021

Surveillance of Wisconsin Organisms for Trends in Antimicrobial Resistance and Epidemiology (SWOTARE): 2018-2019 Report on Clinical Isolates.

Clin Med Res 2021 Sep;19(3):123-131

College of Health Sciences, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin USA

Both and have been regarded as important opportunistic pathogens for humans. Recent data have described the spread of multi-resistant strains of these organisms. Development of novel resistance phenotypes may result in a reduction in anti-infective efficacy, therefore making patient treatment decisions challenging. Read More

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September 2021

Phylogenetic analysis and population structure of Pseudomonas alloputida.

Genomics 2021 Sep 13;113(6):3762-3773. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Laboratório de Química e Função de Proteínas e Peptídeos, Centro de Biociências e Biotecnologia, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

The Pseudomonas putida group comprises strains with biotechnological and clinical relevance. P. alloputida was proposed as a new species and highlighted the misclassification of P. Read More

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September 2021