70,030 results match your criteria granules


Injectable tricalcium phosphate/calcium sulfate granule enhances bone repair by reversible setting reaction.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 14;557:151-158. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Engineering Sciences: Applied Materials Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, SE-751 21, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Towards repairing bone defects, calcium sulfate and calcium phosphate cement have been recognized as promising bone grafts. However, the current bone cements are generally lack of proper porosity for cell migration and new tissue formation. On the other hand, porous scaffold cannot be delivered by injection, which limits its use its clinical use. Read More

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Effect of fertilization on ozone-induced changes in the metabolism of birch (Betula pendula) leaves.

New Phytol 1997 Nov;137(3):389-397

Lehrstuhl für Forstbotanik, Ludwig Maximilians-Universität Munchen, D-85354 Freising, Germany.

Cloned cuttings of Betula pendula Roth were grown in field fumigation chambers at Birmensdorf throughout one growing season in filtered air with either < 3 (control) or 90/40 nl l O (day/night; ozone generated from pure oxygen). Each ozone regime was split into high and low soil nutrient regimes by watering plants with either a 0.05 % or a 0. Read More

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November 1997

An autofluorescence-based survey of late follicular atresia in ovaries of a teleost fish (Thunnus thynnus).

J Fish Biol 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar y Ambientales, Universidad de Cádiz, Puerto Real, Spain.

We examined late atretic follicles in ovaries of Atlantic bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus 1758), at different times of the year using transmitted light and epifluorescence microscopy. Atresia (degeneration and resorption of developing ovarian follicles) is a natural process involved in fecundity downregulation in teleosts, and is substantially enhanced in stressful conditions. Early (α and β) atretic stages of yolked oocytes have a relatively short duration in seasonally reproducing species, whereas later (γ and δ) atretic follicles (LAF) persist for longer time in the ovary, serving as a sign of previous vitellogenic activity. Read More

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A novel 3D histotypic cartilage construct engineered by supercritical carbon dioxide decellularized porcine nasal cartilage graft and chondrocytes exhibited chondrogenic capability .

Int J Med Sci 2021 25;18(10):2217-2227. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan.

Augmentative and reconstructive rhinoplasty surgical procedures use autologous tissue grafts or synthetic grafts to repair the nasal defect and aesthetic reconstruction. Donor site trauma and morbidity are common in autologous grafts. The desperate need for the production of grafted 3D cartilage tissues as rhinoplasty grafts without the adverse effect is the need of the hour. Read More

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Side-by-side and exo-pitting degradation mechanism revealed from in vitro human fecal fermentation of granular starches.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 30;263:118003. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

School of Food Science and Engineering, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory for Green Processing of Natural Products and Product Safety, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510640, China; Sino-Singapore International Research Institute, Guangzhou, 510555, China; Overseas Expertise Introduction Center for Discipline Innovation of Food Nutrition and Human Health (111 Center), Guangzhou, 510640, China. Electronic address:

The in vitro fecal fermentation characteristics and microbiota responses to A- and B-type polymorphic starches as model (whole) foods enriched with resistant starch was investigated. Marked difference in fermentation rate as well as microbial genera was observed during fermentation, the degradation pattern as well as structural evolution during fermentation was almost similar. The final butyrate concentrations of both HAMS and PS (ca. Read More

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Starch as a reinforcement agent for poly(ionic liquid) hydrogels from deep eutectic solvent via frontal polymerization.

Carbohydr Polym 2021 Jul 26;263:117996. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Theory and Application of Advanced Materials Mechanics, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

For the first time, conductive starch/poly(ionic liquid) hydrogels from a polymerizable deep eutectic solvent (DES) by frontal polymerization (FP) were reported. The solubility and dispersibility for starch granules in the polymerizable DES was investigated. The effects of starch content on FP behaviors, mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of composite hydrogels were studied. Read More

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Molecular cloning, characterisation and expression analysis of the vitellogenin genes vtgAo1 and vtgC during ovarian development in Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens.

Reprod Fertil Dev 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Vitellogenesis is essential for oocyte maturation. Vitellogenin (Vtg), a yolk precursor protein, plays an important role in oogenesis and vitellogenesis. Chinese hook snout carp Opsariichthys bidens is an economically important freshwater fish in China whose reproductive and developmental biology are not well understood. Read More

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Randomised clinical trial: Efficacy and safety of Qing-Chang-Hua-Shi granules in a multicenter, randomized, and double-blind clinical trial of patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Apr 13;139:111580. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine (Jiangsu Province Hospital of Chinese Medicine), Nanjing 210029, China. Electronic address:

Qing-Chang-Hua-Shi (QCHS) is a Chinese herbal formula, which is composed of 11 herbs. Studies have also shown that QCHS granules can alleviate colitis in animal models by preventing inflammatory responses and suppressing apoptosis through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. To determine the efficacy and safety of QCHS granules in patients with moderately active UC. Read More

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The RNA-binding protein FUS is chaperoned and imported into the nucleus by a network of import receptors.

J Biol Chem 2021 Apr 12:100659. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Medicine, GZMB, Georg-August-University Göttingen, Humboldtallee, 23, 37073, Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) is a predominantly nuclear RNA-binding protein with key functions in RNA processing and DNA damage repair. Defects in nuclear import of FUS have been linked to severe neurodegenerative diseases, hence it is of great interest to understand this process and how it is dysregulated in disease. Transportin-1 (TNPO1) and the closely related Transportin-2 (TNPO2) have been identified as major nuclear import receptors of FUS. Read More

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Potential Role of Gut Microbiota in Traditional Chinese Medicine against COVID-19.

Am J Chin Med 2021 Apr 9:1-19. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Administration of Traditional Chinese, Medicine for TCM Compatibility, State Key Laboratory of Research and Development of Characteristic, Qin Medicine Resources (Cultivation), Shaanxi Collaborative Innovation Center of Chinese Medicinal, Resources Industrialization, Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xi'an, 712046, P. R. China.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spreads and rages around the world and threatens human life. It is disappointing that there are no specific drugs until now. The combination of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medication seems to be the current more effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients in China. Read More

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Synaptotagmin-Like Protein 2a Regulates Angiogenic Lumen Formation via Weibel-Palade Body Apical Secretion of Angiopoietin-2.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2021 Apr 15:ATVBAHA121316113. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Denver, CO.

Objective: Vascular lumen formation requires the redistribution of intracellular proteins to instruct apicobasal polarity, thereby enforcing maturation of both luminal and basal domains. In the absence of proper apical signaling, lumen formation can be distorted leading to lumen collapse and cessation of blood flow. Slp2a (synaptotagmin-like protein-2a) has been implicated in apical membrane signaling; however, the role of Slp2a in vascular lumen formation has never been assessed. Read More

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Preparation of alginate-chitosan floating granules loaded with 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy acetic acid (MCPA) and their bioactivity on water hyacinth.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Key Laboratory of Natural Pesticide and Chemical Biology of the Ministry of Education, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Background: Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is considered as the most damaging aquatic weed in many countries. Chemical methods are still the primary approach for their control, although this directly exposes the natural enemy of water hyacinth (water hyacinth weevil) to herbicides. Additionally, spray-drift can easily damage non-target plants. Read More

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Archaeological science meets Māori knowledge to model pre-Columbian sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) dispersal to Polynesia's southernmost habitable margins.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0247643. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, School of Archaeology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Most scholars of the subject consider that a pre-Columbian transpacific transfer accounts for the historical role of American sweet potato Ipomoea batatas as the kūmara staple of Indigenous New Zealand/Aotearoa Māori in cooler southwestern Polynesia. Archaeologists have recorded evidence of ancient Polynesian I. batatas cultivation from warmer parts of generally temperate-climate Aotearoa, while assuming that the archipelago's traditional Murihiku region in southern South Island/Te Waipounamu was too cold to grow and store live Polynesian crops, including relatively hardy kūmara. Read More

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Pterostilbene, a Dimethylether Analogue of Resveratrol, Possesses High Potency in the Prevention of Platelet Activation in Humans and the Reduction of Vascular Thrombosis in Mice.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 110, Taiwan.

Platelets play a crucial role in cardiovascular disorders (CVDs); thus, development of a therapeutic target that prevents platelet activation reduces CVDs. Pterostilbene (PTE) has several remarkable pharmacological activities, including anticancer and neuroprotection. Herein, we examined the inhibitory mechanisms of PTE in human platelets and its role in the prevention of vascular thrombosis in mice. Read More

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Multi-walled carbon nanotube/hydroxyapatite nanocomposite with leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin for bone regeneration in sheep model.

Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021 Apr 14. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Nanotechnology & Regenerative Medicine Commercialisation Centre (NanoRegMed Ltd), London BioScience Innovation Centre , London, NW1 0NH, UK.

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/hydroxyapatite (MWCNT/HA) granules with or without leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) on bone regeneration in cancellous bone of sheep model.

Methods: Totally, 32 cylindrical holes were drilled in female sheep (n = 4) in the distal epiphysis and proximal metaphysis of right and left humerus and femur. The defects were randomly filled with (1) MWCNT/HA, (2) MWCNT/HA mixed with L-PRF, (3) L-PRF, and (4) left empty as control. Read More

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Influence of high pressure compaction on solubility and intrinsic dissolution of ibuprofen binary mixtures employing standard excipients.

Int J Pharm X 2021 Dec 18;3:100075. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Enabling formulations often depend on functional excipients. However, the question remains whether excipients regarded as standard establish similar interactions and subsequently improvement of solubility when employed at unusual manufacturing process conditions. In this study, compaction of API under high pressure in the presence of hydrophilic excipients is proposed as a technique to improve the solubility and/or dissolution rate with an acceptable preservation of the supersaturation state. Read More

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December 2021

Impact of fungal pellets dosage on long-term stability of aerobic granular sludge.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 4;332:125106. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, School of Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, PR China.

The effects of fungal pellets (FPs) dosage on both structural and functional stability of aerobic granular sludge (AGS) were investigated during 200-day operation. Results showed that the AGS induced by low (a dry mass ratio of FPs to seed sludge, 30%) and high FPs dosage (60%) exhibited good morphology integrity during the entire phase of operation, while the filamentous overgrowth and AGS breakup were observed in the control reactor (0% FPs). Moreover, the granules developed at high FPs dosage demonstrated excellent nutrients removal (COD: 93%; NH4-N: 100%; TN: 77%) and stable bioactivity with a maximum specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) of 52. Read More

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The surgical management of the cavity and bone defects in enchondroma cases: A prospective randomized trial.

Surg Oncol 2021 Apr 5;37:101565. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Science Research Department, Alexander Muss High School in Israel (AMHSI) Affiliated with Alexander Muss Institute for Israel Education (AMIIE), Hod HaSharon, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: We compared the curettage/bone grafting and the curettage/bone graft substitutes surgical techniques in their relation to functional outcomes, oncologic outcome (recurrence, malignant transformation), the rate of postsurgical complications, durations of surgery and of postsurgical immobilization for hand-localized cases of solitary and multiple enchondromas.

Methods: The current prospective randomized trial analyzed 200 adult patients (2012-2017) with enchondroma who underwent surgical intervention. The cases were randomly divided into Group 1 (n = 100; F 56, M 44) for surgeries with curettage and autogenous bone grafting, and Group 2 (n = 100; F 55, M 45) for surgeries with curettage and bone graft substitutes. Read More

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Relationships among molecular, physicochemical and digestibility characteristics of Andean tuber starches.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 14;182:472-481. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Programa Doctoral de Ciencia de Alimentos, Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Av. La Molina s/n, La Molina, Lima 15024, Peru.

This study aimed to determine and correlate the physicochemical, thermal, pasting, digestibility and molecular characteristics of native starches, such as mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R. and P.), oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol. Read More

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Kinase-mediated RAS signaling via membraneless cytoplasmic protein granules.

Cell 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, UCSF, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA. Electronic address:

Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-mediated activation of downstream effector pathways such as the RAS GTPase/MAP kinase (MAPK) signaling cascade is thought to occur exclusively from lipid membrane compartments in mammalian cells. Here, we uncover a membraneless, protein granule-based subcellular structure that can organize RTK/RAS/MAPK signaling in cancer. Chimeric (fusion) oncoproteins involving certain RTKs including ALK and RET undergo de novo higher-order assembly into membraneless cytoplasmic protein granules that actively signal. Read More

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Farm use of calcium hydroxide as an effective barrier against pathogens.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7941. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Applied Science, Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran, Hokkaido, Japan.

Livestock farming is affected by the occurrence of infectious diseases, but outbreaks can be prevented by proper sanitary control measures. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)), commonly called slaked lime, powder is traditionally used as a disinfectant to prevent infectious diseases in livestock. Since Ca(OH) can inactivate a wide variety of pathogens, has a small environmental impact, does not require a disinfection tank (i. Read More

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Modeling the Conditional Fragmentation-Induced Microplastic Distribution.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Microplastics (MPs) are drawing increasing attention from the international community due to their potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. Although their occurrence and spatial distribution have been extensively studied in recent years, the relationship between their abundance and sizes remains unclear. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms dominating their size distribution have rarely been explored. Read More

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Synergistic application of twin-screw granulation and selective laser sintering 3D printing for the development of pharmaceutical dosage forms with enhanced dissolution rates and physical properties.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Division of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Drug Delivery, College of Pharmacy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78705. Electronic address:

This study demonstrated the first case of combining a novel continuous granulation technique with powder-bed fusion-based selective laser sintering (SLS) process to enhance the dissolution rate and physical properties of a poorly water-soluble drug. Selective laser sintering and binder jetting 3D printing processes have gained much attention in pharmaceutical dosage form manufacturing in recent times. These powder bed-based 3D printing platforms have been known to face printing and uniformity problems due to the inherent poor flow properties of the pharmaceutical physical mixtures. Read More

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SNAP23 is essential for platelet and mast cell development and required in connective tissue mast cells for anaphylaxis.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan 8;296:100268. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Electronic address:

Degranulation, a fundamental effector response from mast cells (MCs) and platelets, is an example of regulated exocytosis. This process is mediated by SNARE proteins and their regulators. We have previously shown that several of these proteins are essential for exocytosis in MCs and platelets. Read More

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January 2021

Intracellular mRNA transport and localized translation.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Systems Biology Lab, Amsterdam Institute of Molecular and Life Sciences (AIMMS), Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Fine-tuning cellular physiology in response to intracellular and environmental cues requires precise temporal and spatial control of gene expression. High-resolution imaging technologies to detect mRNAs and their translation state have revealed that all living organisms localize mRNAs in subcellular compartments and create translation hotspots, enabling cells to tune gene expression locally. Therefore, mRNA localization is a conserved and integral part of gene expression regulation from prokaryotic to eukaryotic cells. Read More

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Structural features of five types of maize starch granule subgroups sorted by flow cytometry.

Food Chem 2021 Mar 22;356:129657. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Maize in Arid Area of Northwest Region, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling Shaanxi 712100, China. Electronic address:

Subgroups of starch granules from five maize phenotypes including waxy-, normal-, popcorn-, sweet corn- and high-amylose maize were sorted by flow cytometry (FC) utilizing the side scatter channel (SSC) and forward scatter channel (FSC). SSC and FSC mainly reflecting internal object complexity, and object size, respectively. Subgroups with higher FSC signal always showed higher SSC signal, indicating larger granules exhibited higher internal structural complexity. Read More

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c.3G>A mutation in the gene that causes fatal infantile hypertonic myofibrillar myopathy in the Chinese population.

J Integr Neurosci 2021 Mar;20(1):143-151

Running Gene Inc.,100083 Beijing, P. R. China.

Infantile hypertonic myofibrillar myopathy is characterized by the rapid development of rigid muscles and respiratory insufficiency soon after birth, with very high mortality. It is extremely rare, and only a few cases having been reported until now. Here we report four Chinese infants with fatal neuromuscular disorders characterized by abdominal and trunk skeletal muscle stiffness and rapid respiratory insufficiency progression. Read More

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Salivary glands are a target for SARS-CoV-2: A source for saliva contamination.

J Pathol 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

The ability of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 to spread and contaminate is one of the determinants of the COVID-19 pandemic status. SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in saliva consistently, with similar sensitivity as observed in nasopharyngeal swabs. We conducted ultrasound-guided postmortem biopsies in COVID-19 fatal cases. Read More

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Granular layEr Simulator: Design and Multi-GPU Simulation of the Cerebellar Granular Layer.

Front Comput Neurosci 2021 16;15:630795. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Custom Computing and Programmable Systems Laboratory, Department of Electrical, Computer and Biomedical Engineering, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

In modern computational modeling, neuroscientists need to reproduce long-lasting activity of large-scale networks, where neurons are described by highly complex mathematical models. These aspects strongly increase the computational load of the simulations, which can be efficiently performed by exploiting parallel systems to reduce the processing times. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) devices meet this need providing on desktop High Performance Computing. Read More

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Assessment of an aerobic granular sludge system in the presence of pharmaceutically active compounds by quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques.

J Environ Manage 2021 Apr 5;289:112474. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057, Braga, Portugal. Electronic address:

In this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was operated with synthetic wastewater containing environmental relevant concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Despite the presence of the studied PhAC, the granular fraction clearly predominated (TSS/TSS ranging from 0.82 to 0. Read More

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