43,730 results match your criteria glucose transport

Distinct glycolytic pathway regulation in liver, tumour and skeletal muscle of mice with cancer cachexia.

Cell Biochem Funct 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Energetically inefficient inter-organ substrate shuttles are proposed contributors to cachexia-related weight loss. Here, we examined glycolytic pathway metabolites, enzyme activity and transport proteins in skeletal muscle, liver and tumours of mice with cachexia-related weight loss induced by colon-26 cancer cells. Skeletal muscle of cachexic mice had increased [L-lactate]/[pyruvate], LDH activity and lactate transporter MCT1. Read More

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Comparisons of isomaltulose, sucrose, and mixture of glucose and fructose ingestions on postexercise hydration state in young men.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Advanced Research Institutes, Bourbon Corporation, Niigata, Japan.

Purpose: Isomaltulose is a low glycemic and insulinaemic carbohydrate available as a constituent in sports drink. However, it remains unclear whether postexercise rehydration achieved by isomaltulose drink ingestion alone differs as compared to other carbohydrates.

Methods: Thirteen young men performed intermittent exercise in the heat (35 °C and relative humidity 40%) to induce a state of hypohydration as defined by a 2% loss in body mass. Read More

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An Perfused Macroencapsulation Device to Study Hemocompatibility and Survival of Islet-Like Cell Clusters.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 28;9:674125. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Transplantation of hydrogel-encapsulated pancreatic islets is a promising long-term treatment for type 1 diabetes that restores blood glucose regulation while providing graft immunoprotection. Most human-scale islet encapsulation devices that rely solely on diffusion fail to provide sufficient surface area to meet islet oxygen demands. Perfused macroencapsulation devices use blood flow to mitigate oxygen limitations but increase the complexity of blood-device interactions. Read More

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Construction of coacervate-in-coacervate multi-compartment protocells for spatial organization of enzymatic reactions.

Chem Sci 2020 Aug 7;11(32):8617-8625. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Key Laboratory for Bio-Nanotechnology and Molecular Engineering of Hunan Province, Hunan University Changsha 410082 P. R. China

Coacervate microdroplets, formed liquid-liquid phase separation, have been extensively explored as a compartment model for the construction of artificial cells or organelles. In this study, coacervate-in-coacervate multi-compartment protocells were constructed using four polyelectrolytes, in which carboxymethyl-dextran and diethylaminoethyl-dextran were deposited on the surface of as-prepared polydiallyldimethyl ammonium/deoxyribonucleic acid coacervate microdroplets through layer-by-layer assembly. The resulting multi-compartment protocells were composed from two immiscible coacervate phases with distinct physical and chemical properties. Read More

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Critical requirement of SOS1 RAS-GEF function for mitochondrial dynamics, metabolism, and redox homeostasis.

Oncogene 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Centro de Investigación del Cáncer-Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular del Cáncer (CSIC - Universidad de Salamanca), Salamanca, Spain.

SOS1 ablation causes specific defective phenotypes in MEFs including increased levels of intracellular ROS. We showed that the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO restores normal endogenous ROS levels, suggesting predominant involvement of mitochondria in generation of this defective SOS1-dependent phenotype. The absence of SOS1 caused specific alterations of mitochondrial shape, mass, and dynamics accompanied by higher percentage of dysfunctional mitochondria and lower rates of electron transport in comparison to WT or SOS2-KO counterparts. Read More

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Escherichia coli Dcu C-dicarboxylate transporters dependent proton and potassium fluxes and FF-ATPase activity during glucose fermentation at pH 7.5.

Bioelectrochemistry 2021 Jun 4;141:107867. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoogian str., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia; Scientific-Research Institute of Biology, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoogian str., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia; Microbial Biotechnologies and Biofuel Innovation Center, Yerevan State University, 1 A. Manoogian str., 0025 Yerevan, Armenia. Electronic address:

During fermentation in Escherichia coli succinate is transported via Dcu transporters, encoded dcuA, dcuB, dcuC and dcuD although the role of DcuD protein has not been elucidated yet. It has been shown contribution of Dcu transporters in the N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) sensitive proton and potassium transport through the cytoplasmic membrane and membrane-associated ATPase activity. Total H efflux was decreased ~ 40% while K uptake was absent in dcuD mutant. Read More

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Beneficial effect of the methanolic leaf extract of Allium hookeri on stimulating glutathione biosynthesis and preventing impaired glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jun 9:108961. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Chemical Biology Lab, Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology (IASST) Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati, 35, India; Assam Down Town University, Panikhaiti, Assam, 781068, India. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress resulting from the depletion of glutathione (GSH) level plays a vital role in generating various degenerative diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). We tested the hypothesis that depleted glutathione levels can be enhanced and the impaired glucose metabolism can be prevented by supplementing Allium hookeri, a herb rich in organosulfur compounds, in a High Fat (HF) diet-induced T2D Male Sprague Dawley rat model. The experimental rats were divided into three groups (n = 6), namely normal diet, high-fat diet, and high-fat diet treated with A. Read More

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Monitoring the mechanism of anti-cancer agents to inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation: Enzymatic biosensing of glucose combined with molecular docking.

Enzyme Microb Technol 2021 Aug 21;148:109804. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran.

Glucose, a major energy source in cellular metabolism, has a significant role in cell growth. The increase in glucose uptake is a distinguishing hallmark in cancer cells. A key step in glucose utilization is the transport of glucose to the cancer cells for supplying their additional energy. Read More

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MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem decorated 3D hollow fiber membranes for in-situ blood separation and biosensing array.

Biosens Bioelectron 2021 Jun 5;190:113413. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China. Electronic address:

Modified metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) doping with enzymes exhibit high enzyme stability and catalytic performance, which is a research hotspot in the field of enzyme-based sensing. Although the MOF-enzyme constitutes a 3D structure in the nanoscale, the macroscopic assembly configuration still stays in 1D or 2D structures, limiting sensing applications towards complex biological targets. Herein, the MOF-enzyme hybrid nanosystem was assembled into 3D porous conductive supports via a controllable physical embedding method, displaying high enzymatic loading, stability and cascade catalytic performance. Read More

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PFKFB3-dependent glucose metabolism regulates 3T3-L1 adipocyte development.

FASEB J 2021 Jul;35(7):e21728

Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes, and other cell types, is accompanied by an increase in glucose uptake. Previous work showed that a pulse of high glucose was required during the first 3 days of differentiation in vitro, but was not required after that. The specific glucose metabolism pathways required for adipocyte differentiation are unknown. Read More

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Design, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of organogold(III) glycoconjugates.

Dalton Trans 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

National University of Ireland Galway, School of Chemistry, University Road, H91 TK33 Galway, Co. Galway, Ireland.

To develop new metal-based glycoconjugates as potential anticancer agents, four organometallic gold(iii)-dithiocarbamato glycoconjugates of the type [AuIII(2-Bnpy)(SSC-Inp-GlcN)](PF6) (2-Bnpy: 2-benzylpyridine; Inp: isonipecotic moiety; GlcN: amino-glucose scaffold; Au3-Au6) and the corresponding model non-glycosylated counterparts [AuIII(2-Bnpy)(SSC-Inp-R)](PF6) (R: OEt (Au1), NH2 (Au2)) have been generated and characterized by means of several analytical techniques (elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-/13C-NMR, ESI-MS, UV-Vis, X-ray crystallography). Their stability under physiologically-relevant conditions (PBS solution) and n-octanol/PBS distribution coefficient (D7.4) have also been evaluated. Read More

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Au/Pt-Egg-in-Nest Nanomotor for Glucose-Powered Catalytic Motion and Enhanced Molecular Transport to Living Cells.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Pohang Univeristy of Science and Technology POSTECH, Department of Chemistry, San 31, Hyoja-Dong, Nam-Gu, 790-784, Pohang, KOREA, REPUBLIC OF.

Nanostructures converting chemical energy to mechanical work by using benign metabolic fuels, have huge implications in biomedical science. Here, we introduce Au/Pt-based Janus nanostructures, resembling to 'egg-in-nest' morphology (Au/Pt-ENs), showing enhanced motion as a result of dual enzyme-relay-like catalytic cascade in physiological biomedia, and in turn showing molecular-laden transport to living cells. We developed dynamic-casting approach using silica yolk-shell nanoreactors: first, to install a large Au-seed fixing the silica-yolk aside while providing the anisotropically confined concave hollow nanospace to grow curved Pt-dendritic networks. Read More

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Infrequent metadynamics study of rare-event electrostatic channeling.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2021 Jun;23(23):13381-13388

Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA.

The efficiency of cascade reactions, which consist of multiple chemical transformations that occur in a single pot without purification steps, is limited by the transport efficiency of intermediates between adjacent steps. Electrostatic channeling is a proven strategy for intermediate transfer in natural chemical cascades, but implementation into artificial cascades remains a challenge. Here, we combine infrequent metadynamics (InMetaD), umbrella sampling (US), and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) models to computationally study the transfer mechanism of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) on a poly-arginine peptide bridging hexokinase (HK) and glucose-6-dehydrogenase (G6PDH). Read More

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mPEG-PCL Polymeric Micelles Influence Pharmacokinetics and Hypoglycemic Efficacy of Metformin through Inhibition of Organic Cation Transporters in Rats.

Mol Pharm 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Tongji Medical College of Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hangkong Road 13, Wuhan 430030, PR China.

Increasing evidence has shown that nanocarriers have effects on several efflux drug transporters. To date, little is known about whether influx transporters are also modulated. Herein, we investigated the impact of amphiphilic polymer micelles on the uptake function of organic cation transporters (OCTs) and the influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin, a well-characterized substrate of OCTs. Read More

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RNA-Seq reveals changes in human placental metabolism, transport and endocrinology across the first-second trimester transition.

Biol Open 2021 Jun 8;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK.

The human placenta is exposed to major environmental changes towards the end of the first trimester associated with full onset of the maternal arterial placental circulation. Changes include a switch from histotrophic to hemotrophic nutrition, and a threefold rise in the intraplacental oxygen concentration. We evaluated their impact on trophoblast development and function using RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) and DNA-methylation analyses performed on the same chorionic villous samples at 7-8 (n=8) and 13-14 (n=6) weeks of gestation. Read More

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Hyperlipidemic hypersensitivity to lethal microbial inflammation and its reversal by selective targeting of nuclear transport shuttles.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11907. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA.

Hyperlipidemia, the hallmark of Metabolic Syndrome that afflicts millions of people worldwide, exacerbates life-threatening infections. We present a new evidence for the mechanism of hyperlipidemic hypersensitivity to microbial inflammation caused by pathogen-derived inducer, LPS. We demonstrate that hyperlipidemic animals succumbed to a non-lethal dose of LPS whereas normolipidemic controls survived. Read More

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Glucose-oxidase like catalytic mechanism of noble metal nanozymes.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3375. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jilin, PR China.

Au nanoparticles (NPs) have been found to be excellent glucose oxidase mimics, while the catalytic processes have rarely been studied. Here, we reveal that the process of glucose oxidation catalyzed by Au NPs is as the same as that of natural glucose oxidase, namely, a two-step reaction including the dehydrogenation of glucose and the subsequent reduction of O to HO by two electrons. Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, and Ir NPs can also catalyze the dehydrogenation of glucose, except that O is preferably reduced to HO. Read More

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Visceral obesity and insulin resistance associate with CD36 deletion in lymphatic endothelial cells.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3350. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Center for Human Nutrition, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, USA.

Disruption of lymphatic lipid transport is linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D), but regulation of lymphatic vessel function and its link to disease remain unclear. Here we show that intestinal lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) have an increasing CD36 expression from lymphatic capillaries (lacteals) to collecting vessels, and that LEC CD36 regulates lymphatic integrity and optimizes lipid transport. Inducible deletion of CD36 in LECs in adult mice (Cd36) increases discontinuity of LEC VE-cadherin junctions in lacteals and collecting vessels. Read More

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Profiling the expression of fatty acid-binding proteins and fatty acid transporters in mouse microglia and assessing their role in docosahexaenoic acid-d5 uptake.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2021 May 27;171:102303. Epub 2021 May 27.

Drug Delivery, Disposition and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, 399 Royal Parade, Parkville, Victoria 3052, Australia. Electronic address:

While the processes governing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) trafficking across the blood-brain barrier have been elucidated, factors governing DHA uptake into microglia, an essential step for this fatty acid to exert its anti-inflammatory effects, are unknown. This study assessed the mRNA and protein expression of fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) in mouse BV-2 cells and their mRNA expression in primary mouse microglia. The microglial uptake of DHA-d5, a surrogate of DHA, was assessed by LC-MS/MS following interventions including temperature reduction, silencing of various FABP isoforms, competition with DHA, and metabolic inhibition. Read More

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LANCL1 binds abscisic acid and stimulates glucose transport and mitochondrial respiration in muscle cells via the AMPK/PGC-1α/Sirt1 pathway.

Mol Metab 2021 Jun 4:101263. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Experimental Medicine, Section of Biochemistry, School of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV 1, 16132, Genova, Italy.

Objective: Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone also present and active in animals. In mammals, ABA regulates blood glucose levels by stimulating insulin-independent glucose uptake and metabolism in adipocytes and myocytes, through its receptor LANCL2. The objective of this study was to investigate whether another member of the LANCL protein family, LANCL1, also behaves as an ABA receptor and, if so, which functional effects are mediated by LANCL1. Read More

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Feasibility of deuterium magnetic resonance spectroscopy of 3-O-Methylglucose at 7 Tesla.

PLoS One 2021 7;16(6):e0252935. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany.

Deuterium Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DMRS) is a non-invasive technique that allows the detection of deuterated compounds in vivo. DMRS has a large potential to analyze uptake, perfusion, washout or metabolism, since deuterium is a stable isotope and therefore does not decay during biologic processing of a deuterium labelled substance. Moreover, DMRS allows the distinction between different deuterated substances. Read More

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HDL Improves Cholesterol and Glucose Homeostasis and Reduces Atherosclerosis in Diabetes-Associated Atherosclerosis.

J Diabetes Res 2021 6;2021:6668506. Epub 2021 May 6.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Sydney, Australia.

Background And Aims: Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I), the main component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), not only promotes reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in atherosclerosis but also increases insulin secretion in pancreatic -cells, suggesting that interventions which raise HDL levels may be beneficial in diabetes-associated cardiovascular disease (CVD). Previously, we showed that TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) deletion in knockout ( ) mice results in diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis in response to a "Western" diet. Here, we sought to identify whether reconstituted HDL (rHDL) could improve features of diabetes-associated CVD in mice. Read More

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A Systematic Review of Glucose Transport Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

Front Neurosci 2021 20;15:626636. Epub 2021 May 20.

Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, The University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by cerebral glucose hypometabolism. Hypometabolism may be partly due to reduced glucose transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and across astrocytic and neuronal cell membranes. Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are integral membrane proteins responsible for moving glucose from the bloodstream to parenchymal cells where it is metabolized, and evidence indicates vascular and non-vascular GLUTs are altered in AD brains, a process which could starve the brain of glucose and accelerate cognitive decline. Read More

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Differential transcription pathways associated with rootstock-induced dwarfing in breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) scions.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jun 5;21(1):261. Epub 2021 Jun 5.

Australian Centre for Pacific Islands Research, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, QLD, 4556, Australia.

Background: Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a traditional staple tree crop throughout the tropics. Through interspecific grafting, a dwarf phenotype with over 50% reduction in plant height was identified when marang (Artocarpus odoratissimus) rootstocks were used. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the rootstock-induced breadfruit dwarfing is poorly understood. Read More

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Diverse energy metabolism patterns in females in Neodon fuscus, Lasiopodomys brandtii, and Mus musculus revealed by comparative transcriptomics under hypoxic conditions.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 16;783:147130. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

School of Life Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China; School of Physical Education (Main campus), Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China. Electronic address:

The effects of global warming and anthropogenic disturbance force animals to migrate from lower to higher elevations to find suitable new habitats. As such migrations increase hypoxic stress on the animals, it is important to understand how plateau- and plain-dwelling animals respond to low-oxygen environments. We used comparative transcriptomics to explore the response of Neodon fuscus, Lasiopodomys brandtii, and Mus musculus skeletal muscle tissues to hypoxic conditions. Read More

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Time course of metabolic, neuroendocrine and adipose effects during 2 years of follow-up after RYGB in patients with T2D.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Context: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) markedly improves glycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) but underlying mechanisms and changes over time are incompletely understood.

Objective: Integrated assessment of neuroendocrine and metabolic changes over time in T2D patients undergoing RYGB.

Design And Setting: Follow-up of single-center randomized study. Read More

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Uncurtaining the pivotal role of ABC transporters in diabetes mellitus.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania.

The metabolic disorders are the edge points for the initiation of various diseases. These disorders comprised of several diseases including diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular complications. Worldwide, the prevalence of these disorders is increasing day by day. Read More

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Cardiac Failure Requiring Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (VA-ECMO) Management in a Refeeding Syndrome Patient with Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Case Report.

Am J Case Rep 2021 Jun 3;22:e930568. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

BACKGROUND Refeeding syndrome is a complex metabolic disorder that develops following rapid nutritional administration after a long period of undernutrition. The onset mechanism involves intracellular transport of phosphorus, potassium, and water, in association with rapid glucose administration. The resulting hypophosphatemia is extremely dangerous and can cause severe heart failure and fatal arrhythmia. Read More

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Diabetes and Cardiovascular Complications: The Epidemics Continue.

Curr Cardiol Rep 2021 Jun 3;23(7):74. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Diabetes Research Program, Department of Medicine, New York University Grossman School of Medicine, 435 East 30th Street, Science Building, Room 615, New York, NY, 10016, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The cardiovascular complications of type 1 and 2 diabetes are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Extensive efforts have been made to maximize glycemic control; this strategy reduces certain manifestations of cardiovascular complications. There are drawbacks, however, as intensive glycemic control does not impart perennial protective benefits, and these efforts are not without potential adverse sequelae, such as hypoglycemic events. Read More

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Placental hypoxia: What have we learnt from small animal models?

Placenta 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Centre for Trophoblast Research, Department of Physiology, Development and Neuroscience, Downing Street, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 3EG, UK. Electronic address:

Intrauterine hypoxia is a feature of pregnancy complications, both at high altitude and sea level. To understand the placental response to reduced oxygen availability, small animal models of maternal inhalation hypoxia (MIH) or reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) may be utilised. The aim of this review was to compare the findings of those studies to identify the role of oxygen availability in adapting placental structural and functional phenotypes in relation to fetal outcome. Read More

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