19,463 results match your criteria graphene oxide

Effect of electrochemical oxidation and drug loading on the antibacterial properties and cell biocompatibility of titanium substrates.

Sci Rep 2022 May 21;12(1):8595. Epub 2022 May 21.

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Group, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran, 14965/161, Iran.

A combination of [Formula: see text] nanotube array (TON) and controlled drug release system is employed to provide enhanced surface properties of titanium implants. Electrochemical anodization process is used to generate TON for introducing, vancomycin, an effective antibacterial drug against Staphylococcus aureus. TON loaded vancomycin is then coated with a number of layers of 10% gelatin using spin coating technique. Read More

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Antifouling ionic liquid doped molecularly imprinted polymer-based ratiometric electrochemical sensor for highly stable and selective detection of zearalenone.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 Jun 30;1210:339884. Epub 2022 Apr 30.

College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, Hubei Province, PR China. Electronic address:

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin, and its accurate detection in complex biological samples is still a challenge. Herein, an antifouling ratiometric electrochemical sensor has been developed for its detection. In this system, black phosphorus-graphene oxide is used as substrate to amplify the signal; ionic liquid doped molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) endows the sensing surface not only high recognition ability but also high capability to resist nonspecific adsorption. Read More

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Revealing the role of oxygen-containing functional groups on graphene oxide for the highly efficient adsorption of thorium ions.

J Hazard Mater 2022 May 14;436:129148. Epub 2022 May 14.

Shaanxi Province Radioactive Environmental Supervision and Management Station, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710065, PR China.

Oxygen-containing functional groups on the surface of carbon materials can promote the adsorption capacity of radioactive thorium ions (Th(IV)), but their effect on the adsorption of Th(IV) has not been systematically revealed. Herein, to elucidate the nature of oxygen-containing group-mediated Th(IV) adsorption, a series of graphene oxide nanoflakes (GONFs) with different contents of oxygen-containing groups on the surface were prepared. The experimental results showed that the high adsorption of Th(IV) not only resulted from the oxygen content, but also was related to the type of oxygen-containing functional groups on GONFs. Read More

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Energy Harvesting by Mesoporous Reduced Graphene Oxide Enhanced the Mediator-Free Glucose-Powered Enzymatic Biofuel Cell for Biomedical Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Physics, Oglethorpe University, Atlanta, Georgia 30319, United States.

Harnessing electrochemical energy in an engineered electrical circuit from biochemical substrates in the human body using biofuel cells is gaining increasing research attention in the current decade due to the wide range of biomedical possibilities it creates for electronic devices. In this report, we describe and characterize the construction of just such an enzymatic biofuel cell (EBFC). It is simple, mediator-free, and glucose-powered, employing only biocompatible materials. Read More

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Remote Floating-Gate Field-Effect Transistor with 2-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Sensing Layer for Reliable Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637, United States.

Despite intensive research of nanomaterials-based field-effect transistors (FETs) as a rapid diagnostic tool, it remains to be seen for FET sensors to be used for clinical applications due to a lack of stability, reliability, reproducibility, and scalability for mass production. Herein, we propose a remote floating-gate (RFG) FET configuration to eliminate device-to-device variations of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sensing surfaces and most of the instability at the solution interface. Also, critical mechanistic factors behind the electrochemical instability of rGO such as severe drift and hysteresis were identified through extensive studies on rGO-solution interfaces varied by rGO thickness, coverage, and reduction temperature. Read More

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An All-Fabric Tactile-Sensing Keypad with Uni-Modal and Ultrafast Response/Recovery Time for Smart Clothing Applications.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen 518055, China.

Keypads constructed from fabric materials are the ideal input devices for smart clothing applications. However, multi-modal reaction problems have to be addressed before they can be of practical use on apparels, i.e. Read More

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A Facile Fabrication of CdSe/ZnS QDs-Block Copolymer Brushes-Modified Graphene Oxide Nanohybrid with Temperature-Responsive Behavior.

Materials (Basel) 2022 May 7;15(9). Epub 2022 May 7.

College of Chemistry and Materials Science, Inner Mongolia Minzu University, Tongliao 028000, China.

In this paper, we described a straightforward one-step chemical method for the synthesis of semiconductor quantum dots(QDs)-block copolymer brushes functionalized graphene oxide(GO) fluorescence nanohybrids. The azobenzene-terminated block copolymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamid)-b-poly(styrene-co-5-(2-methacryoylethyloxymethyl)-8-quinolinol)(PNIPAM--P(St--MQ)) was modified on the surface of GO sheets via host-guest interactions between β-cyclodextrin-modified GO and azobenzene moieties, and simultaneously CdSe/ZnS QDs were integrated on the block copolymer brushes through the coordination between 8-hydroxyquinoline units in the polymer brushes and CdSe/ZnS QDs. The resulting fluorescence nanohybrid exhibited dual photoluminescence at 620 nm and 526 nm, respectively, upon excitation at 380 nm and LCST-type thermo-responsive behavior which originated from the change in the PNIPAM conformation in the block copolymer brushes of GO sheets. Read More

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Nanocomposites of Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanoparticles for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity: Mechanism of Action and Medical Textiles Coating.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 26;15(9). Epub 2022 Apr 26.

Department of Nanobiotechnology, Institute of Biology, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Ciszewskiego 8 Str., 02-786 Warsaw, Poland.

The resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics is a crucial problem for which the application of nanomaterials is among a growing number of solutions. The aim of the study was to create a nanocomposite (composed of graphene oxide and silver nanoparticles) with a precise mode of antibacterial action: what enables textiles to be coated in order to exhibit antibacterial properties. A characterization of nanomaterials (silver nanoparticles and graphene oxide) by size distribution, zeta potential measurements, TEM visualization and FT-IR was performed. Read More

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Glassy Carbon Electrode Modified with N-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide Sheets as an Effective Electrochemical Sensor for Amaranth Detection.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Apr 21;15(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Department of Physics "E.R. Caianaiello", University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano, Salerno, Italy.

Amaranth is one of the synthetic azo colorants used to improve the appearance and to increase the appeal of some foods and soft drinks. The excessive consumption of amaranth can be associated with health side effects, emphasizing the need to monitor this food dye. Accordingly, the present study aimed to introduce an electrochemical sensor of glassy carbon electrode (GCE) modified with N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO), N-rGO/GCE, to detect the amaranth sensitively and rapidly. Read More

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Design of a Highly Sensitive Reduced Graphene Oxide/Graphene [email protected] Acetate/Thermoplastic Polyurethane Flexible Sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 25;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 25.

College of Light Industry and Food Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

As a substitute for rigid sensors, flexible sensing materials have been greatly developed in recent years, but maintaining the stability of conductive fillers and the stability of micro-strain sensing is still a major challenge. In this experiment, we innovatively prepared a polyurethane-based cellulose acetate composite membrane (CA/TPU) with abundant mesopores through electrospinning. Then, we reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-as a conductive filler-and graphene oxide (GO)-as an insulating layer-which were successively and firmly anchored on the CA/TPU nanofiber membrane with the ultrasonic impregnation method, to obtain an rGO/[email protected]/TPU sensor with a GF of 3. Read More

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Electrochemical Detection of Ethanol in Air Using Graphene Oxide Nanosheets Combined with Au-WO.

Sensors (Basel) 2022 Apr 21;22(9). Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Institute of Industrial Nanomaterials, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan.

Detection, monitoring, and analysis of ethanol are important in various fields such as health care, food industries, and safety control. In this study, we report that a solid electrolyte gas sensor based on a proton-conducting membrane is promising for detecting ethanol in air. We focused on graphene oxide (GO) as a new solid electrolyte because it shows a high proton conductivity at room temperature. Read More

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Oxygen vacancy-rich 2D GO/BiOCl composite materials for enhanced photocatalytic performance and semiconductor energy band theory research.

Environ Res 2022 May 16:113442. Epub 2022 May 16.

School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi'an City, 710127, China. Electronic address:

Bismuth-based materials are extensively studied for photocatalytic applications because of their unique crystal structure. Herein, we reported a binary graphene oxide (GO)/BiOCl composite material prepared by a hydrothermal method and analyzed its photodegradation mechanism through the semiconductor energy band theory. The degradation rate of the GO/BiOCl composite towards Rhodamine B could reach 93. Read More

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SERS and EC-SERS detection of local anesthetic procaine using Pd loaded highly reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite substrate.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2022 May 14;278:121381. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia; Interdisciplinary Research Center for Refining and Advanced Chemicals, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) excitations are critical towards achieving sizable spectral enhancements of the Raman scattered light. Herein, the synthesis of palladium-based highly reduced graphene oxide (Pd-HRG) with LSPR properties as an effective surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and its utility in the highly sensitive detection of procaine are reported. The concentration detection of procaine samples was optimized by applying a set of pre-concentration parameters. Read More

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Noncontact Human-Machine Interface Using Complementary Information Fusion Based on MEMS and Triboelectric Sensors.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2022 May 18:e2201056. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, 117583, Singapore.

Current noncontact human-machine interfaces (HMIs) either suffer from high power consumption, complex signal processing circuits, and algorithms, or cannot support multidimensional interaction. Here, a minimalist, low-power, and multimodal noncontact interaction interface is realized by fusing the complementary information obtained from a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) humidity sensor and a triboelectric sensor. The humidity sensor composed of a two-port aluminum nitride (AlN) bulk wave resonator operating in its length extensional mode and a layer of graphene oxide (GO) film with uniform and controllable thickness, possesses an ultra-tiny form factor (200 × 400 µm ), high signal strength (Q = 1729. Read More

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Mechanical properties, degradation behavior and cytocompatibility of biodegradable 3vol%X (X = MgO, ZnO and CuO)/Zn matrix composites with excellent dispersion property fabricated by graphene oxide-assisted hetero-aggregation.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2022 Feb 18:112722. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Function Materials Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China. Electronic address:

Metal matrix composites have been recognized as a feasible approach to obtain a new generation of biodegradable Zn-based material. Nevertheless, there is a great challenge in achieving good dispersion properties of the bioactive reinforcements within zinc matrix. A novel and facile approach, namely graphene oxide (GO)-assisted hetero-aggregation, were developed to achieve uniformly dispersed nanoceramics in the Zn matrix, by using very low-content (0. Read More

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February 2022

Graphene oxide as a dual template for induced helicity of peptides.

Nanoscale 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

Artificial template-mediated fabrication of secondary structures within peptides always attracts great interest in biological systems due to several biomimetic interactions. In all earlier studies, a uniform template containing molecules/nanomaterials was used to target only one type of peptide at a time, which extensively limits the diversity in the generation of artificial protein surface/binding sites. This limitation can be overcome by the incorporation of more than one binding template (heterogeneity) in a single system, for example, Janus nanomaterials, which are challenging and difficult to synthesize. Read More

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Preparation of β-cyclodextrin/dopamine hydrochloride-graphene oxide and its adsorption properties for sulfonamide antibiotics.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

School of Biology, Food, and Environment, Hefei University, No. 99 Jinxiu Road, Hefei, 230601, China.

To develop high-efficiency antibiotic adsorbents, β-cyclodextrin and dopamine hydrochloride were used to modify graphene oxide to prepare a new type of ternary composite material (β-cyclodextrin/dopamine hydrochloride-graphene oxide, CD-DGO). The material was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier infrared spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, and specific surface area optical analysis. Two typical sulfonamides antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine) adsorption capacity were evaluated in terms of the dosage of composite materials, the ratio of each component, and the pH of the solution. Read More

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Analysis of anticancer compound, indole-3-carbinol, in broccoli using a new ultrasound-assisted dispersive-filter extraction method based on poly(deep eutectic solvent)-graphene oxide nanocomposite.

J Pharm Anal 2022 Apr 7;12(2):301-307. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Science, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, 071002, China.

Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), an important anticancer compound found in broccoli, has attracted considerable attention. The rapid extraction and accurate analysis of I3C in the pharmaceutical industry in broccoli is challenging as I3C is unstable at low pH and high temperature. In this study, a rapid, accurate, and low-cost ultrasound-assisted dispersive-filter extraction (UADFE) technique based on poly(deep eutectic solvent)-graphene oxide (PDES-GO) adsorbent was developed for the isolation and analysis of I3C in broccoli for the first time. Read More

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Biocompatibility and antibiofilm activity of graphene-oxide functionalized titanium discs and collagen membranes.

Dent Mater 2022 May 14. Epub 2022 May 14.

School of Dental Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotica 8, Belgrade, Serbia.

The aims of the study were: 1) to evaluate the effect on biofilm formation of barrier membranes and titanium surfaces coated with graphene-oxide (GO); 2) to analyze the connection between the superficial topography of the tested materials and the amount of bacterial accumulation on them and 3) to analyze the biocompatibility of GO functionalized discs using the zebrafish model.

Methods: Single species bacterial biofilms (Streptococcus oralis, Veilonella parvula, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyomonas gingivalis) were grown on GO-free membranes, membranes coated with 2 and 10 μg/ml of GO, GO-free and GO-coated titanium discs. The biofilms were analyzed by determining the CFU count and by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and the materials' topography by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Read More

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Polycaprolactone-blended cellulose acetate thin-film composite membrane for dairy waste treatment using forward osmosis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Metallurgical Engineering & Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076, India.

In recent years new sustainable technology for wastewater treatment has emerged, and among them, forward osmosis (FO) has gained importance. FO utilizes osmotic pressure difference across the semipermeable membrane as the driving force to concentrate the wastewater. Further, the surface and physical properties of the semipermeable FO membrane play a crucial role during the FO process in reducing the internal concentration polarization. Read More

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Targeted delivery of irinotecan and SLP2 shRNA with GRP-conjugated magnetic graphene oxide for glioblastoma treatment.

Biomater Sci 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan.

Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are useful for magnetic targeted drug delivery while ligand-mediated active targeting is another common delivery strategy for cancer therapy. In this work, we intend to prepare magnetic graphene oxide (mGO) by chemical co-precipitation of MNPs on the GO surface, followed by conjugation of the gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) as a targeting ligand, for dual targeted drug/gene delivery in invasive brain glioma treatment. mGO was grafted with chitosan, complexed with shRNA plasmid DNA for stomatin-like protein 2 (SLP2) gene silencing, modified with urocanic acid for plasmid DNA endosomal escape, PEGylated for GRP conjugation, and loaded with the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (CPT-11) by π-π interaction for pH-responsive drug release (mGOCUG/CPT-11/shRNA). Read More

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NiCoSe4 nanoparticles derived from nickel-cobalt prussian blue analogues on N-doped reduced graphene oxide for high-performance asymmetric supercapacitors.

Nanotechnology 2022 May 16. Epub 2022 May 16.

Northwest Minzu University, Yuzhong Campus, Lanzhou, 730030, CHINA.

Synthesis of NiHCCo precursors via simple co-precipitation and nickel-cobalt tetraselenide composites grown on nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (NiCoSe4/N-rGO) were fabricated using solvothermal method. The introduction of N-rGO used as a template effectively prevented agglomeration of NiCoSe4 nanoparticles and provided more active sites, which greatly increased the electrochemical and electrical conductivity for NiCoSe4/N-rGO. NiCoSe4/N-rGO-20 presents a remarkably elevated specific capacity of 120 mA h g-1 under current density of 1 A g-1. Read More

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Rational fabrication of a DNA walking nanomachine on graphene oxide surface for fluorescent bioassay.

Biosens Bioelectron 2022 May 10;211:114349. Epub 2022 May 10.

Key Laboratory of Luminescence Analysis and Molecular Sensing (Southwest University), Ministry of Education, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, 400715, PR China. Electronic address:

DNA nanomachines, a delicate type of molecular machines, have been a research hotspot in biotechnology and materials. Here a two-dimensional (2D) DNA walking nanomachine with high working efficiency and low cost was easily assembled by using graphene oxide (GO) as the working platform for precisely fluorescent bioassay through the binding of target hepatitis B virus DNA (HBV-DNA) and the driving force of Exonuclease III (Exo III). The presence of HBV-DNA made continuous Exo III digestion of the FAM-modified DNA (FAM-DNA) in double-strand DNA (dsDNA) part in a burnt-bridge mechanism to output a "one-to-more" amplified signal. Read More

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Multifunctional Arabinoxylan--Graphene Oxide Based Composite Hydrogel for Skin Tissue Engineering.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 27;10:865059. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Wound healing is an important physiological process involving a series of cellular and molecular developments. A multifunctional hydrogel that prevents infection and promotes wound healing has great significance for wound healing applications in biomedical engineering. We have functionalized arabinoxylan and graphene oxide (GO) using the hydrothermal method, through cross-linking GO-arabinoxylan and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to get multifunctional composite hydrogels. Read More

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Anisotropic Plasmonic Gold Nanorod-Indocyanine [email protected] Graphene Oxide-Doxorubicin Nanohybrids for Image-Guided Enhanced Tumor Theranostics.

ACS Omega 2022 May 22;7(17):15186-15199. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Department of Chemistry and Nano Science, Ewha Womans University, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.

The unique physicochemical and localized surface plasmon resonance assets of gold nanorods (GNRs) have offered combined cancer treatments with real-time diagnosis by integrating diverse theragnostic modalities into a single nanoplatform. In this work, a unique multifunctional nanohybrid material based on GNRs was designed for and tumor imaging along with synergistic and combinatorial therapy of tumor. The hybrid material with size less than 100 nm was achieved by embedding indocyanine green (ICG) on mesoporous silica-coated GNRs with further wrapping of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and then attached with doxorubicin (DOX) and polyethylene glycol. Read More

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Green Synthesis of Graphene Oxide-Silver Nanoparticles Composite with Using Gallic Acid.

Front Chem 2022 27;10:905781. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Key Laboratory of Hunan Forest Products and Chemical Industry Engineering, Jishou University, Zhangjiajie, China.

The adoption of plant-derived natural products to synthesize metal nanoparticles and their complexes has the advantages of mild reaction conditions, environmental protection, sustainability and simple operation compared with traditional physical or chemical synthesis methods. Herein, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized on the surface of graphene oxide (GO) by a "one-pot reaction" to prepare graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles composite (GO-AgNPs) based on using AgNO as the precursor of AgNPs and gallic acid (GA) as the reducing agent and stabilizer. The size and morphology of GO-AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (Uv-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Read More

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Pyrene Functionalized Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide-palladium Nanocomposite: A Novel Catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction in Water.

Front Chem 2022 29;10:872366. Epub 2022 Apr 29.

Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.

The formation of a C-C bond through Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions in water with efficient heterogeneous catalysts is a challenging task. In this current study, a highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) immobilized palladium (Pd) nanoparticle based catalyst (HRG-Py-Pd) is used to catalyze Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions in water. During the preparation of the catalyst, amino pyrene is used as a smart functionalizing ligand, which offered chemically specific binding sites for the effective and homogeneous nucleation of Pd NPs on the surface of HRG, which significantly enhanced the physical stability and dispersibility of the resulting catalyst in an aqueous medium. Read More

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Sustainable-Macromolecule-Assisted Preparation of Cross-linked, Ultralight, Flexible Graphene Aerogel Sensors toward Low-Frequency Strain/Pressure to High-Frequency Vibration Sensing.

Small 2022 May 16:e2202047. Epub 2022 May 16.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore, 639798, Singapore.

Ultralight and highly flexible aerogel sensors, composed of reduced graphene oxide cross-linked by sustainable-macromolecule-derived carbon, are prepared via facile freeze-drying and thermal annealing. The synergistic combination of cross-linked graphene nanosheets and micrometer-sized honeycomb pores gives rise to the exceptional properties of the aerogels, including superior compressibility and resilience, good mechanical strength and durability, satisfactory fire-resistance, and outstanding electromechanical sensing performances. The corresponding aerogel sensors, operated at an ultralow voltage of 0. Read More

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Electrochemical and DFT studies of andrographolide on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide for anti-viral herbaceutical sensor.

Anal Chim Acta 2022 May 25;1209:339877. Epub 2022 Apr 25.

Electrodics and Electrocatalysis Division, CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CECRI), Karaikudi, 630 003, Tamil Nadu, India; Academy of Scientific & Innovative Research (AcSIR), Ghaziabad, 201 002, India. Electronic address:

Herbal extracts are re-emerging as potential remedies for various vector-borne diseases. Amongst several phytochemicals, active ingredients of Andrographis paniculata extract is regarded as promising for dengue fever, caused by Aedes species. However, fingerprinting the active phytochemicals from herbal extracts are often relies on sophisticated analytical techniques which are not universally accessible. Read More

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