7,024 results match your criteria granzyme ifn-γ

Chronic Immune Activation among Treatment Naïve HIV/ HBV Coinfected Individuals from Southern India.

Curr HIV Res 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Clinical Virology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, 632004, India.

Background: Chronic immune activation is one of the most widely recognized hallmarks of HIV infection. T-cells that express CD38+ and HLA-DR+ show poor proliferative potential, signal transduction, and increased apoptotic potential. This affects HIV pathogenesis and its outcome and further complicates with a coinfection like HBV. Read More

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Endometrial Cancer Suppresses CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Postmenopausal Women.

Front Immunol 2021 23;12:657326. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Lebanon, NH, United States.

Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecological cancer. To investigate how it suppresses host immune function, we isolated CD8+ T cells from endometrial endometroid carcinomas and adjacent non-cancerous endometrium and determined if the tumor environment regulates cytotoxic capacity. Endometrial carcinomas had increased numbers of CD8+ T cells compared to adjacent non-cancerous endometrium. Read More

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Single-cell dissection of cellular components and interactions shaping the tumor immune phenotypes in ovarian cancer.

Cancer Cell 2021 Apr 27. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

Distinct T cell infiltration patterns, i.e., immune infiltrated, excluded, and desert, result in different responses to cancer immunotherapies. Read More

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Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma with hepatocytotropism in a cat.

JFMS Open Rep 2021 Jan-Jun;7(1):20551169211005914. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Laboratory of Veterinary Pathology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Case Summary: A 14-year 3-month-old spayed female mixed-breed cat presented with jaundice, anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Haemophagocytic syndrome associated with lymphoma was suspected after cytological examination of the spleen. Despite treatment with prednisolone, L-asparaginase and nimustine, the cat died 176 days after the initial presentation. Read More

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Cytotoxic Lymphocytes Target HIV-1 Gag Through Granzyme M-Mediated Cleavage.

Front Immunol 2021 19;12:669347. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Division of Infectious Diseases, ANA Futura Laboratory, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Untreated HIV-1 infection leads to a slow decrease in CD4 T cell lymphocytes over time resulting in increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS) and ultimately death of the infected individual. Initially, the host's immune response controls the infection, but cannot eliminate the HIV-1 from the host. Cytotoxic lymphocytes are the key effector cells in this response and can mediate crucial antiviral responses through the release of a set of proteases called granzymes towards HIV-1-infected cells. Read More

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A subset of cytotoxic effector memory T cells enhances CAR T cell efficacy in a model of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Sci Transl Med 2021 May;13(592)

Department of Pathology and Immunology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

In humans, the natural killer (NK) cell marker CD161 identifies several subsets of T cells, including a polyclonal CD8 αβ T cell receptor-expressing subset with characteristic specificity for tissue-localized viruses. This subset also displays enhanced cytotoxic and memory phenotypes. Here, we characterized this unique T cell subset and determined its potential suitability for use in chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy. Read More

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Immunological and inflammatory profiles during acute and convalescent phases of severe/ critically ill COVID-19 patients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 17;97:107685. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China; KingMed School of Laboratory Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The 2019 Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses a huge threat internationally; however, the role of the host immune system in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 is not well understood.

Methods: Cytokine and chemokine levels and characterisation of immune cell subsets from 20 COVID-19 cases after hospital admission (17 critically ill and 3 severe patients) and 16 convalescent patients were determined using a multiplex immunoassay and flow cytometry, respectively.

Results: IP-10, MCP-1, MIG, IL-6, and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in acute severe/critically ill patients with COVID-19, whereas were normal in patients who had reached convalescence. Read More

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Histomorphological patterns of regional lymph nodes in COVID-19 lungs.

Pathologe 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Pathology, Institute of Medical Genetics and Pathology, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: A dysregulated immune response is considered one of the major factors leading to severe COVID-19. Previously described mechanisms include the development of a cytokine storm, missing immunoglobulin class switch, antibody-mediated enhancement, and aberrant antigen presentation.

Objectives: To understand the heterogeneity of immune response in COVID-19, a thorough investigation of histomorphological patterns in regional lymph nodes was performed. Read More

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Monitoring immunotherapy with optical molecular imaging.

ChemMedChem 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Hunan University, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (PR China), 410082, Changsha, CHINA.

Immunotherapy is an effective way to mobilize the body's own immune system to confront tumor cells . However, the efficacy of immunotherapy is affected by tumor heterogeneity, and the low therapeutic response to immunotherapy may lead to negative outcomes, which reinforces the urgency for early benefit predictors. Evaluating the infiltration of immune cells in solid tumors and metabolism changes of tumors provide potential response targets for monitoring immune response. Read More

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The human anti-CD40 agonist antibody mitazalimab (ADC-1013; JNJ-64457107) activates antigen-presenting cells, improves expansion of antigen-specific T cells, and enhances anti-tumor efficacy of a model cancer vaccine in vivo.

Cancer Immunol Immunother 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Alligator Bioscience AB, Medicon Village, 223 81, Lund, Sweden.

Non-responders to checkpoint inhibitors generally have low tumor T cell infiltration and could benefit from immunotherapy that activates dendritic cells, with priming of tumor-reactive T cells as a result. Such therapies may be augmented by providing tumor antigen in the form of cancer vaccines. Our aim was to study the effects of mitazalimab (ADC-1013; JNJ-64457107), a human anti-CD40 agonist IgG1 antibody, on activation of antigen-presenting cells, and how this influences the priming and anti-tumor potential of antigen-specific T cells, in mice transgenic for human CD40. Read More

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The immune cell landscape of metastatic uveal melanoma correlates with overall survival.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 4;40(1):154. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Surgery, Oncology and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background: Uveal melanoma (UM) represents the most common primary intra-ocular malignancy in adults. Up to 50% of the patients develop distant metastases within 10 years from diagnosis, with the liver as the most common site. Upon metastatization, life expectancy strongly reduces and immune checkpoint inhibitors that prove effective in cutaneous melanoma do not modify clinical outcome. Read More

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Non-Malignant CD30+ Cells in Contralateral Peri-Implant Capsule of Patient With BIA-ALCL: A Premalignant Step?

Aesthet Surg J 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Medicine, Brown University Alpert Medical School, Providence, RI.

CD30 lymphocyte activation antigen and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) are consistent markers of tumor cells in breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). We present a case of BIA-ALCL in a breast implant capsule containing clustered tumor cells expressing CD30, pSTAT3, pSTAT6, IL-9 and Granzyme B tumor cell biomarkers. Remarkably, the contralateral breast contained many scattered CD30+ large, atypical cells surrounded by inflammatory cells raising a suspicion of bilateral BIA-ALCL, known to occur in some patients. Read More

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Pyroptosis: a new paradigm of cell death for fighting against cancer.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 May 3;40(1):153. Epub 2021 May 3.

NHC Key Laboratory of Carcinogenesis, Hunan Provincial Cancer Hospital and the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Xiangya School of Medicine, Central South University, Tongzipo Road, Changsha, 410013, Hunan, China.

Background: Unraveling the mystery of cell death is one of the most fundamental progresses of life sciences during the past decades. Regulated cell death (RCD) or programmed cell death (PCD) is not only essential in embryonic development, but also plays an important role in the occurrence and progression of diseases, especially cancers. Escaping of cell death is one of hallmarks of cancer. Read More

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5,-ALA/SFC enhanced the antitumor effects of PD-L1 blockade via regulated exhaustion T cell metabolism in melanoma model.

Cancer Sci 2021 May 2. Epub 2021 May 2.

Division of Transplantation Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.

Mitochondria are key cytoplasmic organelles. Their activation is critical for the generation of T-cell proliferation and cytotoxicity. Exhausted tumor infiltrating T cells show a decreased mitochondrial function and mass. Read More

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A combination of the percentages of IFN-γCD4T cells and granzyme BCD19B cells is associated with acute hepatic rejection: a case control study.

J Transl Med 2021 May 1;19(1):187. Epub 2021 May 1.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreaticosplenic Surgery, Medical Research Center, Beijing Organ Transplant Center, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtinan Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100020, China.

Background: T cells and B cells play a key role in alloimmune responses. We aimed to characterize the shift of T cell subsets and B cell subsets during acute hepatic rejection, and further determine whether they could serve as a prognostic marker.

Methods: Blood samples together with the clinical data from liver transplant recipients with and without acute hepatic rejection were collected and analyzed as well as from a validation cohort. Read More

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Regulatory T Cells as an Escape Mechanism to the Immune Response in Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 13;11:630583. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Departamento de Investigación en Enfermedades Infecciosas, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias Ismael Cosío Villegas, Tlalpan, Mexico.

Murine cysticercosis by is a model for human neurocysticercosis. Genetic and/or immune differences may underlie the higher susceptibility to infection in BALB/cAnN with respect to C57BL/6 mice. T regulatory cells (Tregs) could mediate the escape of from the host immunity. Read More

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Clinical Activity of an hTERT-Specific Cancer Vaccine (Vx-001) in "Immune Desert" NSCLC.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Vaxon Biotech, 75005 Paris, France.

Background: Tumors can be separated into immunogenic/hot and non-immunogenic/cold on the basis of the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), the expression of PD-L1 and the tumor mutation burden (TMB). In immunogenic tumors, TILs become unable to control tumor growth because their activity is suppressed by different inhibitory pathways, including PD-1/PD-L1. We hypothesized that tumor vaccines may not be active in the immunosuppressive microenvironment of immunogenic/hot tumors while they could be efficient in the immune naïve microenvironment of non-immunogenic/cold tumors. Read More

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Plasma-Activated Medium Potentiates the Immunogenicity of Tumor Cell Lysates for Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Vaccines.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 1;13(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department for Immunology and Immunoparasitology, Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy, University of Belgrade, 11080 Belgrade, Serbia.

Autologous dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccines are considered quite promising for cancer immunotherapy due to their exquisite potential to induce tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells. However, a lack of efficient protocols for inducing immunogenic tumor antigens limits the efficacy of DC-based cancer vaccines. Here, we found that a plasma-activated medium (PAM) induces immunogenic cell death (ICD) in tumor cells but not in an immortalized L929 cell line or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Read More

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Summary and comparison of the perforin in teleosts and mammals: A review.

Scand J Immunol 2021 Apr 29:e13047. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Agriculture, Ludong University, Yantai, China.

Perforin, a pore-forming glycoprotein, has been demonstrated to play key roles in clearing virus-infected cells and tumour cells due to its ability of forming 'pores' on the cell membranes. Additionally, perforin is also found to be associated with human diseases such as tumours, virus infections, immune rejection and some autoimmune diseases. Until now, plenty of perforin genes have been identified in vertebrates, especially the mammals and teleost fish. Read More

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Carbamazepine Induces Focused T Cell Responses in Resolved Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis Cases But Does Not Perturb the Immunopeptidome for T Cell Recognition.

Front Immunol 2021 12;12:653710. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Infection and Immunity Program, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedicine Discovery Institute, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, Australia.

Antiseizure medications (ASMs) are frequently implicated in T cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity reactions and cause skin tropic pathologies that range in severity from mild rashes to life-threatening systemic syndromes. During the acute stages of the more severe manifestations of these reactions, drug responsive proinflammatory CD8 T cells display classical features of Th1 cytokine production ( IFNγ) and cytolysis ( granzyme B, perforin). These T cells may be found locally at the site of pathology ( blister cells/fluid), as well as systemically ( blood, organs). Read More

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Natural Killer Cell Group 7 Sequence in Cytotoxic Cells Optimizes Exocytosis of Lytic Granules Essential for the Perforin-Dependent, but Not Fas Ligand-Dependent, Cytolytic Pathway.

Immunohorizons 2021 Apr 28;5(4):234-245. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Immunology, Kitasato University School of Medicine, Kanagawa, Japan; and

Cytotoxic cells, such as CD8 T cells or NK cells, have been shown to eliminate virus-infected cells or transformed cells primarily via two pathways: the perforin/granzyme-dependent pathway and the Fas ligand-Fas pathway; however, the precise cytolytic mechanisms have not been clarified thoroughly. In our previous study, we demonstrated that a T-box transcription factor, Eomesodermin (Eomes), may play important roles in activating the perforin pathway besides inducing perforin and granzyme B mRNA expression. In this study, we identified natural killer cell group 7 sequence (Nkg7), a molecule induced by Eomes, to be found critical for perforin-dependent cytolysis. Read More

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HLA-A2.1-restricted ECM1-derived epitope LA through DC cross-activation priming CD8 T and NK cells: a novel therapeutic tumour vaccine.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 28;14(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 13, Beihai Road, Dadong District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: CD8 T cell-mediated adaptive cellular immunity and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate immunity both play important roles in tumour immunity. This study aimed to develop therapeutic tumour vaccines based on double-activation of CD8 T and NK cells.

Methods: The immune Epitope database, Molecular Operating Environment software, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for epitope identification. Read More

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Extracellular Vesicles from Elicit Antitumor Immunity Against Prostate Cancer via Modulation of CD8 T Cells and Macrophages.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 20;16:2949-2963. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Orthopedics, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most common malignancies in males. Despite the success of immunotherapy in many malignant cancers, strategies are still needed to improve therapeutic efficacy in PCa. This study aimed to investigate the effects of -derived extracellular vesicles (-EVs) on PCa and elucidate the underlying immune-related mechanism. Read More

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Analysis of the Long-Term Impact on Cellular Immunity in COVID-19-Recovered Individuals Reveals a Profound NKT Cell Impairment.

mBio 2021 04 27;12(2). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affected over 120 million people and killed over 2.7 million individuals by March 2021. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remain to be analyzed. Read More

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Functional responsiveness of memory T cells from COVID-19 patients.

Cell Immunol 2021 Apr 17;365:104363. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Basic Oncology, Hacettepe University Cancer Institute, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

The presence of memory T cells in COVID-19 patients has been acknowledged, however the functional potency of memory responses is critical for protection. In this study, naïve, effector, effector memory, and central memory CD4 and CD8 T cells obtained from the COVID-19 survivors were re-exposed to autologous monocyte-derived DCs that were loaded with SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein S1. Proliferation capacity, CD25, 4-1BB, and PD-1 expression, and IFN-γ, IL-6, granzyme, granulysin, and FasL secretion were enhanced in CD4 and CD8 effector memory and central memory T cells. Read More

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Inflammatory Status Might Direct ILC and NK Cells to IL-17 expressing ILC3 and NK Subsets in Behcet's Disease.

Immunol Lett 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Immunology, Aziz Sancar Institute of Experimental Medicine (Aziz Sancar DETAE), Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address:

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are lymphoid cells that have important effector and regulatory functions in innate immunity and tissue remodeling. Uncontrolled activation and proliferation of ILCs can contribute to inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Behcet's disease (BD) is a complex systemic inflammatory disorder of unknown etiology. Read More

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Robust hepatitis B vaccine-reactive T cell responses in failed humoral immunity.

Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021 Jun 23;21:288-298. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

University Hospital Marien Hospital Herne, Ruhr-University of Bochum, Bochum, Germany.

While virus-specific antibodies are broadly recognized as correlates of protection, virus-specific T cells are important for direct clearance of infected cells. Failure to generate hepatitis B virus (HBV)-specific antibodies is well-known in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, whether and to what extent HBV-specific cellular immunity is altered in this population and how it influences humoral immunity is not clear. Read More

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Long Non-coding RNA LINC02474 Affects Metastasis and Apoptosis of Colorectal Cancer by Inhibiting the Expression of GZMB.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:651796. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, The Second Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies. Metastasis is the main event that impedes the therapeutic effect on CRC, and its underlying mechanisms remain largely unclear. LINC02474 is a novel long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) associated with metastasis of CRC, while little is known about how LINC02474 regulates these malignant characteristics. Read More

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Correlation of Regulatory T Cell Numbers with Disease Tolerance upon Virus Infection.

Immunohorizons 2021 Apr 23;5(4):157-169. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA;

The goal of a successful immune response is to clear the pathogen while sparing host tissues from damage associated with pathogen replication and active immunity. Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been implicated in maintaining this balance as they contribute both to the organization of immune responses as well as restriction of inflammation and immune activation to limit immunopathology. To determine if Treg abundance prior to pathogen encounter can be used to predict the success of an antiviral immune response, we used genetically diverse mice from the collaborative cross infected with West Nile virus (WNV). Read More

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Post-transcriptional control of T-cell cytokine production: Implications for cancer therapy.

Immunology 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Independent Scientist, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

As part of the adaptive immune system, T cells are vital for the eradication of infected and malignantly transformed cells. To perform their protective function, T cells produce effector molecules that are either directly cytotoxic, such as granzymes, perforin, interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor α, or attract and stimulate (immune) cells, such as interleukin-2. As these molecules can also induce immunopathology, tight control of their production is required. Read More

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