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The effect of microstructure on mechanical properties of corn cob.

Micron 2021 Apr 20;146:103070. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025, China; College of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun, 130025, China.

As a natural biomass resource, corn cob has excellent mechanical properties and a special layered structure. To investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of corn cob, the ultra-deep field 3D microscope was used to characterize the macro geometric parameters, and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was observe the microstructure of the corn cob. The Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was used to analyze the fiber composition, revealing the contribution of fiber composition to the mechanical properties. Read More

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Early effects of viper envenomation on retina and optic nerve blood flow: An optical coherence tomography angiography study.

Toxicon 2021 May 4;198:54-63. Epub 2021 May 4.

Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine, Turkey.

In this study, the early retinal and optic nerve blood flows of patients exposed to Viper bite were evaluated with non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and compared with healthy controls. The retinal and optic disc OCTA data of 31 victims of viper bite (group S) without systemic envenomation clinical symptoms and 31 healthy controls (group C) were compared. Only patients with early signs of envenomation were included in the study. Read More

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Associations of household income with health-related quality of life following a colorectal cancer diagnosis varies with neighborhood socioeconomic status.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center.

Background: Existing evidence indicates household income as a predictor of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following a colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis. This association likely varies with neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), but evidence is limited.

Methods: We included data from 1355 CRC survivors participating in the population-based Puget Sound Colorectal Cancer Cohort (PSCCC). Read More

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White Matter Alteration Following SWAT Explosive Breaching Training and the Moderating Effect of a Neck Collar Device: A DTI and NODDI Study.

Mil Med 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Emory Sports Performance and Research Center, Flowery Branch, GA 30542, USA.

Introduction: Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) personnel who practice breaching with blast exposure are at risk for blast-related head trauma. We aimed to investigate the impact of low-level blast exposure on underlying white matter (WM) microstructure based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neurite orientation and density imaging (NODDI) in SWAT personnel before and after breacher training. Diffusion tensor imaging is an advanced MRI technique sensitive to underlying WM alterations. Read More

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Quantifying the concentration dependence of sedimentation coefficients for globular macromolecules: a continuing age-old problem.

Biophys Rev 2021 Apr 10;13(2):273-288. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

National Centre for Macromolecular Hydrodynamics, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, LE12 5RD UK.

This retrospective investigation has established that the early theoretical attempts to directly incorporate the consequences of radial dilution into expressions for variation of the sedimentation coefficient as a function of the loading concentration in sedimentation velocity experiments require concentration distributions exhibiting far greater precision than that achieved by the optical systems of past and current analytical ultracentrifuges. In terms of current methods of sedimentation coefficient measurement, until such improvement is made, the simplest procedure for quantifying linear - dependence (or linear concentration dependence of 1/) for dilute systems therefore entails consideration of the sedimentation coefficient obtained by standard (), () or () analysis) as an average parameter ( ) that pertains to the corresponding mean plateau concentration (following radial dilution) ( ) over the range of sedimentation velocity distributions used for the determination of . The relation of this with current descriptions of the concentration dependence of the sedimentation and translational diffusion coefficients is considered, together with a suggestion for the necessary improvement in the optical system. Read More

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Pulse Wave Calibration and Implications for Blood Pressure Measurement: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Hypertension 2021 May 3:HYPERTENSIONAHA12016817. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London and National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) UCL/UCLH Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, London, United Kingdom (P.S.L., B.W.).

Central aortic systolic pressure (CASP) can be estimated via filtering of the peripheral pulse wave (PPW) following calibration to brachial blood pressure. Recent studies suggest PPW calibration to mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic BP (DBP) provides more accurate CASP estimates (CASP) versus conventional calibration to systolic BP (SBP) and DBP (CASP). However, the peak of the MAP-DBP calibrated PPW, that is, SBP, is rarely reported or used for BP amplification calculations, despite CASP being derived from it. Read More

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A cataract, 'a million cut' radial keratotomy, and Marfan syndrome February consultation #1.

Authors:
Nicole R Fram

J Cataract Refract Surg 2021 Feb;47(2):273

A 56-year-old man with an ocular history of 20+ cut radial keratotomy (RK) in both eyes and Marfan syndrome presented with blurred vision in both eyes 2 years previously. He was intolerant of contact lenses and was correctable with spectacles for the past 10 years. His presenting photographs and corneal topographies are shown in Figures 1 and 2JOURNAL/jcrs/04. Read More

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February 2021

Relationships Between Clinically Measured Upper-Extremity Physical Characteristics and Ball Spin Rate in Professional Baseball Pitchers.

J Strength Cond Res 2021 May;35(5):1331-1337

Texas Metroplex Institute for Sports Medicine and Orthopedics, Arlington, Texas.

Abstract: Wong, R, Laudner, K, Evans, D, Miller, L, Blank, T, and Meister, K. Relationships between clinically measured upper-extremity physical characteristics and ball spin rate in professional baseball pitchers. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1331-1337, 2021-During baseball pitching, physical characteristics of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, hand, and fingers have been hypothesized to be critical to creating ball spin. Read More

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MRI-enema for the assessment of pelvic intestinal anastomotic integrity.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

St Mark's Hospital.

Aim: Anastomotic leak causes significant morbidity for patients undergoing pelvic intestinal surgery. Fluoroscopic assessment of anastomotic integrity using water-soluble contrast enema (WSCE) is of questionable benefit over examination alone. We hypothesised that MRI-enema may be more accurate. Read More

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Experimental evaluation of four-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for radiotherapy planning of lung cancer.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jan 7;17:32-35. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Radiation Oncology, Calvary Mater Newcastle, Australia.

Radiotherapy planning for lung cancer typically requires both 3D and 4D Computed Tomography (CT) to account for respiratory related movement. 4D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with self-navigation offers a potential alternative with greater reliability in patients with irregular breathing patterns and improved soft tissue contrast. In this study 4D-CT and a 4D-MRI Radial Volumetric Interpolated Breath-hold Examination (VIBE) sequence was evaluated with a 4D phantom and 13 patient respiratory patterns, simulating tumour motion. Read More

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January 2021

Forearm Interosseous Ligaments: Anatomical and Histological Analysis of the Proximal, Central, and Distal Bands.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Ulsan, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

Purpose: To characterize and compare the histological structure of the proximal, central, and distal bands of the interosseous membrane (IOM) of the human forearm in fresh-frozen specimens.

Methods: The IOMs from 16 fresh-frozen left forearm specimens were carefully dissected and examined. The footprint areas of the proximal, central, and distal IOM bands were measured in 6 specimens. Read More

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Inter-observer and Inter-vendor Variability in Strain Measurements in Patients with Single Right Ventricular Anatomy.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street SW, Rochester, MN, 55905, USA.

Myocardial strain offers new insights into ventricular performance, There are software packages from several different companies used to ascertain this, and little data is available in patients with single right ventricle (sRV) physiology. We aimed to compare the analysis of two strain software applications using a cohort of patients with sRV for both inter-vendor and inter-observer variability. Echocardiograms from 85 patients with sRV (122 separate studies) were prospectively evaluated. Read More

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Computational and experimental mechanical performance of a new everolimus-eluting stent purpose-built for left main interventions.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8728. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Cardiovascular Biology and Biomechanics Laboratory, Cardiovascular Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 982265 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, 68198, USA.

Left main (LM) coronary artery bifurcation stenting is a challenging topic due to the distinct anatomy and wall structure of LM. In this work, we investigated computationally and experimentally the mechanical performance of a novel everolimus-eluting stent (SYNERGY MEGATRON) purpose-built for interventions to large proximal coronary segments, including LM. MEGATRON stent has been purposefully designed to sustain its structural integrity at higher expansion diameters and to provide optimal lumen coverage. Read More

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Molecular dynamics simulation study on the effect of perfluorosulfonic acid side chains on oxygen permeation in hydrated ionomers of PEMFCs.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 22;11(1):8702. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Chemical Engineering, Pusan National University, 2, Busandaehak-ro 63beon-gil, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea.

We prepared two types of perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomers with Aquivion (short side chain) and Nafion (long side chain) on a Pt surface and varied their water contents (2.92 ≤ λ ≤ 13.83) to calculate the solubility and permeability of O in hydrated PFSA ionomers on a Pt surface using full atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Read More

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Prospective Cross-Sectional Study of Repeatability of Peripapillary Capillary Density Measurement Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography in Eyes With Optic Nerve and Retinal Vascular Pathology.

J Neuroophthalmol 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Ophthalmology and Vision Science (AFV, MYC, SSP), University of California Davis Eye Center, Sacramento, California; Department of Public Health Sciences/Biostatistics (SAA), Clinical and Translational Science Center, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California; Vision Center (MYC), Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California; and Department of Ophthalmology (MYC), Roski Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Background: Optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is a new noninvasive imaging modality that provides high resolution images of the optic nerve head and peripapillary retinal capillary vasculature which can be affected by optic nerve or retinal pathologies. High repeatability of peripapillary capillary density measurement using OCTA has been demonstrated in normal eyes and eyes with glaucoma. The purpose of our study was to quantify the repeatability of peripapillary capillary density measurement using OCTA in both normal eyes and eyes with optic atrophy, optic disc edema, and retinal vasculopathy. Read More

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Algorithms for challenging scenarios encountered in transradial intervention.

Indian Heart J 2021 Mar-Apr;73(2):149-155. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Banner University Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Electronic address:

Transradial intervention (TRI) was first introduced by Lucien Campeau in 1989 and since then has created a lasting impact in the field of interventional cardiology. Several studies have demonstrated that TRI is associated with fewer vascular site complications, offer earlier ambulation and greater post-procedural comfort. Patients presenting with ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) have experienced survival benefit and higher quality-of-life metrics as well with TRI. Read More

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September 2020

Origin and hydrodynamics of xylem sap in tree stems, and relationship to root uptake of soil water.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 16;11(1):8404. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Utsunomiya University Forest, Utsunomiya University, 7556 Funyu, Shioya, Tochigi, 329-2441, Japan.

Although 10 years have passed since Japan's Fukushima nuclear accident, the future radiation risk from Cs contamination of wood via root uptake is a serious concern. We estimated the depth at which the roots of evergreen coniferous sugi (Cryptomeria japonica) and broadleaf deciduous konara (Quercus serrata) trees actively take up soil water by using positive δD values from the artificial DO tracer and seasonal changes in the δO values of soil water as a natural environmental tracer. We compared the tracer concentration changes in xylem sap with those in the soil water and ascertained that both tree species primarily took up water from a depth of 20 cm, though with mixing of water from other depths. Read More

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Targeting accuracy of robot-assisted deep brain stimulation surgery in childhood-onset dystonia: a single-center prospective cohort analysis of 45 consecutive cases.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Apr 16:1-11. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

1Department of Neurosurgery, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London.

Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for pediatric dystonia. The accuracy of electrode implantation is multifactorial and remains a challenge in this age group, mainly due to smaller anatomical targets in very young patients compared to adults, and also due to anatomical abnormalities frequently associated with some etiologies of dystonia. Data on the accuracy of robot-assisted DBS surgery in children are limited. Read More

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Longitudinal structural brain changes in Friedreich ataxia depend on disease severity: the IMAGE-FRDA study.

J Neurol 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

School of Psychological Sciences and Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia.

Background: Friedreich ataxia is an inherited neurodegenerative disease, with cerebral and cerebellar pathology evident. Despite an increased understanding of its neuropathology, disease progression in this disease remains poorly understood. This study aimed to characterise longitudinal change in brain structure using a multi-modal approach across cerebral and cerebellar grey and white matter. Read More

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Correlations between left atrial volumes and strains in healthy adults: Detailed analysis from the three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiographic MAGYAR-Healthy Study.

J Clin Ultrasound 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Introduction: Little is known about the relationship between left atrium (LA) volumes and contractility features along the cardiac cycle. The present study aimed to assess, by three-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (3DSTE), correlations between LA volumes, volume-based functional properties, and strains during the cardiac cycle in healthy adults.

Methods: We included 217 healthy adult volunteers (mean age 33. Read More

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Anatomical Study of Stabilizing Structures of the Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Around the Wrist.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; Excellence in Osteology Research and Training Center, Chiang Mai University, Thailand; Department of Hand Surgery, Nara Medical University, Kashihara Nara, Japan. Electronic address:

Purpose: The sixth dorsal extensor compartment is a relatively common site of stenosing tenosynovitis in the upper extremity, but the exact location of stenosis is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the detailed anatomy of structures surrounding the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon around the wrist.

Methods: Fifty fresh human cadaveric wrists were used for gross observation and morphology measurements of the sixth dorsal compartment and the ECU subsheath. Read More

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Effect of intra-arterial vasodilator administration during radial artery access on systemic blood pressure in patients receiving moderate sedation.

J Vasc Access 2021 Apr 12:11297298211008099. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

MedStar Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Purpose: The hemodynamic effects of intra-arterial vasodilator administration for the prevention of radial artery spasm during transradial access have not been well characterized. This study evaluates the effect of intra-arterial Verapamil and Nitroglycerine administration on systemic blood pressure and its correlation with timing of moderate sedation administration.

Materials And Methods: Institutional review board approval was granted. Read More

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Lateralization effects in brain white matter reorganization in patients with unilateral idiopathic tinnitus: a preliminary study.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, 95 Yongan Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Idiopathic tinnitus can cause significant auditory-related brain structural and functional changes in patients. However, changes in patterns of the lateralization effects in idiopathic tinnitus have yet to be established, especially on white matter (WM) reorganization. In this study, we studied 19 left-sided and 19 right-sided idiopathic tinnitus (LSIT, RSIT) patients and 19 healthy controls (HCs). Read More

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Immune activation and arterial stiffness in lean adults with HIV on antiretroviral therapy.

South Afr J HIV Med 2021 19;22(1):1190. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Vanderbilt Institute for Global Health and Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Centre, Nashville, TN, United States of America.

Background: Greater T-cell activation was associated with reduced vascular compliance amongst persons living with HIV (PLWH) especially among overweight and obese individuals. There is a paucity of data regarding immune activation and arterial stiffness amongst PLWH in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Objective: To determine the association between immune activation and arterial stiffness in lean PLWH in SSA. Read More

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Subclinical post-traumatic stress symptomology and brain structure in youth with chronic headaches.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 Mar 13;30:102627. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Vi Riddell Children's Pain & Rehabilitation Centre, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada; Behaviour & The Developing Brain, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Calgary, AB, Canada; Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Background/aims: Post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and chronic pain often co-occur at high rates in youth. PTSS may alter brain structure thereby contributing to headache chronicity. This study examined whether PTSS and altered limbic circuitry were associated with headache frequency in youth. Read More

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Sexual Dimorphisms and Asymmetries of the Thalamo-Cortical Pathways and Subcortical Grey Matter of Term Born Healthy Neonates: An Investigation with Diffusion Tensor MRI.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Laboratory of Functional Neuroscience and Pathologies (LNFP), School of Medicine, University of Picardy Jules Verne, 80037 Amiens, France.

Diffusion-tensor-MRI was performed on 28 term born neonates. For each hemisphere, we quantified separately the axial and the radial diffusion (AD, RD), the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the thalamo-cortical pathway (THC) and four structures: thalamus (TH), putamen (PT), caudate nucleus (CN) and globus-pallidus (GP). There was no significant difference between boys and girls in either the left or in the right hemispheric THC, TH, GP, CN and PT. Read More

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Radial Peripapillary Capillary Plexus Sparing and Underlying Retinal Vascular Impairment in Intermediate Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021 Apr;62(4)

Centre for Eye Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Purpose: To examine location-specific retinal vascular changes in intermediate age-related macular degeneration (iAMD) using age-matched, high-density en face optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) cluster analysis.

Methods: En face OCTA images of the 6 × 6 mm macular area were retrospectively acquired from 60 iAMD eyes and 60 age-matched normal eyes and then subdivided into 126 × 126 (47.62 × 47. Read More

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First-in-Man trial of a drug-free bioresorbable stent designed to minimize the duration of coronary artery scaffolding.

J Biomater Sci Polym Ed 2021 Apr 21:1-16. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Paris-Descartes, APHP, Paris, France.

For the last two decades, various degradable stents have been proposed to treat coronary artery diseases and replace metallic stents to avoid residual foreign material after healing. To date, the right balance between suitable scaffolding and loss of radial strength soon after endothelium restoration is still an unmet need. The present article reports on the First-in-Man trial of a drug-free bioresorbable stent based on a lactic acid stereocopolymer composed of 98% l-lactyl units selected to release stress shielding earlier than in the case of homopoly(l-lactic acid). Read More

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Management of plantar heel pain: a best practice guide informed by a systematic review, expert clinical reasoning and patient values.

Br J Sports Med 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Physiotherapy, Podiatry, Prosthetics and Orthotics, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: To develop a best practice guide for managing people with plantar heel pain (PHP).

Methods: Mixed-methods design including systematic review, expert interviews and patient survey.

Data Sources: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, trial registries, reference lists and citation tracking. Read More

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Neural correlates of the impulse dyscontrol domain of mild behavioral impairment.

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Mar 28. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: Agitation and aggression are common in dementia and pre-dementia. The dementia risk syndrome mild behavioral impairment (MBI) includes these symptoms in the impulse dyscontrol domain. However, the neural circuitry associated with impulse dyscontrol in neurodegenerative disease is not well understood. Read More

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