319 results match your criteria gng


Consistent evidence of indirect effects of impulsive delay discounting and negative urgency between childhood adversity and adult substance use in two samples.

Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Peter Boris Centre for Addictions Research, McMaster University & St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, 100 West 5th Street, Hamilton, ON, L8P 3P2, Canada.

Rationale: Exposure to adverse life experiences (ACEs) is robustly associated with problematic alcohol and other drug use. In addition, both ACEs and substance use have been independently associated with impulsivity.

Objective: To examine whether impulsivity is implicated in the link between ACE and adult substance use in two samples. Read More

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Invited Response on: "Efficacy and Safety of Lyophilized Articular Cartilage Matrix as an Injectable Facial Filler".

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Banpo-daero 222, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

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Distinct Patterns of Impaired Cognitive Control Among Boys and Girls with ADHD Across Development.

Res Child Adolesc Psychopathol 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Center for Neurodevelopmental and Imaging Research, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA.

This study examined whether girls and boys with ADHD show similar impairments in cognitive control from childhood into adolescence and the developmental relationship between cognitive control and ADHD symptoms. Participants include 8-17-year-old children with ADHD (n = 353, 104 girls) and typically developing (TD) controls (n = 241, 86 girls) with longitudinal data obtained from n = 137. Participants completed two go/no-go (GNG) tasks that varied in working memory demand. Read More

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Hemodynamic and behavioral changes in older adults during cognitively demanding dual tasks.

Brain Behav 2021 Mar 8;11(3):e02021. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Introduction: Executive functions play a fundamental role in walking by integrating information from cognitive-motor pathways. Subtle changes in brain and behavior may help identify older adults who are more susceptible to executive function deficits with advancing age due to prefrontal cortex deterioration. This study aims to examine how older adults mitigate executive demands while walking during cognitively demanding tasks. Read More

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Exogenous GLP-1 stimulates TCA cycle and suppresses gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis in late-fasted northern elephant seals pups.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2021 04 6;320(4):R393-R403. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Molecular & Cell Biology, School of Natural Sciences, University of California, Merced, California.

The postweaning fast of northern elephant seal pups is characterized by a lipid-dependent metabolism and associated with a decrease in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and glucose and increased gluconeogenesis (GNG) and ketogenesis. We have also demonstrated that exogenous GLP-1 infusion increased plasma insulin despite simultaneous increases in cortisol and glucagon, which collectively present contradictory regulatory stimuli of GNG, ketogenesis, and glycolysis. To assess the effects of GLP-1 on metabolism using primary carbon metabolite profiles in late-fasted seal pups, we dose-dependently infused late-fasted seals with low (LDG; 10 pM/kg; = 3) or high (HDG; 100 pM/kg; = 4) GLP-1 immediately following a glucose bolus (0. Read More

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In Vivo and In Vitro Quantification of Glucose Kinetics: From Bedside to Bench.

Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) 2020 12 23;35(4):733-749. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Geriatrics, the Center for Translational Research in Aging & Longevity, Donald W. Reynolds Institute on Aging, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

Like other substrates, plasma glucose is in a dynamic state of constant turnover (i.e., rates of glucose appearance [Ra glucose] into and disappearance [Rd glucose] from the plasma) while staying within a narrow range of normal concentrations, a physiological priority. Read More

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December 2020

The impact of preoperative tramadol-only use on outcomes following total knee arthroplasty - Is tramadol different than traditional opioids?

Knee 2021 Jan 23;28:131-138. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Investigation Performed at Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Opioid use prior to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is known to have detrimental influence on postoperative outcomes. Whether or not the same is true for tramadol is currently unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between preoperative tramadol and postoperative complications. Read More

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January 2021

Food reward sensitivity, impulsivity, and weight change during and after a 3-month weight loss program.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(12):e0243530. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, The Miriam Hospital/Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Providence, Rhode Island.

Background: Greater sensitivity to food rewards and higher levels of impulsivity (and an interaction between these variables, termed "reinforcement pathology") have been associated with obesity in cross-sectional studies. Less is known regarding how these constructs may impact attempts at weight loss or longer-term weight loss maintenance.

Methods: We provided 75 adults (69%Female, 84%White, age = 50. Read More

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January 2021

The role of the liver in the modulation of glucose and insulin in non alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2020 12 2;55:165-174. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Cardiometabolic Risk Unit, Institute of Clinical Physiology, CNR, Pisa, Italy; Institute of Life Sciences, Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

In this review we have discussed how the liver plays a central role in the regulation of glucose metabolism and in insulin clearance. Both non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and diabetes (T2D) are characterized by high plasma insulin concentrations, hepatic insulin resistance, high hepatic glucose production (HGP), in particular gluconeogenesis (GNG), that are increased proportionally to fasting hyperglycemia, while postprandial hyperglycemia is due to impaired suppression of HGP by insulin, and reduced hepatic glycogen storage. The liver acts also as a modulator of peripheral insulin since most of insulin secreted by the pancreas is cleared by the liver during the first pass. Read More

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December 2020

Heterotrimeric G-Protein Signaling Is Required for Cellulose Degradation in Neurospora crassa.

mBio 2020 11 24;11(6). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, USA

The filamentous fungus decomposes lignocellulosic biomass to generate soluble sugars as carbon sources. In this study, we investigated a role for heterotrimeric G-protein signaling in cellulose degradation. Loss of the Gα subunit genes and , the Gβ subunit genes and , the Gγ gene , or the gene for downstream effector adenylyl cyclase () resulted in loss of detectable cellulase activity. Read More

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November 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Lyophilized Articular Cartilage Matrix as an Injectable Facial Filler.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2020 Nov 20. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Banpo-daero 222, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 06591, Republic of Korea.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of an injectable lyophilized articular cartilage matrix (LACM) which is in the form of cartilage powder that may increase the convenience of use and become unaffected by donor site morbidity as a potential filler.

Methods: The safety test was conducted using 20 rabbits with an intravascular embolization model. Commonly used commercial hyaluronic acid (HA), acellular dermal matrix (ADM), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and polylactic acid (PLA) products were selected for comparison of efficacy and adverse effect of LACM. Read More

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November 2020

Co‑expression network analysis identified specific miRNAs and genes in association with slow‑transit constipation.

Mol Med Rep 2020 Dec 7;22(6):4696-4706. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Shanghai Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, P.R. China.

The pathogenesis of slow‑transit constipation (STC) remains largely unclear, with the roles of microRNAs (miRs/miRNAs) yet to be determined. Co‑expression network analysis of miRNAs in STC is crucial to elucidating potential underlying mechanisms. Weighted gene correlation network analysis was performed in the miRNA expression profile of STC (GSE57969). Read More

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December 2020

Open-source open-access reaction time test (OORTT): an easy tool to assess reaction times.

Neurol Sci 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Psychology, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza dell'Ateneo Nuovo 1, 20126, Milano, Italy.

The speed of information processing is one of the most reliable indices of cognitive efficiency. The most common way to evaluate this ability is to assess reaction times (RTs). The technical limitations of previous tasks, aimed at measuring RT, have motivated us to develop a new battery for their evaluation. Read More

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October 2020

Do shorter inter-stimulus intervals in the go/no-go task enable better assessment of response inhibition?

Scand J Psychol 2021 Apr 4;62(2):118-124. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Graduate School of Technology, Industrial and Social Sciences, Tokushima University, 1-1, Minamijosanjima-cho, Tokushima, 770-8502, Japan.

Young, Sutherland, and McCoy indicated that a Go/No-Go Task (GNG) becomes more difficult as the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) becomes shorter. However, is the number of commission errors under extremely short ISIs a useful metric for assessing response inhibition? This study challenges the assumption that a shorter ISI in the GNG enables better assessment of response inhibition. University students (N = 213) completed the GNG, the Conners Continuous Performance Test 3rd Edition (CCPT), and the Modified Stroop Task. Read More

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An Adaptive Reference Vector-Guided Evolutionary Algorithm Using Growing Neural Gas for Many-Objective Optimization of Irregular Problems.

IEEE Trans Cybern 2020 Oct 1;PP. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Most reference vector-based decomposition algorithms for solving multiobjective optimization problems may not be well suited for solving problems with irregular Pareto fronts (PFs) because the distribution of predefined reference vectors may not match well with the distribution of the Pareto-optimal solutions. Thus, the adaptation of the reference vectors is an intuitive way for decomposition-based algorithms to deal with irregular PFs. However, most existing methods frequently change the reference vectors based on the activeness of the reference vectors within specific generations, slowing down the convergence of the search process. Read More

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October 2020

Performance on the DANA Brief Cognitive Test Correlates With MACE Cognitive Score and May Be a New Tool to Diagnose Concussion.

Front Neurol 2020 2;11:839. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, United States.

Nearly 380,000 U.S. service members between 2000 and 2017 were, and at least 300,000 athletes annually are, diagnosed with concussion. Read More

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September 2020

Identification of purity and prognosis-related gene signature by network analysis and survival analysis in brain lower grade glioma.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 10 31;24(19):11607-11612. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, P. R. China.

Tumour microenvironment of brain lower grade glioma (LGG) consists of non-tumour cells including stromal cells and immune cells mainly. These non-tumour cells dilute the purity of LGG and play pivotal roles in tumour growth and development, thereby affecting patient prognosis. Tumour purity is also associated with molecular subtypes of LGG. Read More

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October 2020

Biological evaluation and SAR analysis of novel covalent inhibitors against fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase.

Bioorg Med Chem 2020 09 10;28(18):115624. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

International Cooperation Base of Pesticide and Green Synthesis (Hubei), Key Laboratory of Pesticide & Chemical Biology (CCNU), Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China. Electronic address:

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is an attractive target for affecting the GNG pathway. In our previous study, the C128 site of FBPase has been identified as a new allosteric site, where several nitrovinyl compounds can bind to inhibit FBPase activity. Herein, a series of nitrostyrene derivatives were further synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against FBPase were investigated in vitro. Read More

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September 2020

Preoperative opioid use is a risk factor for complication and increased healthcare utilization following revision total knee arthroplasty.

Knee 2020 Aug 26;27(4):1121-1127. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 59 S Executive Park NW, Atlanta, GA 30329, United States of America. Electronic address:

Introduction: Prior literature suggests that opioid use prior to primary arthroplasty procedures results in increased risk for complication. Despite this, it is unknown whether preoperative opioid use increases risk following revision TKA. The purpose of this study was to examine this relationship. Read More

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Development of disulfide-derived fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) covalent inhibitors for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Eur J Med Chem 2020 Oct 15;203:112500. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Mei Long Road, Shanghai, 200237, China. Electronic address:

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), as a key rate-limiting enzyme in the gluconeogenesis (GNG) pathway, represents a practical therapeutic strategy for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our previous work first identified cysteine residue 128 (C128) was an important allosteric site in the structure of FBPase, while pharmacologically targeting C128 attenuated the catalytic ability of FBPase. Herein, ten approved cysteine covalent drugs were selected for exploring FBPase inhibitory activities, and the alcohol deterrent disulfiram displayed superior inhibitory efficacy among those drugs. Read More

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October 2020

Mouse Tracking to Explore Motor Inhibition Processes in Go/No-Go and Stop Signal Tasks.

Brain Sci 2020 Jul 20;10(7). Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Section of Psychology-Department of Neuroscience, Psychology, Drug Research and Child's Health (NEUROFARBA), University of Florence, 50135 Florence, Italy.

Response inhibition relies on both proactive and reactive mechanisms that exert a synergic control on goal-directed actions. It is typically evaluated by the go/no-go (GNG) and the stop signal task (SST) with response recording based on the key-press method. However, the analysis of discrete variables (i. Read More

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Are Fatty Acids Gluconeogenic Precursors?

Authors:
Michael H Green

J Nutr 2020 09;150(9):2235-2238

Department of Nutritional Sciences, College of Health and Human Development, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USA.

It is widely accepted that the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a critical partner for gluconeogenesis (GNG) in hepatocytes. Although researchers in the 1950s showed, using radiolabeled long-chain fatty acids, that acetate derived from fatty acid β-oxidation contributes carbon to glucose, fatty acids are not included on lists of gluconeogenic precursors in many textbooks of biochemistry and nutritional biochemistry. Here, by following the flow of carbon atoms through the mitochondrial TCA cycle and into cytosolic GNG, it is shown that carbons in acetyl-CoA derived from fatty acid β-oxidation will be found in glucose. Read More

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September 2020

Age-Related Changes in the Neural Processes of Reward-Directed Action and Inhibition of Action.

Front Psychol 2020 10;11:1121. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Aging is associated with structural and functional brain changes which may impact the regulation of motivated behaviors, including both action and inhibition of action. As behavioral regulation is often exercised in response to reward, it remains unclear how aging may influence reward-directed action and inhibition of action differently. Here we addressed this issue with the functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 72 participants (aged 21-74) performing a reward go/no-go (GNG) task with approximately 2/3 go and 1/3 no-go trials. Read More

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Improving the surgical consenting process for patients with acute hip fractures: a pilot quality improvement project.

Patient Saf Surg 2020 13;14:26. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Department of Trauma and Orthopaedics, Royal Gwent Hospital, GNG T&O Secretaries Office, Level 5, Cardiff Road, Newport, NP20 2UB Wales.

Background: Consenting patients for trauma procedures following hip fracture is a key stage in the treatment pathway from admission to the operating theatre. Errors in this process can result in delayed procedures which may negatively impact patient recovery. The aim of this project was to identify and reduce errors in our consenting process for patients with capacity. Read More

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Pendant-bearing glucose-neopentyl glycol (P-GNG) amphiphiles for membrane protein manipulation: Importance of detergent pendant chain for protein stabilization.

Acta Biomater 2020 08 6;112:250-261. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, 15588 (Korea). Electronic address:

Glucoside detergents are successfully used for membrane protein crystallization mainly because of their ability to form small protein-detergent complexes. In a previous study, we introduced glucose neopentyl glycol (GNG) amphiphiles with a branched diglucoside structure that has facilitated high resolution crystallographic structure determination of several membrane proteins. Like other glucoside detergents, however, these GNGs were less successful than DDM in stabilizing membrane proteins, limiting their wide use in protein structural study. Read More

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Meta-analysis of the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on inhibitory control.

Brain Stimul 2020 Sep - Oct;13(5):1159-1167. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Psychology, Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, University of Tübingen, Schleichstr. 4, 72076, Tübingen, Germany.

Background: Inhibitory control refers to a central cognitive capacity involved in the interruption and correction of actions. Dysfunctions in these cognitive control processes have been identified as major maintaining mechanisms in a range of mental disorders such as ADHD, binge eating disorder, obesity, and addiction. Improving inhibitory control by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could ameliorate symptoms in a broad range of mental disorders. Read More

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Revisiting the Labial Pit Organ Pathway in the Noctuid Moth, .

Front Physiol 2020 17;11:202. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Chemosensory Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Lepidopteran species detect CO via a specialized organ located on the peripheral segment of the labial palps, the labial palp pit organ (LPO). Based on tracing of LPO sensory neurons targeting one distinct antennal-lobe glomerulus, Kent and her colleagues described the projections originating from the LPO in the sphinx moth as "" already in the 1980 ties. In spite of similar reports from studies of other lepidopteran species, however, it has been an unresolved issue whether additional termination areas of the labial nerve, such as the gnathal ganglion (GNG) and the ventral nerve cord, are actually output sites of LPO neurons. Read More

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Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy Trial for Snoring (PATS): protocol for a randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of adenotonsillectomy in treating mild obstructive sleep-disordered breathing.

BMJ Open 2020 03 15;10(3):e033889. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Division of Sleep Medicine and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Introduction: Mild obstructive sleep-disordered breathing (oSDB), characterised by habitual snoring without frequent apnoeas and hypopnoeas on polysomnography, is prevalent in children and commonly treated with adenotonsillectomy (AT). However, the absence of high-level evidence addressing the role of AT in improving health and behavioural outcomes has contributed to significant geographical variations in care and potential for surgery to be both overused and underused.

Methods And Analysis: The Pediatric Adenotonsillectomy Trial for Snoring (PATS) is a single-blinded, multicentre randomised controlled trial designed to evaluate the effect of AT in treating mild oSDB. Read More

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