127,039 results match your criteria goals


Sacrifices: Costly prosocial behaviors in romantic relationships.

Curr Opin Psychol 2021 Sep 4;44:74-79. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

University of Toronto Mississauga, Canada.

Although previous research has found that prosocial behavior increases personal and relationship well-being, a particularly costly type of prosocial behavior - sacrifice - can sometimes have aversive effects and is the focus of the current review. We consider effects for both the individual who enacts the sacrifice and the recipient. Sacrifice, can take a toll on the giver's well-being, is a mixed blessing for the recipient (when they perceive the sacrifice), and may have some harmful consequences for relationships in the long-run. Read More

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September 2021

Associations of fitness and physical activity with specific abdominal fat depots in children with overweight/obesity.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Institute for Innovation & Sustainable Development in Food Chain (IS-FOOD), Public University of Navarra, Campus de Arrosadía, 31006, Pamplona, Spain.

Objectives: To examine the relationship between physical fitness and physical activity (PA) with specific abdominal fat depots and their potential implications for cardiometabolic risk and insulin resistance (IR) in children with overweight/obesity.

Materials And Methods: A total of 116 children with overweight/obesity (10.7±1. Read More

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September 2021

Post-interval EEG activity is related to task-goals in temporal discrimination.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(9):e0257378. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Center for Mathematics, Computing and Cognition Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), São Bernardo do Campo, SP, Brazil.

Studies investigating the neural mechanisms of time perception often measure brain activity while participants perform a temporal task. However, several of these studies are based exclusively on tasks in which time is relevant, making it hard to dissociate activity related to decisions about time from other task-related patterns. In the present study, human participants performed a temporal or color discrimination task of visual stimuli. Read More

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September 2021

Qualitative Research in Veterinary Medical Education: Part 2-Carrying Out Research Projects.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 Oct;48(5):519-527

This is the second of two articles that together comprise an orientation and introduction to qualitative research for veterinary medical educators who may be new to research, or for those whose research experience is based on the quantitative traditions of biomedicine. In the first article (), we explored the types of research interests and goals suited to qualitative inquiry and introduced the concepts of research paradigms and methodologies. In this second article, we move to the strategies and actions involved in conducting a qualitative study, including selection and sampling of research sites and participants, data collection and analysis. Read More

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October 2021

Qualitative Research in Veterinary Medical Education: Part 1-Principles of Qualitative Design.

J Vet Med Educ 2021 Oct;48(5):511-518

Qualitative methodologies are relative newcomers to health sciences education research. While they may look very different to their quantitative counterparts in terms of size and scope, when well-applied they offer a fresh perspective and generate valuable research findings. Although qualitative research is being increasingly conducted in veterinary medical education, there are few contextualized resources to assist those who would like to develop their expertise in this area. Read More

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October 2021

The push-and-pull of frenemies: When and why ambivalent relationships lead to helping and harming.

J Appl Psychol 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

College of Business, Lehigh University.

We integrated theories of social exchange and emotional ambivalence to explain how ambivalent relationships influence interpersonally directed helping and harming behaviors. Using multiple methodologies, including a study of student teams, an experiment, and a quasifield study of retail employees, we compared ambivalent relationships with positive and negative relationships. Our three studies provide convergent evidence that ambivalent relationships with coworkers are positively related to both helping and harming behaviors. Read More

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September 2021

How to use a multicriteria comparison procedure to improve modeling competitions: A comment on Erev et al. (2017).

Psychol Rev 2021 Oct;128(5):995-1005

Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University.

Modeling competitions are a promising method for advancing psychological science. In this commentary to Erev et al. (Psychological Review, 2017, 124, p. Read More

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October 2021

Data-driven approaches to executive function performance and structure in aging: Integrating person-centered analyses and machine learning risk prediction.

Neuropsychology 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute, University of Alberta.

Executive function (EF) performance and structure in nondemented aging are frequently examined with variable-centered approaches. Person-centered analytics can contribute unique information about classes of persons by simultaneously considering EF performance and structure. The risk predictors of these classes can then be determined by machine learning technology. Read More

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September 2021

A general architecture for modeling the dynamics of goal-directed motivation and decision-making.

Psychol Rev 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

School of Psychological Sciences.

We present a unified model of the dynamics of goal-directed motivation and decision-making. The model-referred to as the GOAL architecture-provides a quantitative framework for integrating theories of goal pursuit and for relating their predictions to different types of data. The GOAL architecture proposes that motivation changes over time according to three gradients that capture the effects of the distance to the goal (i. Read More

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September 2021

Construct validation of narrative coherence: Exploring links with personality functioning and psychopathology.

Personal Disord 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Psychology.

Narrative coherence serves as an index of the unity in an individual's sense of self-integrating their past self with their present self and allowing them to pursue meaningful goals for their future. It has been assessed using the Life Story Interview. Personality functioning is used to describe an individual's ability to develop stable and integrated representations of the self and others as well as their ability to develop and maintain stable, intimate, and affiliative relationships and meaningfully empathize with others. Read More

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September 2021

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness of Insurance Requirements for Supervised Weight Loss Prior to Bariatric Surgery.

Obes Surg 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

Department of Surgery, Washington University, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Many insurance plans impose strict criteria mandating preoperative weight loss attempts to limit patient's access to surgery. Preoperative acute weight loss has been hypothesized to reduce perioperative risk and to identify compliant patients who may have improved long-term weight loss. In this review, the evidence from studies examining clinical and weight loss outcomes both with and without preoperative weight loss are summarized. Read More

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September 2021

Evolution of infant mortality in Chile and how it has been reflected in scientific publications between 1980 and 2019.

Arch Argent Pediatr 2021 Oct;119(5):339-348

Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

Introduction: One of the Millennium Development Goals is to reduce the child mortality rate (CMR), an indicator still present in the Sustainable Development Goals (2015-2030). At the same time, scientific investigations and reports were necessary to assess the behavior of the infant mortality rate (IMR) and the effectiveness of interventions to approach it.

Objective: To describe IMR behavior in Chile and how it has been reflected in the scientific publications made in the 1980-2019 period. Read More

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October 2021

Are We on the Same Page?: A Cross-Sectional Study of Patient-Clinician Goal Concordance in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Objective: Patient-clinician goal concordance is associated with improved outcomes in certain chronic diseases, but not explored in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We examined goal concordance, correlates of concordance, and the association of concordance with health outcomes.

Methods: Adult RA patients seen ≥1 time in prior 12 months at one of two rheumatology clinics participated. Read More

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September 2021

Heat Shock Proteins as Targets for Novel Antimalarial Drug Discovery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2021 ;1340:205-236

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.

Plasmodium falciparum, the parasitic agent that is responsible for a severe and dangerous form of human malaria, has a history of long years of cohabitation with human beings with attendant negative consequences. While there have been some gains in the fight against malaria through the application of various control measures and the use of chemotherapeutic agents, and despite the global decline in malaria cases and associated deaths, the continual search for new and effective therapeutic agents is key to achieving sustainable development goals. An important parasite survival strategy, which is also of serious concern to the scientific community, is the rate at which the parasites continually develop resistance to drugs. Read More

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January 2021

Rapid Degradation of the Electrical Properties of 2D MoS Thin Films under Long-Term Ambient Exposure.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 9;6(37):24075-24081. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

NanoScience Technology Center and Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32826, United States.

The MoS thin film has attracted a lot of attention due to its potential applications in flexible electronics, sensors, catalysis, and heterostructures. Understanding the effect of long-term ambient exposure on the electrical properties of the thin film is important for achieving many overreaching goals of this material. Here, we report for the first time a systematic study of electrical property variation and stability of MoS thin films under ambient exposure of up to a year. Read More

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September 2021

A New Look at Vaccine Strategies Against PPRV Focused on Adenoviral Candidates.

Front Vet Sci 2021 8;8:729879. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal (CISA-INIA-CSIC), Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Madrid, Spain.

Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is a virus that mainly infects goats and sheep causing significant economic loss in Africa and Asia, but also posing a serious threat to Europe, as recent outbreaks in Georgia (2016) and Bulgaria (2018) have been reported. In order to carry out the eradication of PPRV, an objective set for 2030 by the Office International des Epizooties (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), close collaboration between governments, pharmaceutical companies, farmers and researchers, among others, is needed. Today, more than ever, as seen in the response to the SARS-CoV2 pandemic that we are currently experiencing, these goals are feasible. Read More

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September 2021

μRALP and Beyond: Micro-Technologies and Systems for Robot-Assisted Endoscopic Laser Microsurgery.

Front Robot AI 2021 8;8:664655. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.

Laser microsurgery is the current gold standard surgical technique for the treatment of selected diseases in delicate organs such as the larynx. However, the operations require large surgical expertise and dexterity, and face significant limitations imposed by available technology, such as the requirement for direct line of sight to the surgical field, restricted access, and direct manual control of the surgical instruments. To change this status quo, the European project μRALP pioneered research towards a complete redesign of current laser microsurgery systems, focusing on the development of robotic micro-technologies to enable endoscopic operations. Read More

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September 2021

Financial Risk Protection for Neurosurgical Care in Indonesia and the Philippines: A Primer on Health Financing for the Global Neurosurgeon.

Front Surg 2021 10;8:690851. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Section of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Jose R. Reyes Memorial Medical Center, Manila, Philippines.

Which conditions treated by neurosurgeons cause the worst economic hardship in low middle-income in countries? How can public health financing be responsive to the inequities in the delivery of neurosurgical care? This review article frames the objectives of equity, quality, and efficiency in health financing to the goals of global neurosurgery. In order to glean provider perspectives on the affordability of neurosurgical care in low-resource settings, we did a survey of neurosurgeons from Indonesia and the Philippines and identified that the care of socioeconomically disadvantaged patients with malignant intracranial tumors were found to incur the highest out-of-pocket expenses. Additionally, the surveyed neurosurgeons also observed that treatment of traumatic brain injury may have to require greater financial subsidies. Read More

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September 2021

Accuracy of three different customized lingual orthodontic appliance systems in achieving predicted results on maxillary anterior teeth: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

J Orthod Sci 2021 4;10:15. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

MDS Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Professor, European University, Dubai.

Objective: To comparatively evaluate the ability of three different customized lingual appliance systems in achieving predicted results with respect to the mesiodistal crown tip, labiolingual crown inclination, in-out position of Maxillary permanent anterior teeth, and Maxillary arch form.

Methods: Three commercial houses: Incognito, iLingual 3D, and Lingual matrix were analysed in this study. The final sample size consisted of 42 cases. Read More

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Access to oral & maxillofacial surgery in Sub-Saharan African countries.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2021 Oct-Dec;11(4):608-611. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Instituto Maxilofacial y Dental, Hospital Universitario San Francisco de Asís, Madrid, Spain.

In many regions of Africa, and especially in rural areas, basic health services are scarce, access to general surgery very difficult and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery non-existent. In these regions, patients with pathologies in the maxillofacial area, whether malformations, tumours, infections, trauma, etc., do not have the possibility of receiving any treatment, and the mortality rate from any of these pathologies is very high. Read More

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September 2021

Comprehensive Analysis of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Sichuan Dark Tea ().

Front Microbiol 2021 10;12:735618. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Food Engineering, Yibin University, Yibin, China.

Bacteria and fungi present during pile-fermentation of Sichuan dark tea play a key role in the development of its aesthetic properties, such as color, taste, and fragrance. In our previous study, high-throughput sequencing of dark tea during fermentation revealed was abundant, but scarce knowledge is available about bacterial communities during pile-fermentation. In this study, we rigorously explored bacterial diversity in Sichuan dark tea at each specific stage of piling. Read More

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September 2021

Communication, Social Networks and Sustainable Development Goals: A Reflection From the Perspective of Social Marketing and Happiness Management in the General Elections in Spain.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:743361. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Economy Department, University Politecnic Salesian of Ecuador, Cuenca, Ecuador.

The challenges imposed by the global development agenda imply reflecting on the role and contribution of political parties to development processes in the online environment. Social networks have been characterised as a part of the strategies of political campaigns, as it allows political leaders to establish bidirectional communication with citizens. In this context, the present study aims to empirically explore the leading Spanish political formations' publications from a social marketing perspective. Read More

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September 2021

The Influence of Autonomy-Supportive Teaching on EFL Students' Classroom Autonomy: An Experimental Intervention.

Authors:
Fakieh Alrabai

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:728657. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of English, Faculty of Languages and Translation, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Based on the framework of self-determination theory (SDT), this two-wave longitudinal empirical investigation examined the actual practicality of certain strategies that have been theoretically acknowledged as having potential positive effect on English as a foreign language (EFL) learner's autonomy. Strategies targeting learners' self-determined learning in the classroom in terms of satisfying learner basic psychological needs (BPNs) of autonomy, competence, and relatedness as well as SDT key concepts, such as learner sense of choice, intrinsic motivation, control over learning, goals and needs, and metacognitive skills, were implemented in a treatment group for 12weeks. A classroom observation was used to evaluate teachers' autonomy-supportive teaching and a student self-report measure, and an observation were used to assess learners' autonomy. Read More

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September 2021

Peer Group Embeddedness and Academic Motivation: A Developmental Perspective.

Authors:
Marion Reindl

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:701600. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Educational Science, Paris Lodron University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria.

The present study focused on the increasing importance of peer group embeddedness on domain-specific academic motivation (intrinsic value and mastery goals) over the course of early adolescence. In this regard, two important research questions were investigated: (1) Does a change in peer group embeddedness influence a change in student intrinsic value and mastery goals? (2) Does this influence increase over the course of early adolescence? The research questions were investigated based on a five-wave longitudinal study over two school years (seventh and eighth grade) in Germany. The final sample comprised 349 students. Read More

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September 2021

Effects of Attribute Affirmation and Achievement Goals on High School Students' Motivation.

Front Psychol 2021 24;12:661668. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Counseling Psychology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

Researchers have suggested that receiving attribute affirmation (AA) may increase the motivation of students to confront a challenge. However, we posited that to determine whether AA increases the motivation of students to confront a challenging task, we must consider dispositional achievement goals of the students. The participants were 171 junior-high-school students, randomly assigned to an AA or no affirmation condition. Read More

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Examining Approach and Avoidance Valences of the 3 X 2 Achievement Goal Types on an Engineering Student Sample: A Validity Approach.

Front Psychol 2021 9;12:628004. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, United States.

Development of the 3 × 2 achievement goal questionnaire (AGQ) advanced approach and avoidance goals in three goal types within the achievement goal framework: task-, self-, and other-based. The purpose of the present study was to examine empirical support for the construct validity, reliability, and measurement invariance of factors on the questionnaire and compare model fit of the 3 × 2 configuration to other alternatives. In addition to validating some of the findings reported in earlier studies, especially the inclusion of task-based goal orientations, the study highlights a limitation and potential boundary of the 3 × 2 AGQ. Read More

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September 2021

Evidence for a Cultural Mindset: Combining Process Data, Theory, and Simulation.

Front Psychol 2021 10;12:596246. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Educational Testing Service, Princeton, NJ, United States.

Despite large literature on Cross-Cultural Competence (3C) there is a gap in understanding learning processes and mechanisms by which people arrive at successful 3C. We present a novel perspective for 3C learning and decision-making in innovative assessment contexts. We use Mindset theory (i. Read More

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September 2021

Research by Psychiatric Trainees and Early Career Psychiatrists-Results of a Survey From 34 Countries in Europe.

Front Psychiatry 2021 10;12:718669. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Clinical psychiatric practice should be intricately linked with research work. Although psychiatric trainees and early career psychiatrists (ECPs) are in the frontline of clinical services, little is known about how much access they have to research opportunities. A semi-structured questionnaire of 35 questions-exploring research goals achieved, facilitators and barriers as well as personal context-was sent to psychiatric trainees and ECPs across Europe. Read More

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September 2021

Efficacy of a Single-Task ERP Measure to Evaluate Cognitive Workload During a Novel Exergame.

Front Hum Neurosci 2021 8;15:742384. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Rehabilitation Innovation Centre, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

This study aimed to validate the efficacy of single-task event-related potential (ERP) measures of cognitive workload to be implemented in exergame-based rehabilitation. Twenty-four healthy participants took part in a novel gamified balance task where task-irrelevant auditory tones were presented in the background to generate ERPs in the participants' electroencephalogram (EEG) as a measure of cognitive workload. For the balance task, a computer-based tilt-ball game was combined with a balance board. Read More

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September 2021

Transitioning to Nurse Leadership Roles in Nontraditional Settings.

Nurse Lead 2021 Oct 23;19(5):456-460. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

The COVID-19 pandemic prompted many people, nurses included, to re-evaluate their professional and personal priorities and goals. Nurse leaders have the opportunity to draw on their portfolio of experiences, strengths, insights, and accomplishments and apply them to alternative non-hospital-based leadership roles that are less well known but in just as high demand. This article describes how nurse leaders can align their experience and expertise with their personal and career goals as they explore career opportunities in nontraditional settings. Read More

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October 2021