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Effects of different types of written vaccination information on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK (OCEANS-III): a single-blind, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Public Health 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, UK.

Background: The effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccination programme depends on mass participation: the greater the number of people vaccinated, the less risk to the population. Concise, persuasive messaging is crucial, particularly given substantial levels of vaccine hesitancy in the UK. Our aim was to test which types of written information about COVID-19 vaccination, in addition to a statement of efficacy and safety, might increase vaccine acceptance. Read More

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Period-to-Period Variability of Moderate/Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnoea.

Pulm Ther 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Oxford Centre for Respiratory Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Oxford, OX3 7LE, UK.

Introduction: The severity of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly variable on a night-to-night basis. Patients are commonly categorised based on the severity of their OSA, and this is then used to influence management and reimbursement, including continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). We aimed to establish to what extent the OSA severity category changes during two periods of OSA, based on mean and maximum oxygen desaturation index (ODI). Read More

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Long-term impact of the U.S. Armed forces Zero-Tolerance drug policy on female veterans.

J Addict Dis 2021 May 14:1-12. Epub 2021 May 14.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs New England Mental Illness Research and Education Clinical Center (MIRECC), West Haven, CT, USA.

Background: In 1980, the U.S. military instituted a zero-tolerance policy for illicit substance use that led to a reduction in such use during military services. Read More

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Specific exposure of ICU staff to SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity: a wide seroprevalence study in a French city-center hospital.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 May 13;11(1):75. Epub 2021 May 13.

Unite de Recherche Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Saint Joseph Saint Luc, Lyon, France.

Background: Most hospital organizations have had to face the burden of managing the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. One of the challenges in overcoming the influx of COVID-19 patients is controlling patient-to-staff transmission. Measuring the specific extent of ICU caregiver exposure to the virus and identifying the associated risk factors are, therefore, critical issues. Read More

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Comparison of Quality Characteristics and Palatability between Sous-Vide Cooked Pork Loin Patties with Different Searing Treatments.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2021 Mar 1;41(2):214-223. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Animal Sciences and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.

This study compared the quality, cooking, textural, and palatability characteristics between sous-vide (SV) cooked pork loin patties with different searing treatments (ST). Before SV cooking, STs were conducted on each side of the pork loin patties for 0 (control) to 120 s (ST120), and all patties were then cooked using an SV cooker at 75°C for 120 min. Noticeable differences were observed in quality properties between the groups. Read More

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Nomograms for predicting progression-free survival and overall survival after surgery and concurrent chemoradiotherapy for glioblastoma: a retrospective cohort study.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Apr;9(7):571

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. The prognosis of GBM patients is poor. Even with active standard treatment, the median overall survival is only 14. Read More

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Evaluation of the activity and medical nutrition therapy types used by nutrition support teams in hospitals in the Greater Poland voivodeship.

Prz Gastroenterol 2021 26;16(1):43-46. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Paediatric Surgery, Traumatology, and Urology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.

Introduction: Nutrition therapy is medical treatment that includes assessment of patients' nutritional status, their nutrient requirements, supply of nutritional products in appropriate quantities, and monitoring all of these processes. The nutrition support team is responsible for the organization of the nutrition therapy.

Aim: To evaluate the activity of nutrition support teams in hospitals in the Greater Poland voivodeship. Read More

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Acute glucose fluctuation promotes intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis and inflammation via the NOX4/ROS/JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway.

Exp Ther Med 2021 Jul 28;22(1):688. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, P.R. China.

High blood glucose commonly occurs in patients with diabetes mellitus, but little is known of its effects on intestinal epithelial cells, or its associated mechanisms of action therein. In the present study, intestinal epithelial cells were assigned to five groups: i) The normal glucose (NG) group, incubated in 5.0 mmol/l glucose; ii) the constant high glucose (CHG) group, treated with 25. Read More

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Improved Microbial Community Characterization of 16S rRNA via Metagenome Hybridization Capture Enrichment.

Front Microbiol 2021 27;12:644662. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Health Science, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Environmental microbial diversity is often investigated from a molecular perspective using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons and shotgun metagenomics. While amplicon methods are fast, low-cost, and have curated reference databases, they can suffer from amplification bias and are limited in genomic scope. In contrast, shotgun metagenomic methods sample more genomic regions with fewer sequence acquisition biases, but are much more expensive (even with moderate sequencing depth) and computationally challenging. Read More

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Multi-scaled Monte Carlo calculation for radon-induced cellular damage in the bronchial airway epithelium.

Sci Rep 2021 May 13;11(1):10230. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 08826, Republic of Korea.

Radon is a leading cause of lung cancer in indoor public and mining workers. Inhaled radon progeny releases alpha particles, which can damage cells in the airway epithelium. The extent and complexity of cellular damage vary depending on the alpha particle's kinetic energy and cell characteristics. Read More

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Asynchrony in Peritumoral Resting-State Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent fMRI Predicts Meningioma Grade and Invasion.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Radiology (J.G.), Columbia University, New York, New York

Background And Purpose: Meningioma grade is determined by histologic analysis, with detectable brain invasion resulting in a diagnosis of grade II or III tumor. However, tissue undersampling is a common problem, and invasive parts of the tumor can be missed, resulting in the incorrect assignment of a lower grade. Radiographic biomarkers may be able to improve the diagnosis of grade and identify targets for biopsy. Read More

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Astaxanthin and its gold nanoparticles mitigate cadmium toxicity in rice by inhibiting cadmium translocation and uptake.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 3;786:147496. Epub 2021 May 3.

National Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Crop Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is one of the main heavy metal in rice, Cd uptake by cereal crops from soil leads to toxicity in plants and pose serious health risks due to human body's accumulation through the food chain. Astaxanthin, a natural and anti-oxidative oxycarotenoid, is widely distributed in various microorganisms and seafood. In this study, we demonstrated that astaxanthin in the form of gold nanoparticles (Ast-AuNPs) can efficiently alleviate Cd toxicity to a greater extent in hydroponically grown rice plants than single astaxanthin. Read More

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The effect of the use of copper carbonate and copper nanoparticles in the diet of rats on the level of β-amyloid and acetylcholinesterase in selected organs.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021 May 8;67:126777. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Biochemistry and Toxicology, Faculty of Animal Sciences and Bioeconomy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, 20-950, Lublin, Poland.

Background: Copper has an important role in nervous system function, as a cofactor of many enzymes and in the synthesis of neurotransmitters. Both the dose and the chemical form of copper can determine the impact of this element on metabolism, the neurological system and the immune system.

Aims: The aim of the study was to determine whether and in what form the addition of copper changes the level of amyloid beta and acetylcholinesterase level in selected rat tissues. Read More

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Multifunctional PLGA nanoparticles combining transferrin-targetability and pH-stimuli sensitivity enhanced doxorubicin intracellular delivery and in vitro antineoplastic activity in MDR tumor cells.

Toxicol In Vitro 2021 May 11;75:105192. Epub 2021 May 11.

Departamento de Farmácia Industrial, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima 1000, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Electronic address:

Targeted delivery aims to enhance cellular uptake and improve therapeutic outcome with higher disease specificity. The expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) is upregulated on tumor cells, which make the protein Tf and its receptor vastly relevant when applied to targeting strategies. Here, we proposed Tf-decorated pH-sensitive PLGA nanoparticles containing the chemosensitizer poloxamer as a carrier for doxorubicin delivery to tumor cells (Tf-DOX-PLGA-NPs), aiming at alleviating multidrug resistance (MDR). Read More

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Effects of resistance training at different intensities of load on cross-education of muscle strength.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro , Department of Sport Sciences, Uberaba, Brazil;

The objectives of this study were 1) to compare the extent of cross-transfer of high- versus low-load unilateral resistance training performed with external pacing of the movement (URTEP) and 2) to compare the time course of the two approaches. Fifty subjects were randomized to one of the following three groups: G80 [two sets at 80% and two sets at 40% of one maximum repetition (1RM), 1 concentric second and 3 eccentric seconds controlled by a metronome]; G40 (four sets at 40% of 1 RM, 1s and 3s controlled by a metronome); or CG (control group). At week 1, the G80 increased the elbow flexion 1RM (P<0. Read More

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The Impact of Academic Achievement and Parental Practices on Depressive Symptom Trajectories Among Chinese Adolescents.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Sociology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Though depressive symptoms tend to increase in early adolescence, the trajectories of these symptoms may vary strongly. This longitudinal study investigated the extent to which the distinct developmental trajectories of depressive symptoms were predicted by adolescents' academic achievement and perceived parental practices in a sample of Chinese young adolescents (N = 2,576). The results showed four trajectory profiles of depressive symptoms: low-stable (75%), low-increasing (11%), high-stable (9%), and high-decreasing (5%). Read More

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Action research improved general prerequisites for evidence-based practice.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 21;7(4):e06814. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Science, Uppsala University, Sweden.

The present study was part of an action research project that was performed to implement a clinical pathway for patients on mechanical ventilation and simultaneously explore the implementation process in a Swedish intensive care unit. The aim of this questionnaire study was to evaluate whether an action research methodology could affect the general prerequisites for evidence-based practice (EBP). Informed by the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework, the study included registered nurses, assistant nurses and anesthesiologists in the unit at start of the project (n = 50) and at follow-up (n = 44). Read More

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Patient-specific instrumentation combined with a new tool for gap balancing is useful in total knee replacement: a 3-year follow-up of a retrospective study.

J Orthop Surg Res 2021 May 12;16(1):309. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Orthopaedics, The Third Hospital of Changsha, Changsha, China.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the gap-balancing technique with patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) and a new balancing device in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can improve knee function to a greater extent than can the measured resection technique.

Materials And Methods: Data from 150 patients who underwent TKA from August 2014 to June 2016 were studied retrospectively. The gap-balancing technique assisted by PSI and the new balancing device was used in 80 patients (82 knees), and the measured resection technique was used in 70 patients (70 knees). Read More

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Comparison between radiofrequency ablation combined with mifepristone and radiofrequency ablation for large uterine fibroids.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):777-780

Department of Ultrasound, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, PR China.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of transvaginal ultrasound-guided (US-guided) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) combined with mifepristone for the treatment of large uterine fibroids.

Methods: Between June 2016 and December 2018, a total of 30 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids (≥5cm) who underwent transvaginal US-guided RFA combined with mifepristone were included in this retrospective study. A matching cohort of 30 patients underwent transvaginal US-guided RFA without mifepristone as controls. Read More

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January 2021

A High Fat Western Diet Attenuates Phasic Dopamine Release.

Neurosci Lett 2021 May 9:135952. Epub 2021 May 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee, 38152-3520, USA. Electronic address:

Natural rewards, such as food and social interaction, as well as drugs of abuse elicit increased mesolimbic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Drugs of abuse, however, increase NAc dopamine release to a greater extent and are known to induce lasting changes on the functioning of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Less is known about the long-term effects of diet composition on this reward pathway. Read More

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High-Throughput and Continuous Chaotic Bioprinting of Spatially Controlled Bacterial Microcosms.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Centro de Biotecnología-FEMSA, Tecnologico de Monterrey, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon 64849, México.

Microorganisms do not work alone but instead function as collaborative microsocieties. The spatial distribution of different bacterial strains (micro-biogeography) in a shared volumetric space and their degree of intimacy greatly influences their societal behavior. Current microbiological techniques are commonly focused on the culture of well-mixed bacterial communities and fail to reproduce the micro-biogeography of polybacterial societies. Read More

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Association of Systolic Blood Pressure Elevation With Disproportionate Left Ventricular Remodeling in Very Preterm-Born Young Adults: The Preterm Heart and Elevated Blood Pressure.

JAMA Cardiol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Oxford Cardiovascular Clinical Research Facility, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, England.

Importance: Preterm-born individuals have higher blood pressure with an increased risk of hypertension by young adulthood, as well as potentially adverse cardiac remodeling even when normotensive. To what extent blood pressure elevation affects left ventricular (LV) structure and function in adults born preterm is currently unknown.

Objective: To investigate whether changes observed in LV structure and function in preterm-born adults make them more susceptible to cardiac remodeling in association with blood pressure elevation. Read More

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Citicoline and Memory Function in Healthy Older Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Nutr 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Research & Innovation Center, Kyowa Hakko Bio Co., Ltd, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0841, Japan.

Background: Supplementation of citicoline (CDP-choline), a naturally occurring mononucleotide, has shown beneficial effects on memory function and behavior in populations with a wide range of impairments. However, few studies have investigated its effect in healthy older populations.

Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline (Cognizin®), on memory in healthy elderly populations with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Read More

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The evolution of monogamy is associated with reversals from male to female bias in the survival cost of parasitism.

Proc Biol Sci 2021 May 12;288(1950):20210421. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Biology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

The extent to which parasites reduce host survival should depend upon how hosts balance trade-offs between reproduction and survival. For example, parasites are predicted to impose greater survival costs under polygynous or promiscuous mating systems in which competition for mates favours increased reproductive investment, particularly in males. We provide, to our knowledge, the first comparative test of the hypothesis that the mating system of the host is an important determinant of (i) the extent to which parasites reduce survival, and (ii) the extent to which males and females differ in the survival cost of parasitism. Read More

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Temperate performance and metabolic adaptations following endurance training performed under environmental heat stress.

Physiol Rep 2021 May;9(9):e14849

Sports Performance Research Institute New Zealand, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Endurance athletes are frequently exposed to environmental heat stress during training. We investigated whether exposure to 33°C during training would improve endurance performance in temperate conditions and stimulate mitochondrial adaptations. Seventeen endurance-trained males were randomly assigned to perform a 3-week training intervention in 18°C (TEMP) or 33°C (HEAT). Read More

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Global land use changes are four times greater than previously estimated.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2501. Epub 2021 May 11.

Laboratory of Geoinformation and Remote Sensing, Wageningen University & Research (WUR), Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Quantifying the dynamics of land use change is critical in tackling global societal challenges such as food security, climate change, and biodiversity loss. Here we analyse the dynamics of global land use change at an unprecedented spatial resolution by combining multiple open data streams (remote sensing, reconstructions and statistics) to create the HIstoric Land Dynamics Assessment + (HILDA +). We estimate that land use change has affected almost a third (32%) of the global land area in just six decades (1960-2019) and, thus, is around four times greater in extent than previously estimated from long-term land change assessments. Read More

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Understanding regional activation of thoraco-lumbar muscles in chronic low back pain and its relationship to clinically relevant domains.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 May 11;22(1):432. Epub 2021 May 11.

Centre of Precision Rehabilitation for Spinal Pain, School of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Altered regional activation of the lumbar extensors has been previously observed in individuals with low back pain (LBP) performing high-effort and fatiguing tasks. It is currently unknown whether similar alterations can be observed during low-effort functional tasks. Similarly, previous studies did not investigate whether side differences in regional activation are present in individuals with LBP. Read More

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Correlation analysis to investigate unconscious mental processes: A critical appraisal and mini-tutorial.

Cognition 2021 May 8;212:104667. Epub 2021 May 8.

University College London, United Kingdom.

As a method to investigate the scope of unconscious mental processes, researchers frequently obtain concurrent measures of task performance and stimulus awareness across participants. Even though both measures might be significantly greater than zero, the correlation between them might not, encouraging the inference that an unconscious process drives task performance. We highlight the pitfalls of this null-correlation approach and provide a mini-tutorial on ways to avoid them. Read More

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Preparation and characterization of biodegradable trilayer films based on starch and polyester.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 May 8;183:1058-1066. Epub 2021 May 8.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Engineering and Technology Center for Grain Processing of Shandong Province, Tai'an, China. Electronic address:

The trilayer films of polyester/starch/polyester with different starch/polyester layer thickness ratios were prepared by co-extrusion blowing. FTIR and SEM results showed the successful fabrication of trilayer films. The crystallinity of trilayer films gradually increased as the thickness of polyester layer increased. Read More

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