525 results match your criteria goals implicit


From Listening to Action: Academic Surgcial Departmental Response to Social Injustice Through Curricular Development.

Ann Surg 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Objectives: To describe the development and evaluation of a structured department wide cultural competency curriculum.

Summary Background Data: Despite numerous organizational policies and statements, social injustice and bias still exists. Our department committed to assist individuals of the entire department to develop foundational knowledge and skills to combat implicit bias and systemic racism through the creation of a cultural competency curriculum. Read More

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Keeping it real: Looking beyond capacity limits in visual cognition.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Oxford Centre for Human Brain Activity, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Research within visual cognition has made tremendous strides in uncovering the basic operating characteristics of the visual system by reducing the complexity of natural vision to artificial but well-controlled experimental tasks and stimuli. This reductionist approach has for example been used to assess the basic limitations of visual attention, visual working memory (VWM) capacity, and the fidelity of visual long-term memory (VLTM). The assessment of these limits is usually made in a pure sense, irrespective of goals, actions, and priors. Read More

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Visual statistical learning is modulated by arbitrary and natural categories.

Psychon Bull Rev 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Delaware, 108 Wolf Hall, Newark, DE, 19716, USA.

Visual statistical learning (VSL) describes the unintentional extraction of statistical regularities from visual environments across time or space, and is typically studied using novel stimuli (e.g., symbols unfamiliar to participants) and using familiarization procedures that are passive or require only basic vigilance. Read More

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"Don't talk to them about goals of care": Understanding disparities in advance care planning.

J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Research on Ethics, Aging, and Community Health (REACH Lab), Tufts University, Medford, MA.

Background: Structurally marginalized groups experience disproportionately low rates of advance care planning (ACP). To improve equitable patient-centered end-of-life care, we examine barriers and facilitators to ACP among clinicians as they are central participants in these discussions.

Methods: In this national study, we conducted semi-structured interviews with purposively selected clinicians from six diverse health systems between August 2018 and June 2019. Read More

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COVID-19 Economic Response and Recovery: A Rapid Scoping Review.

Int J Health Serv 2021 Mar 18:207314211002785. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Bronfman Business Library, York University, Toronto, Canada.

This rapid scoping review of existing evidence and research gaps addressed the following question: what research evidence exists and what are the research gaps at global, regional, and national levels on interventions to protect jobs, small- and medium-sized enterprises, and formal/informal sector workers in socioeconomic response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic? The results are based on 79 publications deemed eligible for inclusion after the screening and prioritizing of 1,658 records. The findings are organized according to the 3 main categories of socioeconomic interventions-protecting jobs, enterprises, and workers-although the 3 are intertwined. Most results were derived from global-level gray literature with recommendations for interventions and implicit links to the sustainable development goals. Read More

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Identifying Ingredient Substitutions Using a Knowledge Graph of Food.

Front Artif Intell 2020 25;3:621766. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, United States.

People can affect change in their eating patterns by substituting ingredients in recipes. Such substitutions may be motivated by specific goals, like modifying the intake of a specific nutrient or avoiding a particular category of ingredients. Determining how to modify a recipe can be difficult because people need to 1) identify which ingredients can act as valid replacements for the original and 2) figure out whether the substitution is "good" for their particular context, which may consider factors such as allergies, nutritional contents of individual ingredients, and other dietary restrictions. Read More

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January 2021

When your goals inspire my goals: the role of effort, personal value, and inference in goal contagion.

Compr Results Soc Psychol 2020 Jun 8;4(1):78-108. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Institute of Psychology, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Just observing other people can influence what we do. Under certain conditions, it inspires us to strive for the same goal as the other person. Such goal contagion occurs, because one first automatically infers the goal and then adopts it for oneself. Read More

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The computational philosophy: simulation as a core philosophical method.

Synthese 2021 Mar 10:1-27. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Philosophy, Carnegie Mellon University, Baker Hall 161, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-3890 USA.

Modeling and computer simulations, we claim, should be considered core philosophical methods. More precisely, we will defend two theses. First, philosophers should use simulations for many of the same reasons we currently use thought experiments. Read More

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Implicit Theories of Intelligence and Achievement Goals: A Look at Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement in Mathematics.

Authors:
Woon Chia Liu

Front Psychol 2021 22;12:593715. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, Singapore.

The present research seeks to utilize Implicit Theories of Intelligence (mindsets) and Achievement Goal Theory to understand students' intrinsic motivation and academic performance in mathematics in Singapore. 1,201 lower-progress stream students (596 males, 580 females, 25 missing data), ages ranged from 13 to 17 years ( = 14.68 years old, = 0. Read More

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February 2021

Towards an interdisciplinary framework about intelligence.

Heliyon 2021 Feb 17;7(2):e06268. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

CIMFAV-Ingemat, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile.

In recent years, advances in science, technology, and the way in which we view our world have led to an increasingly broad use of the term "intelligence". As we learn more about biological systems, we find more and more examples of complex and precise adaptive behavior in animals and plants. Similarly, as we build more complex computational systems, we recognize the emergence of highly sophisticated structures capable of solving increasingly complex problems. Read More

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February 2021

"Know your worth and play it safe:" messages to daughters from Mexican-origin mothers in conversations about dating and romantic relationships.

Cult Health Sex 2021 Mar 4:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Chicana and Chicano Studies Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.

This study aims to enhance understanding of mother-daughter communication about dating and romantic relationships. We explored how Mexican-origin, mostly immigrant mothers talked about these topics with their daughters (ages 13 to 16 years) using videotaped observational methods. Themes drawn from the maternal messages contained in the conversations of 132 mother-daughter dyads show that mothers promote positive decision-making among their daughters, advising them to take their time, choose partners wisely, insist on respect from boys, maintain autonomy in relationships, pursue education goals, and develop a sense of self-worth. Read More

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Effect of Home-based Bimanual Training in Children with Unilateral Cerebral Palsy (The COAD-study): A Case Series.

Dev Neurorehabil 2021 Feb 20:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Care and Public Health Research Institute (CAPHRI), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

: To explore the child- and parent-related effects of home-based bimanual training in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.: Case series of 14 children (2-7 years) who completed goal-oriented task-specific training for 3.5 hours/week for 12 weeks by a program adopting implicit (n = 5) or explicit (n = 9) motor learning. Read More

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February 2021

Motive-Driven Interpersonal Identity Development: Moderating Effects of Perceived Parenting Quality and Sense of Self-Determination.

J Psychol 2021 4;155(2):186-209. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Trier University.

Living and acting in line with one's implicit motives fosters peoples' well-being across a wide array of cultural contexts. Yet, not all individuals commit to goals that reflect their implicit motives. Research points to resources that relate to congruence of implicit and explicit motives. Read More

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Future orientation in successful therapies: Expanding the concept of goal in the working alliance.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: To better understand how therapists facilitate client goal attainment in therapy, we analyzed therapists' future-oriented actions in good outcome cases in which clients recorded high ratings on goal items in the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised.

Method: We selected clients who were within the clinical range (OQ-45.2) at pretreatment, demonstrated reliable change at the end of treatment, and recorded high WAI client goals scores early in treatment. Read More

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January 2021

Implicit Solvation Using the Superposition Approximation (IS-SPA): Extension to Peptides in a Polar Solvent.

J Chem Theory Comput 2021 Feb 11;17(2):703-713. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Chemistry, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078-1010, United States.

Efficient, accurate, and adaptable implicit solvent models remain a significant challenge in the field of molecular simulation. A recent implicit solvent model, IS-SPA, based on approximating the mean solvent force using the superposition approximation, provides a platform to achieve these goals. IS-SPA was originally developed to handle nonpolar solutes in a polar solvent and did not accurately capture polar solvation. Read More

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February 2021

Implicit theories of self-regulated learning: Interplay with students' achievement goals, learning strategies, and metacognition.

Br J Educ Psychol 2020 Dec 28:e12402. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

School of Education, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Windisch, Switzerland.

Background: Implicit theories are important belief systems that influence an individual's motivation and behaviour. In academic contexts, domain-general implicit theories of ability (e.g. Read More

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December 2020

Profiles of Parents' Beliefs About Their Child's Intelligence and Self-Regulation: A Latent Profile Analysis.

Front Psychol 2020 9;11:610262. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Institute of Education Science, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

This study examined parents' implicit theories of intelligence and self-regulation from a person-centered perspective using latent profile analysis. First, we explored whether different belief profiles exist. Second, we examined if the emergent belief profiles (1) differ by demographic variables (e. Read More

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December 2020

Describing Overarching Curricular Goals for Individualized Education.

Teach Learn Med 2020 Dec 23:1-10. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Pediatrics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio, USA.

The phenomenon of individualized education, an essential component of competency-based medical education, addresses individual learner needs while working toward standardized learning outcomes. One challenge with broadly implementing individualized education is the lack of a pragmatic operational definition. To formalize expectations for individualized education, the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education in 2013 began requiring six months of individualized curriculum (IC) during pediatric residency; however, there is not a national standard of formal curricular goals for the IC as an educational entity. Read More

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December 2020

Maternal mortality: beyond overmedicalized solutions.

Authors:
Katie R Allan

Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM 2020 02 27;2(1):100047. Epub 2019 Sep 27.

Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. Electronic address:

Maternal deaths, particularly racial disparities in maternal deaths, represent a deeper problem than their medicalized solutions reflect-one deeply rooted in the devaluation of women's well-being, institutional inequality, and racism. Most policy solutions for addressing maternal mortality involve actionable goals within the purview of healthcare providers, medical institutions, and insurance providers. Although we should continue studying the causes of maternal mortality through maternal mortality review committees, reducing racism in medicine with implicit bias training, and standardizing pregnancy care, there is a pressing need to challenge the processes and institutions that lead to health inequities. Read More

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February 2020

Of Great Apes and Magpies: Initiations into Animal Behaviour.

Authors:
Gisela Kaplan

Animals (Basel) 2020 Dec 10;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 10.

School of Science & Technology, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia.

This paper presents three case studies of exceptional human encounters with animals. These particular examples were selected because they enabled analysis of the underlying reasons that led the human participants to respond in new ways to their animal counterparts. The question asked here is whether sudden insights into the needs and abilities of an animal arises purely from an anthropocentric position as empathy because of genetic closeness (e. Read More

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December 2020

Analysis goals, error-cost sensitivity, and analysis hacking: Essential considerations in hypothesis testing and multiple comparisons.

Authors:
Sander Greenland

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2021 Jan 2;35(1):8-23. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Department of Statistics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

The "replication crisis" has been attributed to perverse incentives that lead to selective reporting and misinterpretations of P-values and confidence intervals. A crude fix offered for this problem is to lower testing cut-offs (α levels), either directly or in the form of null-biased multiple comparisons procedures such as naïve Bonferroni adjustments. Methodologists and statisticians have expressed positions that range from condemning all such procedures to demanding their application in almost all analyses. Read More

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January 2021

Combining the theory of change and realist evaluation approaches to elicit an initial program theory of the MomConnect program in South Africa.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2020 11 26;20(1):282. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Division of Health Systems and Public Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa.

Background: One of the Sustainable Development Goals is to reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births by 2030. In South Africa, the flagship National Department of Health MomConnect program was launched in 2014 to strengthen the quality of maternal and child health (MCH) services and improve mortality outcomes. MomConnect was rapidly rolled out with a limited understanding of how and why the program was expected to work even though studies had shown the effectiveness of the MomConnect program in improving the uptake of MCH services. Read More

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November 2020

Implicit associations of teleology and essentialism concepts with genetics concepts among secondary school students.

PLoS One 2020 20;15(11):e0242189. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

University Teacher Training Institute (IUFE), University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

In this article, we present the development and validation of an implicit association test for measuring secondary school students' associations between genetics concepts and teleology concepts on the one hand, and between genetics concepts and essentialism concepts on the other hand. In total, 169 students from 16 school classes took part in the study, from January 2018 to May 2018. We investigated the strength of the aforementioned associations and the influence of various covariates such as gender, age, school class, or previous learning of biology on the association of teleology or essentialism concepts with genetics concepts through an analysis of covariance and a multi-level analysis. Read More

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January 2021

An agent based model representation to assess resilience and efficiency of food supply chains.

PLoS One 2020 19;15(11):e0242323. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Trying to meet the Sustainable Development Goals is challenging. Food supply chains may have to become more efficient to meet the increasing food requirement of 10 Billion people by 2050. At the same time, food and nutrition security are at risk from increasingly likely shocks like extreme climate events, market shocks, pandemics, changing consumer preferences, and price volatility. Read More

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December 2020

A systems change framework for evaluating academic equity and inclusion in an Ecology and Evolution Graduate Program.

Ecol Evol 2020 Oct 28;10(20):10922-10929. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Integrative Biology University of Texas at Austin Austin TX USA.

While academia is moving forward in terms of diversifying recruitment of undergraduate and graduate students, diverse representation is still not found across the academic hierarchy. At the graduate level, new discussions are emerging around efforts to improve the experiences of women and underrepresented minorities through inclusive graduate programming. Inclusive graduate programs are that which actively center and prioritize support for diverse experiences, identities, career goals, and perspectives, from recruitment through graduation. Read More

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October 2020

Infants Generalize Beliefs Across Individuals.

Front Psychol 2020 22;11:547680. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Psychology, Concordia University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

It has been argued that infants possess a rich, sophisticated theory of mind (ToM) that is only revealed with tasks based on spontaneous responses. A mature (ToM) implies the understanding that mental states are person specific. Previous studies on infants' understanding of motivational mental states, such as goals and preferences have revealed that, by 9 months of age, infants do not generalize these motivational mental states across agents. Read More

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September 2020

Implicit Affect, Heart Rate Variability, and the Metabolic Syndrome.

Psychosom Med 2021 Jan;83(1):24-32

From the Department of Psychology (Gouin, MacNeil, Booij), Concordia University, Montreal, Canada; Department of Psychological Science (Thayer), University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California; and School of Psychology (Deschênes), University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.

Objective: Greater negative affect has been associated with an increased risk of the metabolic syndrome (METs). However, all studies to date have examined this association using explicit affect measures based on subjective ratings of emotional experiences. Prior studies suggest that implicit affect, representing the automatic, prereflective appraisal process involved in conscious emotional experiences, is associated with physiological stress responses independent of explicit affect. Read More

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January 2021

A Bottom-Up Validation of the IAPS, GAPED, and NAPS Affective Picture Databases: Differential Effects on Behavioral Performance.

Front Psychol 2020 4;11:2187. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Psychological, Health and Territorial Sciences, University of Chieti, Chieti, Italy.

The concept of emotion is a complex neural and psychological phenomenon, central to the organization of human social behavior. As the result of subjective experience, emotions involve bottom-up cognitive styles responsible for efficient adaptation of human behavior to the environment based on salient goals. Indeed, bottom-up cognitive processes are mandatory for clarifying emotion-cognition interactions. Read More

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September 2020

Equity on the frontlines of trauma surgery: An #EAST4ALL roundtable.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 01;90(1):129-136

From the Division of Trauma (L.T.), Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada; Acute Care Surgery(A.M.D.), University of California San Francisco Fresno, Fresno, California; Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care (S.B.), Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, New Jersey; Division of Trauma, Critical Care, Burns, and Emergency General Surgery, Department of Surgery (E.S.T.), MetroHealth Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio; R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center (B.B.), University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; Trauma, Critical Care, Burn and Emergency Surgery (B.J.), University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, Arizona; Section for Trauma and Acute Care Surgery (B.H.W., T.L.Z.), The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois; Department of Surgery (D.S.), University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California; CEO Wake Forest Baptist Health, Dean Wake Forest School of Medicine (J.E.F.), Winston-Salem, North Carolina; Division of Trauma, Critical Care and Emergency of Surgery (N.G.), NYU Langone, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Surgery (C.K.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio; Department of Trauma, Surgical Critical Care and Injury Prevention (E.K.), Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack University Medical Center, Hackensack, New Jersey; Division of Acute and Critical Care Surgery (M.H.), Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri; Division of Trauma (R.G.), University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama; Division of Trauma Surgery and Critical Care (R.R.), DeWitt Daughtry Family Department of Surgery, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida; Division of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery (DA.J.), NYU Winthrop Hospital & NYU Long Island School of Medicine, Mineola, New York; Acute Care Surgery (A.B.), University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, Kentucky.

Background: Inequity exists in surgical training and the workplace. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma (EAST) Equity, Quality, and Inclusion in Trauma Surgery Ad Hoc Task Force (EAST4ALL) sought to raise awareness and provide resources to combat these inequities.

Methods: A study was conducted of EAST members to ascertain areas of inequity and lack of inclusion. Read More

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January 2021

Delineating implicit and explicit processes in neurofeedback learning.

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 11 10;118:681-688. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Consciousness, Cognition and Computation group, Center for Research in Cognition & Neuroscience, Faculty of Psychology and Education, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels, Belgium. Electronic address:

Neurofeedback allows humans to self-regulate neural activity in specific brain regions and is considered a promising tool for psychiatric interventions. Recently, methods have been developed to use neurofeedback implicitly, prompting a theoretical debate on the role of awareness in neurofeedback learning. We offer a critical review of the role of awareness in neurofeedback learning, with a special focus on recently developed neurofeedback paradigms. Read More

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November 2020