39,375 results match your criteria glucose homeostasis

A gut-intrinsic melanocortin signalling complex augments L cell secretion in humans.

Gastroenterology 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Flinders Health and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA 5042, Australia. Electronic address:

Objective: Hypothalamic melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) are a key regulator of energy homeostasis. Brain-penetrant MC4R agonists have failed, as concentrations required to suppress food intake also increase blood pressure. However, peripherally located MC4R may also mediate metabolic benefits of MC4R activation. Read More

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Systemic and adipocyte transcriptional and metabolic dysregulation in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension.

JCI Insight 2021 Apr 13. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Background: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition predominantly affecting obese women of reproductive age. Recent evidence suggests that IIH is a disease of metabolic dysregulation, androgen excess and an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Here we evaluate systemic and adipose specific metabolic determinants of the IIH phenotype. Read More

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Non-invasive monitoring of three glucose ranges based on ECG by using DBSCAN-CNN.

IEEE J Biomed Health Inform 2021 Apr 13;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Autonomic nervous system (ANS) can maintain homeostasis through the coordination of different organs including heart. The change of blood glucose (BG) level can stimulate the ANS, which will lead to the variation of Electrocardiogram (ECG). Considering that the monitoring of different BG ranges is significant for diabetes care, in this paper, an ECG-based technique was proposed to achieve non-invasive monitoring with three BG ranges: low glucose level, moderate glucose level, and high glucose level. Read More

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Astragaloside IV alleviates liver injury in type 2 diabetes due to promotion of AMPK/mTOR‑mediated autophagy.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Jun 13;23(6). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Key Laboratory of Anti‑Inflammatory and Immunopharmacology, Ministry of Education, Department of Pharmacology, Basic Medicine College, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui 230032, P.R. China.

Diabetic liver injury is a serious complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), which is often irreversible in the later stage, and affects the quality of life. Autophagy serves an important role in the occurrence and development of diabetic liver injury. For example, it can improve insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress and inflammation. Read More

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The relationship between plasma taurine levels in early pregnancy and later gestational diabetes mellitus risk in Chinese pregnant women.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7993. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Clinical Laboratory, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, China Academic Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100730, People's Republic of China.

Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the plasma concentration of taurine affects the risk of later gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) development. We recruited 398 singleton-pregnancy women and followed up them during the course of pregnancy. Read More

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Regulation of plasma triglyceride partitioning by adipose-derived ANGPTL4 in mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 12;11(1):7873. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Fraternal Order of Eagles Diabetes Research Center, and Obesity Research and Education Initiative, University of Iowa, 169 Newton Rd., PBDB 3326, Iowa City, IA, 52242, USA.

Elevated plasma triglyceride levels are associated with metabolic disease. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) regulates plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Our aim was to investigate the role of adipocyte-specific deficiency of ANGPTL4 in mice during high fat diet feeding. Read More

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Effects of metformin withdrawal after long and short term treatment in PCOS: observational longitudinal study.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2021 Apr 12;13(1):43. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška 7, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Background: Metformin plays a consolidated role in the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, there is no clear answer on how long we should treat and on how long its beneficial impact sustain after we stop treatment. We compared the effects of metformin withdrawal after long-term (LT) and short term (ST) treatment in PCOS women that had previously well responded to metformin. Read More

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Physiological effects of nutrients on insulin release by pancreatic beta cells.

Mol Cell Biochem 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Grupo de investigación en Biología celular y funcional e ingeniería de biomoléculas, Universidad Antonio Nariño-Sede Circunvalar. Cra, 3 Este # 47A - 15, Bl 5, Bogotá, Colombia.

Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are growing health problems associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity. Both conditions arise from a long-term energy imbalance, and frequently, lifestyle measures can be useful in its prevention, including physical activity and a healthy diet. Pancreatic β-cells are determinant nutrient sensors that participate in energetic homeostasis needs. Read More

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Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) thwarts the beneficial effects of calorie restriction and Metformin.

Toxicol Sci 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881, USA.

Calorie restriction (CR), dietary modification, and exercise is the recommended therapy to reverse obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the liver, calorie restriction shifts hepatic metabolism from lipid storage to lipid utilization pathways, such as AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), a fluorosurfactant previously used in stain repellents and anti-stick materials, can increase hepatic lipids in mice following relatively low dose exposures. Read More

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Association of Insulin Resistance and β-cell Function With Bone Turnover Biomarkers in Dysglycemia Patients.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 25;12:554604. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute and Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Huangpu Branch of Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China.

Background: The interrelation between glucose and bone metabolism is complex and has not been fully revealed. This study aimed to investigate the association between insulin resistance, β-cell function and bone turnover biomarker levels among participants with abnormal glycometabolism.

Methods: A total of 5277 subjects were involved through a cross-sectional study (METAL study, http://www. Read More

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Intestinal and acetate modify glucose homeostasis via parasympathetic activation in zebrafish.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-15

China-Norway Joint Lab on Fish Gastrointestinal Microbiota, Feed Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing China.

The capability of carbohydrate utilization in fish is limited compared to mammals. It has scientific and practical significance to improve the ability of fish to use carbohydrates. The efficiency of dietary carbohydrate utilization varies among fish with different feeding habits, which are associated with differential intestinal microbiota. Read More

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Butanol fraction of De Wild. leaves ameliorate oxidative stress and modulate key hypoglycaemic processes in diabetic rats.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2021 Apr 12:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Objective: The effect of fractions on glucose homeostasis was investigated via enzyme inhibition activity, glucose uptake assay, and methods in diabetic rats.

Methodology: fractions were subjected to α-glucosidase inhibitory assay and then glucose uptake activity. The butanol fraction of the leaves (ABBF) was picked for the assay since it showed more activity in the initial tests conducted. Read More

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Effects of supplementation with main coffee components including caffeine and/or chlorogenic acid on hepatic, metabolic, and inflammatory indices in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial.

Nutr J 2021 Apr 10;20(1):35. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Nutrition & Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is much more frequent and more severe, including cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with type 2 diabetes. Coffee is a complex beverage with hundreds of compounds whereas caffeine and chlorogenic acid are the most abundant bioactive compounds. The published epidemiological data demonstrating beneficial associations between all categories of coffee exposure and ranges of liver outcomes are rapidly growing; however, the main contributors and cause-effect relationships have not yet been elucidated. Read More

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Role of dietary modifications in the management of type 2 diabetic complications.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 7:105602. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Shobhaben Pratapbhai Patel School of Pharmacy & Technology Management, SVKM's NMIMS, V.L. Mehta Road, Vile Parle (W), Mumbai 400056, India. Electronic address:

Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Insufficient insulin secretion and insulin action are two major causes for the development of diabetes, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood glucose level. Diet and sedentary life style play pivotal role in development of vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Read More

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Changes in redox plasma proteome of Pon1-/- mice are exacerbated by a hyperhomocysteinemic diet.

Free Radic Biol Med 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Life Sciences, 60-632 Poznań, Poland;; Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Rutgers University-New Jersey Medical School, International Center for Public Health, Newark, NJ, USA. Electronic address:

High-density lipoprotein (HDL), in addition to promoting reverse cholesterol transport, possesses anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antithrombotic activities, which are thought to be promoted by paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an HDL-associated enzyme. Reduced levels of PON1 are associated with increased oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease both in humans and Pon1 mice. However, molecular basis of these associations are not fully understood. Read More

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The Impact of Telmisartan on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Hypertensive Male Siblings of Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland.

Brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were found to be at increased risk for cardiometabolic disorders. This risk may be exacerbated by concurrent poorly-controlled hypertension. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are the most frequently used anti-hypertensive drugs. Read More

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Successful transition from insulin to sulfonylurea, on second attempt, in a 24-year-old female with neonatal diabetes secondary to KCNJ11 gene mutation.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Apr 9;14(4). Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Endocrinology, Mater Misericordiae University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Neonatal diabetes (NDM) is defined as diabetes that occurs in the first 6 months of life, the majority of cases are due to sporadic mutations. ATP-sensitive potassium channels located in the beta cells of the pancreas play a major role in insulin secretion and blood glucose homeostasis. Mutations that alter the function of these channels may lead to NDM. Read More

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A novel yeast hybrid modeling framework integrating Boolean and enzyme-constrained networks enables exploration of the interplay between signaling and metabolism.

PLoS Comput Biol 2021 Apr 9;17(4):e1008891. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

The interplay between nutrient-induced signaling and metabolism plays an important role in maintaining homeostasis and its malfunction has been implicated in many different human diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders. Therefore, unraveling the role of nutrients as signaling molecules and metabolites together with their interconnectivity may provide a deeper understanding of how these conditions occur. Both signaling and metabolism have been extensively studied using various systems biology approaches. Read More

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Effect of selectively knocking down key metabolic genes in Müller glia on photoreceptor health.

Glia 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Discipline of Ophthalmology, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, Save Sight Institute, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

The importance of Müller glia for retinal homeostasis suggests that they may have vulnerabilities that lead to retinal disease. Here, we studied the effect of selectively knocking down key metabolic genes in Müller glia on photoreceptor health. Immunostaining indicated that murine Müller glia expressed insulin receptor (IR), hexokinase 2 (HK2) and phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) but very little pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha 1 (PDH-E1α) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDH-A). Read More

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Global transcriptomic analysis of a murine osteocytic cell line subjected to spaceflight.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21578

Department of Translational Dental Medicine, Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.

Bone loss is a major health concern for astronauts during long-term spaceflight and for patients during prolonged bed rest or paralysis. Growing evidence suggests that osteocytes, the most abundant cells in the mineralized bone matrix, play a key role in sensing mechanical forces applied to the skeleton and integrating the orchestrated response into subcellular biochemical signals to modulate bone homeostasis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying both mechanosensation and mechanotransduction in late-osteoblast-to-osteocyte cells under microgravity (µG) have yet to be elucidated. Read More

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Periostin promotes arterial calcification through PPARγ-related glucose metabolism reprogramming.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Cardiology, Zhongda Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, P.R., China.

Extracellular matrix (ECM) exerts a list of biological functions, contributing to almost 30% of the osteogenic process. Periostin is a secreted protein that can alter ECM remodeling in response to vascular injury. However, the functional role of periostin in vascular calcification has yet to be fully described. Read More

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Psoriasis and Diabetes, a Dangerous Association: Evaluation of Insulin Resistance, Lipid Abnormalities, and Cardiovascular Risk Biomarkers.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2021 23;8:605691. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Internal Medicine and Therapeutics, Centre of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, University of Pavia and Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

Psoriasis is an immune-mediated dermatosis with cardio-metabolic comorbidities. The aim of this study was to assess insulin-resistance, lipid abnormalities, and cardiovascular risk biomarkers in psoriatic patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We enrolled 425 patients: 86 psoriatics, 69 psoriatics with T2DM, 120 T2DM patients, and 150 healthy subjects. Read More

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Early Predictors in the Onset of Type 2 Diabetes at Different Fasting Blood Glucose Levels.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 31;14:1485-1492. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Endocrinology, The First People's Hospital of Yinchuan, Yinchuan, 750001, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This study investigates the possible roles and potential prediction ability of metabolic parameters in the early development of T2D by detecting their serum levels at different fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels.

Methods: The subjects were included and divided into normal glucose tolerance (NGT), prediabetes (PD), and T2Dsubgroups. Apart from detecting the levels of routine biochemical parameters, fasting serum insulin (FINS), 25(OH)D, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), thioredoxin (TRX), and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) were detected. Read More

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Mutant KRAS drives metabolic reprogramming and autophagic flux in premalignant pancreatic cells.

Cancer Gene Ther 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-8655, Japan.

Mutational activation of the KRAS gene occurs in almost all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and is the earliest molecular event in their carcinogenesis. Evidence has accumulated of the metabolic reprogramming in PDAC, such as amino acid homeostasis and autophagic flux. However, the biological effects of KRAS mutation on metabolic reprogramming at the earlier stages of PDAC carcinogenesis are unclear. Read More

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Autocrine IGF2 programmes β-cell plasticity under conditions of increased metabolic demand.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 8;11(1):7717. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Metabolic Research Laboratories and MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB2 0QQ, UK.

When exposed to nutrient excess and insulin resistance, pancreatic β-cells undergo adaptive changes in order to maintain glucose homeostasis. The role that growth control genes, highly expressed in early pancreas development, might exert in programming β-cell plasticity in later life is a poorly studied area. The imprinted Igf2 (insulin-like growth factor 2) gene is highly transcribed during early life and has been identified in recent genome-wide association studies as a type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene in humans. Read More

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Molecular mechanisms of lipotoxicity-induced pancreatic β-cell dysfunction.

Int Rev Cell Mol Biol 2021 12;359:357-402. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Molecular Biophysics, Biofisika Institute (University of Basque Country and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (UPV/EHU, CSIC)), Leioa, Spain; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Leioa, Spain. Electronic address:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D), a heterogeneous disorder derived from metabolic dysfunctions, leads to a glucose overflow in the circulation due to both defective insulin secretion and peripheral insulin resistance. One of the critical risk factor for T2D is obesity, which represents a global epidemic that has nearly tripled since 1975. Obesity is characterized by chronically elevated free fatty acid (FFA) levels, which cause deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis referred to as lipotoxicity. Read More

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Antiallergic drug Mebhydrolin ameliorates glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic mice by functioning as a selective FXR antagonist.

Metabolism 2021 Apr 5:154771. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

School of Medicine& Holistic Integrative Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210023, China. Electronic address:

Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic disease with hallmarks of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Long-term hyperglycemia damages the functions of multiple tissues and organs leading to a series of complications and disability or even death. Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonism has been recently discovered to exhibit beneficial effect on glucose metabolism in T2DM mice, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Read More

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Flipping the switch on the hub cell: Islet desynchronization through cell silencing.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(4):e0248974. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Mathematics & Statistics, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.

Pancreatic β cells, responsible for secreting insulin into the bloodstream and maintaining glucose homeostasis, are organized in the islets of Langerhans as clusters of electrically coupled cells. Gap junctions, connecting neighboring cells, coordinate the behavior of the islet, leading to the synchronized oscillations in the intracellular calcium and insulin secretion in healthy islets. Recent experimental work has shown that silencing special hub cells can lead to a disruption in the coordinated behavior, calling into question the democratic paradigm of islet insulin secretion with more or less equal input from each β cell. Read More

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Mathematical Model of Glucagon Kinetics for the Assessment of Insulin-Mediated Glucagon Inhibition During an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 22;12:611147. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Metabolic Unit, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Padova, Italy.

Glucagon is secreted from the pancreatic alpha cells and plays an important role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, by interacting with insulin. The plasma glucose levels determine whether glucagon secretion or insulin secretion is activated or inhibited. Despite its relevance, some aspects of glucagon secretion and kinetics remain unclear. Read More

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Effects of selenium on coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes and their risk factors: a Mendelian randomization study.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

School of Public Health, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Patrick Manson Building, 7 Sassoon Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong SAR, China.

Background: The impact of selenium on coronary artery disease (CAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear with inconsistent results from observational studies and randomized controlled trials. We used Mendelian randomization to obtain unconfounded estimates of the effect of selenium on CAD, T2D, lipids and glycemic traits.

Methods: We applied genetic variants strongly (P < 5 × 10) associated with blood and toenail selenium to publicly available summary statistics from large consortia genome-wide association studies of CAD (76,014 cases and 264,785 non-cases), T2D (74,124 cases and 824,006 controls), lipids and glycemic traits. Read More

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