1,010 results match your criteria grains solubles


Survey of zearalenone and type-B trichothecene mycotoxins in swine feed in the USA.

Mycotoxin Res 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

New information is needed regarding the types and concentrations of mycotoxins in swine feed. We hypothesized that (1) the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEN) vary among swine ingredient and feed types, and (2) the inclusion of specific ingredients is associated with mycotoxin contamination in complete feed. A total of 707 samples were collected from cooperators in 14 states between June 2018 and January 2020 then analyzed for DON, 3-AcDON, 15-AcDON, NIV, and ZEN contamination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Read More

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September 2021

Teff grass for continuous stocking in the Southern High Plains by growing beef steers receiving protein supplements.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 18;5(3):txab136. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

This experiment evaluated forage quality, total nutrient yield, water footprint, and growth performance of beef steers receiving protein supplements while grazing Teff grass ['Tiffany' (Zucc.) Trotter] over two consecutive growing seasons. Each year, four 2. Read More

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Process design and techno-economic analysis of 2'-fucosyllactose enriched distiller's dried grains with solubles production in dry grind ethanol process using genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Sep 8;341:125919. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States; DOE Center for Advanced Bioenergy and Bioproducts Innovation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States. Electronic address:

2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) has been linked positively with piglet gut health. Genetically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains producing 2'-FL can be used in the dry grind process to enrich Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with 2'-FL and supplement swine diets with 2'-FL. The objectives of our study were to modify dry grind ethanol process for 2'-FL enriched DDGS production and evaluate the techno-economic feasibility of the process. Read More

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September 2021

Impacts of Ethanol Production and Drying Conditions on the Chemical, Physical, and Flowability Properties of Distillers Dried Grains With Solubles.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 27;9:716634. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

National Corn to Ethanol Research Center, Edwardsville, IL, United States.

The production of corn-based ethanol in the U.S. has dramatically increasied in recent years, and consequently so has the quantity of coproduct feed ingredients generated from this segment of the grain processing industry. Read More

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Stability of Senecavirus A in animal feed ingredients and infection following consumption of contaminated feed.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, Animal Disease Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, 57007, USA.

Animal feed and feed ingredients have recently been investigated as sources of pathogen introduction into farms and as a potential source of infection post-consumption. Survival of several viruses for a prolonged period has been demonstrated in feed. Here we determined the rate of decay of Senecavirus A (SVA) in swine feed ingredients as a function of time and temperature and established half-life estimates for the virus. Read More

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September 2021

A Dilute-and-Shoot UHPLC-MS/MS Isotope Dilution Method for Simultaneous Determination and Confirmation of Eleven Mycotoxins in Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles.

J AOAC Int 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine, Office of Research, 8401 Muirkirk Rd, Laurel, Maryland 20708.

Background: Natural contamination of mycotoxins in dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) as a mainstream animal feed ingredient poses risk to animal health.

Objective: A regulatory method was needed for the agency to simultaneously detect eleven mycotoxins of high regulatory priority in DDGS.

Methods: Ten grams of DDGS sample were extracted twice with acetonitrile/water under mildly acidic condition. Read More

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Replacing Soybean Meal with Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles plus Rumen-Protected Lysine and Methionine: Effects on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestion, Rumen Fermentation, and Serum Parameters in Sheep.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Aug 18;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Grassland Agro-Ecosystem, Lanzhou 730020, China.

(1) Background: we investigated the influence of dietary soybean meal (SBM) replaced with distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) plus rumen-protected (RP) lysine and methionine on the growth performance, nutrients digestion, rumen fermentation, and serum parameters of sheep. (2) Methods: ninety sheep were allocated to five groups: the control group (CON) which received the SBM diet, the DDGS group (NSM), the DDGS diet with RP lysine group (DRPL), the DDGS diet with RP methionine group (DRPM), and the DDGS diet with a mixture of RP lysine and methionine group (DRPLM). (3) Results: Final BW and carcass weight of the DRPLM and CON groups were greater ( ≤ 0. Read More

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Application of Apparent Metabolizable Energy versus Nitrogen-Corrected Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Poultry Feed Formulations: A Continuing Conundrum.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 22;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Monogastric Research Centre, School of Agriculture and Environment, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand.

In the present investigation, N retention, AME, and AMEn data from six energy evaluation assays, involving four protein sources (soybean meal, full-fat soybean, rapeseed meal and maize distiller's dried grains with solubles [DDGS]), are reported. The correction for zero N retention, reduced the AME value of soybean meal samples from different origins from 9.9 to 17. Read More

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Effects of replacing wet distillers grains with supplemental SoyPass in forage-based growing cattle diets.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Jul 7;5(3):txab117. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Science, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68583, USA.

One hundred twenty individually fed steers (initial BW 283 kg ± 32) were utilized in an 84-d growing trial to evaluate the effects of increased metabolizable lysine from non-enzymatically browned soybean meal (SoyPass) in grass hay-based diets containing wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS). The treatments were arranged as a 2 × 3 factorial with two levels of protein supplement as 20% (low; DL20) or 35% (high; DL35) of dietary DM using WDGS as the basal protein source, and three increments of SoyPass (SP) replacing 0%, 30%, or 60% of the WDGS DM in the protein supplement yielding six dietary treatments. Average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), gain:feed (G:F), and plasma urea N (PUN) data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 2 × 3 factorial. Read More

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Properties of corn-expressed carbohydrase AC1 in swine diets and its effects on apparent ileal digestibility, performance, hematology, and serum chemistry.

Heliyon 2021 Aug 2;7(8):e07696. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Agrivida, Inc., 78E Olympia Avenue, Woburn, MA, USA.

Carbohydrases are often incorporated into livestock feed as digestive aids to improve animal performance. AC1 is a thermostable carbohydrase with β-1,4-glucanase, endo-cellulase, and cellobiohydrolase activity. AC1 has been expressed in corn, where it accumulates in the grain for easy inclusion in animal diets. Read More

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Green Composites from a Bioplastic Blend of Poly(3-hyroxybutyrate--3-hydroxyvalerate) and Carbon Dioxide-Derived Poly(propylene carbonate) and Filled with a Corn Ethanol-Industry Co-product.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 29;6(31):20103-20111. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Bioproducts Discovery and Development Centre, Department of Plant Agriculture, Crop Science Building, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada.

Sustainable green composites were engineered from distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product from the corn ethanol industry as a sustainable filler in bioplastic matrices made from a carbon dioxide-derived poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) and poly(3-hyroxybutyrate--3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) blend. The effect of water-washed DDGS (15 and 25 wt %) on the properties of injection-molded green composites from PHBV/PPC blends (60/40) and (40/60) and DDGS without and with peroxide (0.5 phr) has been investigated. Read More

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Determining the effects of manganese source and level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 13;5(2):txab067. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Mn source and level on finishing pig growth performance and carcass characteristics. Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with main effects of Mn source (MnSO; Eurochem, Veracruz, Mexico, or Mn hydroxychloride (IBM); Micronutrients, Indianapolis, IN) and increasing added Mn (8, 16, and 32 mg/kg of complete diet). The trace mineral premix was formulated without added Mn. Read More

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Effects of feeding corn distillers dried grains with solubles diets without or with supplemental enzymes on growth performance of pigs: a meta-analysis.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 15;5(2):txab029. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effects of the dietary energy system (net energy or metabolizable energy), oil content of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (cDDGS), diet inclusion levels, and pig age on growth performance of pigs fed cDDGS-based diets. Mean differences of average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain:feed (G:F) were calculated and expressed as a percentage change relative to feeding corn-soybean meal (SBM)- and cDDGS-based diets to nursery [body weight (BW) < 25 kg] and growing-finishing (BW > 25 kg) pigs, and to compare the effects of supplementing various types of exogenous enzymes without or with phytase on growth performance. A total of 27 studies with 106 growth performance observations were included in the cDDGS dataset, and 34 studies with 84 observations for enzyme responses in cDDGS diets were used in the enzyme dataset. Read More

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Improving performance of finishing pigs with added valine, isoleucine, and tryptophan: validating a meta-analysis model.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jan;99(1)

New Fashion Pork, Jackson, MN, USA.

Based on results of a recent meta-analysis, we hypothesized that increased dietary Val, Ile, or Trp could correct possible amino acid interactions because of excess Leu in diets containing high levels of corn protein, namely dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 1,200 pigs (PIC TR4 × (Fast LW × PIC L02); initially 33.6 ± 0. Read More

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January 2021

Physicochemical characterisation of kafirins extracted from sorghum grain and dried distillers grain with solubles related to their biomaterial functionality.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15204. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA, 6845, Australia.

Kafirin, the hydrophobic prolamin storage protein in sorghum grain is enriched when the grain is used for bioethanol production to give dried distillers grain with solubles (DGGS) as a by-product. There is great interest in DDGS kafirin as a new source for biomaterials. There is however a lack of fundamental understanding of how the physicochemical properties of DDGS kafirin having been exposed to the high temperature conditions during ethanol production, compare to kafirin made directly from the grain. Read More

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Estimation of endogenous intestinal losses of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in growing and finishing pigs using the linear regression method.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 6;5(2):txab080. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011.

The approach of this experiment was to apply the regression method for the estimation of endogenous intestinal losses of ether extract (EEE) when pigs are fed complete diets ad libitum and using dietary levels of fat typical of those employed in commercial situations. A total of 40 gilts (PIC 337 sires × C22 or C29) were allotted to individual pens and randomly assigned to diets (8 pigs per treatment) with 5 different levels of acid hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE). The dietary treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal diet with no added fat (L1); a corn-soy diet with 6% each of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ meal, and wheat middlings (L2); the L2 diet but with 12% each of corn DDGS, corn germ meal, and wheat middlings (L3); the L2 diet plus soybean oil to equalize the NE concentration of the L2 diet with L1 (L4); and the L3 diet plus soybean oil to equalize the NE concentration of the L3 diet with L1 (L5). Read More

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Effect of feeding corn distillers dried grains with solubles naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol on growth performance, meat quality, intestinal permeability, and utilization of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 26;100(8):101215. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Animal Science and Technology, Chung-Ang University, Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do 17546, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) naturally contaminated with deoxynivalenol (DON) on growth performance, meat quality, intestinal permeability, and utilization of energy and nutrients in broiler chickens. Two trials (growth and metabolism trials) were conducted. In the growth trial, a total of four hundred 7-day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments with 8 replicates in a completely randomized design. Read More

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Impact of fiber on growth, plasma, gastrointestinal and excreta attributes in broiler chickens and turkey poults fed corn- or wheat-based diets with or without multienzyme supplement.

Poult Sci 2021 Aug 28;100(8):101219. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Animal Biosciences, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. Electronic address:

Effects of fiber on growth performance, gizzard attributes, ileal digesta viscosity, plasma uric acid (PUA) and excreta characteristics were investigated in broiler chickens (experiment 1) and turkey poults (experiment 2) fed corn or wheat-based diets with or without multienzyme supplement (MES). Fibrous diets were created by adding 10% corn distillers dried grains with solubles or wheat middlings in corn or wheat-based diets, respectively. The MES had main activities of xylanase and β-glucanase. Read More

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Effect of exogenous glucoamylase inclusion on in vitro fermentation and growth performance of feedlot steers fed a dry-rolled corn-based diet.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 10;5(2):txab082. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

The objective was to evaluate the effect of adding an exogenous glucoamylase (GA) enzyme from the fungus on in vitro fermentation, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed a dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diet. Experiment 1 evaluated three levels of added enzyme (0, 0.24, and 0. Read More

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Bacterial communities in the rumen and feces of lactating Holstein dairy cows are not affected when fed reduced-fat dried distillers' grains with solubles.

Animal 2021 Jul 19;15(7):100281. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA. Electronic address:

Reduced-fat dried distillers' grains with solubles (RF-DDGSs) are co-products of ethanol production and contain less fat than traditional distillers' grains. The fat in corn is ~91% unsaturated, and it is toxic to rumen microorganisms so it could influence the composition of the rumen microbiome. It has been demonstrated that RF-DDGS is a suitable ration ingredient to support the high-producing dairy cow, and this feedstuff is a promising alternative protein source for lactating dairy cows. Read More

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A novel analytical strategy for discriminating antibiotic mycelial residue adulteration in feed based on ATR-IR and microscopic infrared imaging.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2021 Nov 9;261:120060. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

College of Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083, PR China. Electronic address:

The Antibiotic mycelial residue (AMR) contains antibiotic residue, there are safety risks if it is used illegally in feed. This study investigated the feasibility of qualitative identification of AMR in protein feed and self-prepared feed based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectrum (ATR-IR) and microscopic infrared imaging. Cottonseed meal (CM), soybean meal (SM), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), nucleotide residue (NR), oxytetracycline residue (OR) and streptomycin sulfate residue (SR) and two self-prepared feed (broiler and pig) were used as research objects. Read More

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November 2021

Modulation of jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in relation to intestinal health and nutrient digestibility in pigs by supplementation of β-glucanase to corn-soybean meal-based diets with xylanase.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul;99(7)

Department of Animal Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of β-glucanase on the modulation of jejunal mucosa-associated microbiota in relation to nutrient digestibility and intestinal health of pigs fed diets with 30% corn distiller's dried grains with solubles and xylanase. Forty pigs at 12.4 ± 0. Read More

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Evaluation of Enogen Feed Corn on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 16;5(2):txab052. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of Agriculture, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506-0201, USA.

Enogen Feed Corn (; Syngenta Seeds, LLC, Downers Grove, IL) hybrids contain a trait for expression of heat-stable α-amylase in the grain. α-Amylase is an enzyme responsible for breakdown of starch in the small intestine; supplementation of exogenous α-amylase to pigs may result in greater starch digestibility and thus improved gain efficiency. A total of 288 pigs (Line 600 × 241, DNA, Columbus, NE; initially 41. Read More

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A review: nutrition and process attributes of corn in pet foods.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jun 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.

Corn is one of the largest cereal crops worldwide and plays an important role in the U.S. economy. Read More

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Corn protein has greater concentrations of digestible amino acids and energy than low-oil corn distillers dried grains with solubles when fed to pigs but does not affect the growth performance of weanling pigs.

J Anim Sci 2021 Jul;99(7)

Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA.

Three experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in a new source of corn protein are greater than in corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and that corn protein may be included in diets for weanling pigs. In experiment 1, the SID of AA was determined in two sources of DDGS (DDGS-1 and DDGS-2) and in corn protein. Results indicated that SID of most AA was greater (P < 0. Read More

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Growth performance and carcass quality are not different between pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented low-oil DDGS and pigs fed conventional DDGS, but pelleting improves gain to feed ratio regardless of source of DDGS.

J Anim Sci 2021 Aug;99(8)

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana 61801, IL, USA.

The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that growth performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed diets containing cold-fermented, low oil distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) is not different from that of pigs fed diets containing conventional DDGS regardless of the physical form of the diets. A total of 160 barrows and gilts were used. There were 4 diets, 10 pens per diet, and 4 pigs per pen. Read More

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Determination of in vitro dry matter, protein, and fiber digestibility and fermentability of novel corn coproducts for swine and ruminants.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 19;5(2):txab055. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.

New processes are being used in some dry-grind ethanol plants in the United States and Brazil to improve ethanol yield and efficiency of production while also providing nutritionally enhanced corn coproducts compared with conventional corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The objectives of this study were to determine the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of 5 conventional corn DDGS sources and 10 emerging novel corn coproducts for swine and ruminants, and compare coproducts produced using similar processes in the United States and Brazil. Chemical composition, on a dry matter (DM) basis, among the 15 coproducts ranged from 18. Read More

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Evaluation of nitrogen-delivery methods for stocker cattle grazing annual ryegrass.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 19;5(2):txab048. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Animal Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate efficacy of nitrogen (N) fertilization, interseeded legumes, and protein supplementation for N delivery to stocker cattle grazing annual ryegrass (). Each year, 90 steers (initial BW, 241 ± 13 kg) were assigned to the following N-delivery methods, with or without monensin fed in a free-choice mineral supplement as a 5 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: ryegrass fertilized with 112 kg N/ha (NFERT); ryegrass interseeded with crimson clover (CC, ); ryegrass interseeded with arrowleaf clover (AC, ); ryegrass plus distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented at 0.65% BW daily; and ryegrass plus whole cottonseed (WCS) supplemented at 0. Read More

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Evaluation of high-protein distillers dried grains on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

Transl Anim Sci 2021 Apr 1;5(2):txab038. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

ICM, Colwich, KS 67030-0397, USA.

A total of 1,890 growing-finishing pigs (PIC; 359 × 1,050; initially 27.1 kg) were used in a 124-d growth trial to compare the effects of high-protein distillers dried grains (HPDDG; 39% crude protein [CP]) or conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 29% CP) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial with main effects of distillers dried grains source (conventional DDGS or HPDDG) and level (15% or 30%). Read More

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Feeding wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles increases conjugated linoleic acid and unsaturated lipids in ovine milk without adversely affecting milk yield.

J Dairy Res 2021 May 24;88(2):128-133. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Agricultural Sciences, Biotechnology and Food Science, Cyprus University of Technology, Limassol, Cyprus.

The aim of this research communication was to examine the effect of dietary supplementation with wheat-based dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of bioethanol production, on yield, composition, and fatty acid (FA) profile of ewe milk. Forty-five purebred mid-lactating Chios ewes (average milk yield 2.23 kg/d in 96 ± 5 d in lactation) were offered three iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets (15 animals per diet) for a 10 d adaptation period followed by a 5-week recording and sampling period. Read More

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