197,728 results match your criteria glucose insulin


Isthmin-1 is an adipokine that promotes glucose uptake and improves glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis.

Cell Metab 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA; Stanford Diabetes Research Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. Electronic address:

With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease, there is still an unmet need to better treat hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Here, we identify isthmin-1 (Ism1) as an adipokine and one that has a dual role in increasing adipose glucose uptake while suppressing hepatic lipid synthesis. Ism1 ablation results in impaired glucose tolerance, reduced adipose glucose uptake, and reduced insulin sensitivity, demonstrating an endogenous function for Ism1 in glucose regulation. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Human Milk Glucose, Leptin, and Insulin Predict Cessation of Full Breastfeeding and Initiation of Formula Use.

Breastfeed Med 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota-Twin Cities, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

We aimed to investigate prospective associations between milk bioactives related to metabolic health (glucose, insulin, leptin, C reactive protein [CRP], and interleukin 6 [IL-6]) and incident formula initiation at 3 and 6 months postpartum. This study included 363 mother-infant dyads who were fully breastfed at 1 month and participated in the prospective Mothers and Infants Linked for Healthy Growth study from pregnancy to 6 months postpartum. Associations between milk glucose, leptin, insulin, CRP, and IL-6 at 1 and 3 months and incident formula feeding (FF) at 3 and 6 months, respectively, were tested using multiple logistic regression, adjusting for numerous potential confounders such as maternal age and prepregnancy body mass index. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Swimming exercise decreases depression-like behaviour and inflammatory cytokines in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes.

Exp Physiol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Exercise Physiology, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

New Findings: What is the central question of this study? Can swimming exercise decrease depression-like behaviour and inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice? What is the main finding and its importance? This study demonstrates that swimming exercise decreased depression-like behaviour by reducing inflammation in type 2 diabetic mice. This study suggests that swimming exercise might be useful for the treatment of depression-related disorders in patients with type 2 diabetes.

Abstract: Clinical and experimental studies have shown that type 2 diabetes is associated with depression-related disorders. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Impact of Postoperative Glycemic Control on Postoperative Morbidity in Patients Undergoing Open Pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Pancreas 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

From the Department of Pharmacy, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery Department of Pharmacy, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To evaluate the impact of postoperative glycemic control on postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing a pancreaticoduodenectomy.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on patients at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between April 2015 and April 2016. Data were collected on postoperative insulin regimens, blood glucose, rates of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, and postoperative complications and was evaluated. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Linear Model Identification for Personalized Prediction and Control in Diabetes.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2021 Aug 4;PP. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Objective: Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is a metabolic disease, characterized by impaired blood glucose (BG) regulation, which forces patients to multiple daily therapeutic actions, the most critical of which is exogenous insulin administration. T1D management can considerably benefit of mathematical models enabling accurate BG predictions and effective/safe automated insulin delivery. In building these models, dealing with large inter- and intra-patient variability in glucose-insulin dynamics represents a major challenge. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Long-term Efficacy and Safety of Ultra Rapid Lispro in Japanese Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: Subpopulation Analysis of the 52-Week PRONTO-T1D Study.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Medicines Development Unit Japan and Medical Affairs, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., 5-1-28, Isogami-dori, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo, 651-0086, Japan.

Introduction: The PRONTO-T1D study evaluated the efficacy and safety of ultra rapid lispro (URLi) versus lispro in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. After 26 weeks of treatment, mealtime and postmeal URLi provided effective and comparable glycemic control in a prespecified subpopulation analysis of Japanese patients from PRONTO-T1D. We present the results of a 52-week study which evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of URLi in Japanese patients. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Association of triglyceride-glucose index with intra- and extra-cranial arterial stenosis: a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.

Endocrine 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index, a simple surrogate marker of insulin resistance, with intra-cranial and extra-cranial artery stenosis (ICAS and ECAS) in Chinese adults.

Methods: Participants were recruited from the Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community study, 5381 participants were enrolled in the cross-sectional analysis, then 3447 and 1853 participants in the longitudinal analysis for incident ICAS and ECAS, respectively. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

[Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis during pregnancy].

Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2021 Apr 29;165. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei, afd. Interne Geneeskunde, Ede.

Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can have an atypical presentation during pregnancy. In the case of euglycemic DKA, relatively normal blood glucose levels can hinder a quick diagnosis.

Case Description: A 34-year-old DM1 patient, 31 weeks pregnant, was admitted because of reduced fetal movements and nausea. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Activity detection and classification from wristband accelerometer data collected on people with type 1 diabetes in free-living conditions.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jul 12;135:104633. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

This paper introduces methods to estimate aspects of physical activity and sedentary behavior from three-axis accelerometer data collected with a wrist-worn device at a sampling rate of 32 [Hz] on adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) in free-living conditions. In particular, we present two methods able to detect and grade activity based on its intensity and individual fitness as sedentary, mild, moderate or vigorous, and a method that performs activity classification in a supervised learning framework to predict specific user behaviors. Population results for activity level grading show multi-class average accuracy of 99. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Nobiletin ameliorates streptozotocin-cadmium-induced diabetic nephropathy NF-κB signalling pathway in rats.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Aug 4:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Nephrology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University Changchun, Jilin, China.

This study sought to examine the anti-diabetic effect of nobiletin on streptozotocin (STZ)/cadmium (Cd)-induced diabetic nephrotoxic (DN) rats. The DN was induced using STZ (40 mg/kg b.w) intraperitoneally and Cd through drinking water for 12 weeks. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

TRPM7 is a critical regulator of pancreatic endocrine development and high-fat diet-induced β-cell proliferation.

Development 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, 7425B MRB IV, 2213 Garland Ave., Nashville, TN 37232, USA.

The melastatin subfamily of the transient receptor potential channels (TRPM) are regulators of pancreatic β-cell function. TRPM7 is the most abundant islet TRPM channel; however, the role of TRPM7 in β-cell function has not been determined. Here, we utilized various spatiotemporal transgenic mouse models to investigate how TRPM7 knockout influences pancreatic endocrine development, proliferation, and function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Combined effect of metformin and gallic acid on inflammation, antioxidant status, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and glucose metabolism in fructose-fed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

Toxicol Rep 2021 17;8:1419-1427. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Department of Biochemistry, Landmark University, PMB 1001, Omu-aran, Nigeria.

Over time, diabetes patients usually need combination therapy involving two or more agents, including phytonutrients to attain therapeutic targets. The purpose of this research is to elucidate the combined effect of metformin and gallic acid (GA) on glucose metabolism, inflammation as well as oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses in fructose-fed diabetic rats. Thirty-five rats of Wistar strain were arbitrarily distributed into five groups, each containing seven animals as follows: normal control, diabetic control, groups administered 100 mg/kg bw metformin only, 50 mg/kg bw gallic acid only and a combination of both. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor-Induced Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis Followed by Excessively Low Carbohydrate Diet.

Cureus 2021 Jul 1;13(7):e16085. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, The University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, JPN.

Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (euDKA) is a rare but serious adverse effect caused by sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, and it can be challenging to identify in the emergency room (ER). In this report, we present a case of a type 2 diabetic patient whose diagnosis was delayed due to the absence of marked hyperglycemia. A 39-year-old female presented to the ER with a four-day history of nausea, vomiting, sweating, dyspnea, and generalized weakness after initiating dapagliflozin, along with a low carbohydrate diet and moderate exercise to curb her newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Safety and Efficacy of Long-Acting Insulins Degludec and Glargine Among Asian Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis.

Cureus 2021 Jun 29;13(6):e16046. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, IND.

Background Global variation in susceptibility to diabetes, insulin sensitivity, and regimen intensity poses a challenge for clinicians regarding the optimal choice of insulin therapy. The current study was carried out to see the relative safety and efficacy of currently available long-acting insulins among the type 2 diabetic Asian population. Methods A systematic literature search was done using various search engines (PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Embase) and included published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English before December 2019. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Betulinic acid reduces the complications of autoimmune diabetes on the body and kidney through effecting on inflammatory cytokines in C57BL/6 mice.

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(2):203-210. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Amol University of Special Modern Technologies, Amol, Iran.

Autoimmune diabetes is one of the most common metabolic diseases with increasing prevalence in the past decades in which pancreatic Langerhans β cells are destroyed and lead to lack of insulin due to increased blood sugar. One of the consequences of diabetes is glomerular disease of the kidney, also called diabetes nephropathy. Different studies have been carried out on the effects of triterpenoids and their medicinal effects on diabetes mellitus. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Effects of intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injection of cinnamaldehyde and yohimbine on blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations in ketamine-xylazine induced acute hyperglycemia.

Vet Res Forum 2021 15;12(2):149-156. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Basic Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.

This study was designed to investigate the effects of peripheral [intraperitoneal (IP)] and central [intracerebroventricular (ICV)] administration of cinnamaldehyde on concentrations of blood glucose and serum insulin in the acute hyperglycemia induced by ketamine/xylazine. Yohimbine (a α-adrenoceptor antagonist) was used alone and in combination with cinnamaldehyde to explore the α-adrenergic receptor contribution. A total of 48 rats were divided into eight groups with six rats in each for IP administration of normal saline, vehicle, cinnamaldehyde (25. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Islet Function in the Pathogenesis of Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Mellitus.

Clin Med Insights Endocrinol Diabetes 2021 13;14:11795514211031204. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Islet Cell Exocytosis, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes mellitus (CFRD) is the most common non-pulmonary co-morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). CF is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (), which leads to aberrant luminal fluid secretions in organs such as the lungs and pancreas. How dysfunctional CFTR leads to CFRD is still under debate. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Chronic Antidiabetic Actions of Leptin: Evidence from Parabiosis Studies for a CNS-Derived Circulating Antidiabetic Factor.

Diabetes 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, Cardiovascular-Renal Research Center, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.

We used parabiosis to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS)-mediated antidiabetic effects of leptin are mediated by release of a brain-derived circulating factor(s). Parabiosis was surgically induced at 4 weeks of age and an intracerebroventricular (ICV) cannula was placed in the lateral cerebral ventricles at 12 weeks of age for ICV infusion of leptin or saline vehicle. Ten days after surgery, food intake, body weight and blood glucose were measured for 5 consecutive days and insulin-deficiency diabetes was induced in all rats by a single streptozotocin (STZ) injection (40 mg/kg). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Daily 100% watermelon juice consumption and vascular function among postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Jul 7. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

University of Alabama, Department of Human Nutrition, Russell Hall, Box 870311, Tuscaloosa, AL, 35487, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Watermelon juice is a rich food source of cardioprotective compounds such as arginine, citrulline, and lycopene. Preventative interventions are warranted as risk of cardiovascular disease increases among women after menopause, and age alone is an independent risk factor for vascular dysfunction. Thus, this study evaluated the effects of 100% watermelon juice on measures of vascular function. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Investigation of the levels of circulating miR-29a, miR-122, sestrin 2 and inflammatory markers in obese children with/without type 2 diabetes: a case control study.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Aug 3;21(1):152. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Pediatrics, Unaizah College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Qassim University, Unaizah, Saudi Arabia.

Aim: The present work investigated serum levels of miR-29a, miR-122 and sestrin2 in obese children with/without type-2-diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and their correlations with inflammatory, metabolic and anthropometric parameters.

Methods: The study included 298 children, divided into: G1 (control, n = 136), G2 (obese without diabetes, n = 90) and G3 (obese with T2DM, n = 72). Metabolic and anthropometric parameters, miR-29a, miR-122 relative expressions, and sestrin2, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were measured by their specific methods. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Type 2 diabetes and neonatal hypoglycemia: role of route of delivery and insulin infusion.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Aug 4:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, McGovern Medical School, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA.

Objective: To compare the rate of neonatal hypoglycemia among newborns delivered by individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in two clinical scenarios: who attempted vaginal delivery vs. had a planned cesarean delivery (CD); who had intrapartum insulin infusion vs. who did not. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

On-demand transdermal insulin delivery system for type 1 diabetes therapy with no hypoglycemia risks.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Jul 28;605:582-591. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237, China. Electronic address:

Diabetes is a metabolic disease that is affecting an ever-increasing number of people worldwide, resulting in increased burdens on healthcare systems and societies. Constant monitoring of blood glucose levels is required to prevent serious or even deadly complications. One major challenge of diabetes management is the simple and timely administration of insulin to facilitate consistent blood glucose regulation and reduce the incidence of hypoglycemia. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Dysfunction of Cullin 3 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase causes vasoconstriction and increased sodium reabsorption in diabetes.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2021 Jul 31:109000. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Nephrology, Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Impaired endothelium-mediated vasodilation and/or increased sensitivity to vasoconstrictors lead to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) dysfunction in individuals with diabetes. Diabetic nephropathy is associated with a considerably higher risk of cardiovascular disease and death than their nondiabetic counterparts. We studied the activity of Cullin 3 RING ubiquitin ligase (CRL3) and its substrates in mice using an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) and db/db mice. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

The effects of Mirabegron on obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance are associated with brown adipose tissue activation but not beiging in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Physical Education, Institute of Biosciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP, Brazil.

Mirabegron is a selective β₃-adrenergic receptors agonist, which has been recently shown to improve metabolic health in rodents and humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of 2-week mirabegron treatment on the metabolic parameters of mice with a diet-induced obesity (DIO). C57BL/6JUnib mice were divided into control (CTR) and obese (OB) groups treated with vehicle, and an OB group treated with mirabegron (OB+MIRA). Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Insulin Secretion Predicts the Response to Antidiabetic Therapy in Patients With New Onset Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Division of Diabetes, University of Texas Health Science Center and Texas Diabetes Institute, San Antonio, TX.

Aim: To identify predictors for individualization of antidiabetic therapy in patients with new onset T2DM.

Research Design And Methods: 261 drug naïve participants in the EDICT study, with new onset diabetes, were randomized in a single-center study to receive: (1) metformin followed by glipizide and then insulin glargine upon failure to achieve HbA1c <6.5%, or (2) initial triple therapy with metformin/pioglitazone/ exenatide. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Insulin and IGF-1 receptors regulate complex-I dependent mitochondrial bioenergetics and supercomplexes via FoxOs in muscle.

J Clin Invest 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States of America.

Decreased skeletal muscle strength and mitochondrial dysfunction are characteristic of diabetes. Action of insulin and IGF-1 through insulin receptor (IR) and IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) maintain muscle mass via suppression of FoxOs, but whether FoxO activation coordinates atrophy in concert with mitochondrial dysfunction is unknown. We show that mitochondrial respiration and complex-I activity were decreased in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic muscle, but these defects were reversed following muscle-specific FoxO1/3/4 triple knockout in STZ-FoxO TKO. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Metformin improves glycemic variability in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus: an open-label randomized control trial.

Endocr Connect 2021 Aug 1. Epub 2021 Aug 1.

F Yuan, Shenzhen, China.

Introduction: Metformin has been demonstrated to enhance cardioprotective benefits in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Although glycemic variability (GV) is associated with increased risk of CVD in diabetes, there is a scarcity of research evaluating the effect of metformin on GV in T1DM.

Objectives: In the present study, the effects of adjuvant metformin therapy on GV and metabolic control in T1DM were explored. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

PRISM: A Novel Human Islet Isolation Technique.

Transplantation 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Dept of Internal Medicine, Leiden University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Successful pancreatic islet isolations are a key requirement for islet transplantation in selected patients with type 1 diabetes. However, islet isolation is a technically complex, time-consuming, manual process. Optimization and simplification of the islet isolation procedure could increase islet yield and quality, require fewer operators and thus reduce cost. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Procyanidin B1 and p-Coumaric Acid from Highland Barley Grain Showed Synergistic Effect on Modulating Glucose METABOLISM via IRS-1/PI3K/Akt pathway.

Authors:
Ze-Hua Liu Bo Li

Mol Nutr Food Res 2021 Aug 3:e2100454. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Scope: Phenolic extract in highland barley grain was reported showed hypoglycemic effect, while little information is available about the active compounds and whether there exist additive or synergistic effect on modulating glucose metabolism.

Methods And Results: Procyanidin B1 (PB) and p-coumaric acid (CA) were the active compounds in highland barley grain and showed synergistic effect on improving glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis by up-regulating glucose transporter (GLUT4) and down-regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) protein expression, respectively. The mechanism may be attributed to target insulin receptor (IRβ) and regulate insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/ protein kinase B (Akt) pathway. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF

Shift of Glucose Peak Time During Oral Glucose Tolerance Test is Associated with Changes in Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity After Therapy with Antidiabetic Drugs in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes Ther 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, 20 Xi-si Road, Nantong, 226001, Jiangsu, China.

Introduction: Delay in peak blood glucose during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) predicts declining β-cell function and poor ability to regulate glucose metabolism. Glucose peak time has not been used as a comparative indicator of the improvement in islet function after treatment with exenatide, insulin, or oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). We evaluated the efficacy of three types of antidiabetic drugs on the basis of blood glucose peak time in patients with non-newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Read More

View Article and Full-Text PDF