3,918 results match your criteria glucocorticoids androgens

Endocrine disruptors of sex hormone activities.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 Jul 30:111415. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Laboratory of Receptor Biology and Gene Expression, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Sex hormones, such as androgens, estrogens and progestins are naturally occurring compounds that tightly regulate endocrine systems in a variety of living organisms. Uncontrolled environmental exposure to these hormones or their biological and synthetic mimetics has been widely documented. Furthermore, water contaminants penetrate soil to affect flora, fauna and ultimately humans. Read More

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Correlations between environmental salinity levels, blood biochemistry parameters, and steroid hormones in wild juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 26;11(1):15168. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Marine Biology, Texas A&M University At Galveston, Galveston Campus, 200 Seawolf Parkway, Bldg. 3029, Galveston, TX, 77553, USA.

American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabit freshwater wetlands that are vulnerable to salinization caused by anthropogenic alterations to freshwater flow, in addition to storm surges, sea level rise, and droughts. Salinization of coastal freshwater habitats is a growing concern in a changing climate due to increased frequency and intensity of storm surges and drought conditions. This study opportunistically sampled juvenile male and female wild alligators in various salinities each month excluding November, December, and January for one year at Rockefeller Wildlife Refuge in coastal Louisiana. Read More

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Let's Talk about Placental Sex, Baby: Understanding Mechanisms That Drive Female- and Male-Specific Fetal Growth and Developmental Outcomes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 15;22(12). Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Mater Medical Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4000, Australia.

It is well understood that sex differences exist between females and males even before they are born. These sex-dependent differences may contribute to altered growth and developmental outcomes for the fetus. Based on our initial observations in the human placenta, we hypothesised that the male prioritises growth pathways in order to maximise growth through to adulthood, thereby ensuring the greatest chance of reproductive success. Read More

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Targeting Glucocorticoid Metabolism in Prostate Cancer.

Endocrinology 2021 Sep;162(9)

Genitourinary Malignancies Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.

In the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer, resistance to hormonal therapy is a major obstacle. With antiandrogen therapies that suppress androgen signaling through the androgen receptor (AR), the primary driver of prostate cancer, some malignancies are able take advantage of the closely related glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Escape from AR dependency often involves a simple functional switch from 1 steroid receptor to another. Read More

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September 2021

Low- and intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndrome with pure red cell aplasia.

Hematology 2021 Dec;26(1):444-446

Department of Hematology, General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

Objectives: Our aim is to investigate the clinical characteristics of low- and intermediate-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with pure red cell aplasia (PRCA).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the patients of low- and intermediate-risk MDS patients who had been diagnosed with PRCA in our hospital between January 2010 and December 2019.

Results: There were 6 low- and intermediate-risk MDS patients with PRCA in our study, 1 male and 5 females, with a median age of 63. Read More

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December 2021

Adrenocortical dysfunction in rheumatoid arthritis: Α narrative review and future directions.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jun 7:e13635. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

1st Department of Propaedeutic and Internal Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: Iatrogenic adrenal insufficiency (AI) secondary to long-term treatment with exogenous glucocorticoids (GC) is common in patients with systematic rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Moreover, a proportion of these patients is always in need of even small doses of glucocorticoids to maintain clinical remission, despite concomitant treatment with conventional and biologic disease-modifying drugs.

Methods: We conducted a literature review up to December 2020 on (a) the incidence of AI in both long-term GC-treated and GC-treatment naïve RA patients; (b) the potential effects of increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines, as well as of chronic stress, in adrenocortical function in RA; (c) the circadian cortisol rhythm in RA; and (d) established and evolving methods of assessment of adrenocortical function. Read More

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Exposure to Organophosphate and Neonicotinoid Insecticides and Its Association with Steroid Hormones among Male Reproductive-Age Farmworkers in Northern Thailand.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 24;18(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Health and Environmental Risk Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506, Japan.

Several studies indicated organophosphate (OP) and neonicotinoid (NEO) insecticides are endocrine disruptors; however, data are scarce. This cross-sectional study recruited 143 male farmworkers aged 18-40 years in Fang district, Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. OP exposure was assessed by measuring urinary dialkylphosphate (DAPs) using a gas-chromatography flame photometric detector. Read More

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Influence of a Maximal Incremental Test Until Exhaustion on the Urinary Excretion of Steroid Hormones in Trained Cyclists.

J Hum Kinet 2021 Mar 31;78:121-129. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Physiology, School of Sport Sciences, University of Extremadura, Extremadura Spain.

This study aimed to assess the effect of a maximum incremental stress test through urinary concentrations of steroid hormones in trained cyclists. Twenty male cyclists participated in the study (23.83 ± 2. Read More

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Development and implementation of an analytical procedure for the quantification of natural and synthetic steroid hormones in whole surface waters.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jun 2;1175:122732. Epub 2021 May 2.

Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais (LNE), 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75724 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Natural and synthetic steroid hormones are chronically released into aquatic spheres. Whereas knowledge on their combined mode of action and the cocktail effect are needed, only few multi-class methods address the challenge of their trace quantification in surface waters. The current study describes a sensitive multi-residue analytical strategy aiming to quantify 23 steroid hormones belonging to androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids and progestogens in whole surface waters. Read More

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A critical review on the distribution and ecological risk assessment of steroid hormones in the environment in China.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 30;786:147452. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Chair of Ecological Systems Design, Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zürich, 8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

During past two decades, steroid hormones have raised significant public concerns due to their potential adverse effects on the hormonal functions of aquatic organisms and humans. Considering China being a big producer and consumer of steroid hormones, we summarize the current contamination status of steroid hormones in different environmental compartments in China, and preliminarily assess the associated risks to ecological systems. The results show that steroid hormones are ubiquitously present in Chinese surface waters where estrogens are the most studied steroids compared with androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids. Read More

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September 2021

11-Ketotestosterone is the predominant active androgen in prostate cancer patients after castration.

JCI Insight 2021 Jun 8;6(11). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Endocrinology, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

BACKGROUNDContinued androgen receptor (AR) signaling constitutes a key target for treatment in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Studies have identified 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) as a potent AR agonist, but it is unknown if 11KT is present at physiologically relevant concentrations in patients with CRPC to drive AR activation. The goal of this study was to investigate the circulating steroid metabolome including all active androgens in patients with CRPC. Read More

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Glucocorticoids and Androgens Protect From Gastric Metaplasia by Suppressing Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation.

Gastroenterology 2021 Aug 7;161(2):637-652.e4. Epub 2021 May 7.

Molecular Endocrinology Group, Signal Transduction Laboratory, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: The immune compartment is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis. A weak immune response increases susceptibility to infection, but immune hyperactivation causes tissue damage, and chronic inflammation may lead to cancer development. In the stomach, inflammation damages the gastric glands and drives the development of potentially preneoplastic metaplasia. Read More

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Glucocorticoid-Mediated Changes in Male Green Treefrog Vocalizations Alter Attractiveness to Females.

Integr Comp Biol 2021 Jul;61(1):283-291

Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS 38677, USA.

Adrenal glucocorticoids (GCs) are increasingly recognized as important modulators of male courtship signals, suggesting that circulating levels of these steroids can play a central role in sexual selection. However, few studies have examined whether GC-mediated effects on male sexual signals actually impact mate choice by females. Here, we examine how corticosterone (CORT)-mediated changes in the vocalizations of male green treefrogs, Dryophytes cinereus, influence attractiveness to females. Read More

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Sex Differences in Brown Adipose Tissue Function: Sex Hormones, Glucocorticoids, and Their Crosstalk.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 13;12:652444. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Excessive fat accumulation in the body causes overweight and obesity. To date, research has confirmed that there are two types of adipose tissue with opposing functions: lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT) and lipid-burning brown adipose tissue (BAT). After the rediscovery of the presence of metabolically active BAT in adults, BAT has received increasing attention especially since activation of BAT is considered a promising way to combat obesity and associated comorbidities. Read More

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Avian corticosteroid-binding globulin: biological function and regulatory mechanisms in physiological stress responses.

Front Zool 2021 Apr 29;18(1):22. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) is a high-affinity plasma protein that binds glucocorticoids (GCs) and regulates their biological activities. The structural and functional properties of CBG are crucial to understanding the biological actions of GCs in mediating stress responses and the underlying mechanisms. In response to stress, avian CBGs modulate the free and bound fractions of plasma corticosterone (CORT, the main GC), enabling them to mediate the physiological and behavioral responses that are fundamental for balancing the trade-off of energetic investment in reproduction, immunity, growth, metabolism and survival, including adaptations to extreme high-elevation or high-latitude environments. Read More

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Magnetic Micro-Solid-Phase Extraction Using a Novel Carbon-Based Composite Coupled with HPLC-MS/MS for Steroid Multiclass Determination in Human Plasma.

Molecules 2021 Apr 3;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Chemistry, University of Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

A micron-sized sorbent, Magn-Humic, has been prepared by humic acids pyrolysis onto silica-coated magnetite. The material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) surface area measurements and applied for simultaneous magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of glucocorticoids, estrogens, progestogens, and androgens at ng mL levels from human plasma followed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Due to the low affinity for proteins, steroids extraction was done with no need for proteins precipitation/centrifugation. Read More

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Sex Differences in the Exocrine Pancreas and Associated Diseases.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 22;12(2):427-441. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Center for Reproductive Sciences, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and the Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, California. Electronic address:

Differences in pancreatic anatomy, size, and function exist in men and women. The anatomical differences could contribute to the increase in complications associated with pancreatic surgery in women. Although diagnostic criteria for pancreatitis are the same in men and women, major sex differences in etiology are reported. Read More

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Relationships between avian malaria resilience and corticosterone, testosterone and prolactin in a Hawaiian songbird.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Jul 20;308:113784. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Glucocorticoids, androgens, and prolactin regulate metabolism and reproduction, but they also play critical roles in immunomodulation. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of the Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) that have experienced strong selection by avian malaria have evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while high elevation populations that have undergone weak selection remain less resilient. We investigated how variation in malaria selection has affected corticosterone, testosterone, and prolactin hormone levels in Amakihi during the breeding season. Read More

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The way toward adulthood for females with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

Endocrine 2021 07 14;73(1):16-30. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Alexandra Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Females with NC21OHD may present as asymptomatic or develop a wide range of androgen excess expression. Clinical manifestations may become evident in childhood and adolescence and include premature pubarche, precocious puberty, acne, hirsutism, and menstrual disorders or present later in life as oligo-ovulation and infertility. Glucocorticoids have been the mainstay of treatment as they regulate excess androgen expression by dampening ACTH activation. Read More

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Primary Cultures and Cell Lines for In Vitro Modeling of the Human Adrenal Cortex.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2021 04;253(4):217-232

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan.

The human adrenal cortex is a complex endocrine organ that produces mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids and androgens. These steroids are produced in distinct cell types located within the glomerulosa, fasciculata and reticularis of the adrenal cortex. Abnormal adrenal steroidogenesis leads to a variety of diseases that can cause hypertension, metabolic syndrome, infertility and premature adrenarche. Read More

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Adipocyte and steroidogenic cell cross-talk in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Hum Reprod Update 2021 Jun;27(4):771-796

Robinson Research Institute Adelaide Medical School, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Metabolic and endocrine alterations in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affect adipose tissue mass and distribution. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenism, obesity and adipocyte dysfunction. Hyperandrogenism in PCOS drives dysfunctional adipocyte secretion of potentially harmful adipocytokines. Read More

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The Role of Genetics, Epigenetics and Lifestyle in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Development: the State of the Art.

Reprod Sci 2021 Mar 11. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Women and Child Health, Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disease affecting about 20-25% of women in reproductive age. Different mechanisms could contribute to the development of its typical clinical features (i.e. Read More

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Georgian Med News 2021 Jan(310):7-11

Sakarya University, Medicine Faculty, Department of Internal Medicine; Sakarya University, Turkey.

We present a case of androgen and glucocorticoid secreting adrenocortical carcinoma with concomitant myelolipoma. A giant adrenal tumor which was initially nonfunctional was reassessed four years later due to the patient's refusal to treat. The patient was a 48-year-old woman with hypertension and acne lesions on the face. Read More

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January 2021

[Clinical characteristics of 21 infertile women with non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency].

Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2021 Feb;56(2):108-113

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China.

To investigate the clinical features of infertile women with non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD). The study enrolled 21 infertile women with non-classic 21-OHD in Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2009 to December 2018. The clinical presentation, endocrine hormone, glucolipid metabolism and treatment outcome were retrospectively analyzed. Read More

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February 2021

Relapsed granulomatosis with polyangiitis with panhypopituitarism.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jan 28;14(1). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Georgetown University School of Medicine, Washington, DC, USA.

A man in his early 60s with a medical history of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) in remission for two decades without maintenance therapy presented with non-specific complaints of profound fatigue and 40-pound weight loss. He was seronegative for antinuclear antibodies and cytoplasmic antineutrophilic antibodies, but erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C reactive protein levels were elevated. Endocrinological testing revealed adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidus. Read More

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January 2021

Gut feelings about bacterial steroid-17,20-desmolase.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2021 04 24;525:111174. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Microbiome Metabolic Engineering Theme, Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA; Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, 61801, USA; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; Cancer Center of Illinois, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA; Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USA. Electronic address:

Advances in technology are only beginning to reveal the complex interactions between hosts and their resident microbiota that have co-evolved over centuries. In this review, we present compelling evidence that implicates the host-associated microbiome in the generation of 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione, leading to the formation of potent 11-oxy-androgens. Microbial steroid-17,20-desmolase cleaves the side-chain of glucocorticoids (GC), including cortisol (and its derivatives of cortisone, 5α-dihydrocortisol, and also (allo)- 3α, 5α-tetrahydrocortisol, but not 3α-5β-tetrahydrocortisol) and drugs (prednisone and dexamethasone). Read More

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Differential activity and expression of human 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) splice variants.

J Mol Endocrinol 2021 03;66(3):181-194

Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Steroid hormones, including glucocorticoids and androgens, exert a wide variety of effects in the body across almost all tissues. The steroid A-ring 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) is expressed in human liver and testes, and three splice variants have been identified (AKR1D1-001, AKR1D1-002, AKR1D1-006). Amongst these, AKR1D1-002 is the best described; it modulates steroid hormone availability and catalyses an important step in bile acid biosynthesis. Read More

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Occurrence and fate of androgens, progestogens and glucocorticoids in two swine farms with integrated wastewater treatment systems.

Water Res 2021 Mar 14;192:116836. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

SCNU Environmental Research Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution and Environmental Safety & MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Theoretical Chemistry, South China Normal University, Guangzhou510006, China. Electronic address:

Steroid hormones are endocrine-disrupting chemicals that can cause adverse effects even at trace levels. The information about steroid hormones in animal wastes is still very limited. Here we investigated the occurrence and fate of fourteen androgens, twenty-one progestogens, and five glucocorticoids in Farm Luo Cheng (LC) and Farm Shui Tai (ST) with integrated wastewater treatment systems (WTSs) in South China. Read More

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Hormonal Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

Endocr Rev 2021 May;42(3):354-373

Genitourinary Malignancies Research Center, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA.

Huggins and Hodges demonstrated the therapeutic effect of gonadal testosterone deprivation in the 1940s and therefore firmly established the concept that prostate cancer is a highly androgen-dependent disease. Since that time, hormonal therapy has undergone iterative advancement, from the types of gonadal testosterone deprivation to modalities that block the generation of adrenal and other extragonadal androgens, to those that directly bind and inhibit the androgen receptor (AR). The clinical states of prostate cancer are the product of a superimposition of these therapies with nonmetastatic advanced prostate cancer, as well as frankly metastatic disease. Read More

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Glucocorticoid signaling and lipid metabolism disturbances in the liver of rats treated with 5α-dihydrotestosterone in an animal model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

Endocrine 2021 05 15;72(2):562-572. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Clinic of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Clinical Center of Serbia, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića 13, 11000, Belgrade, Serbia.

Purpose: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex reproductive disorder often associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Hormonal changes in PCOS may also include altered glucocorticoid signaling. Our aim was to examine whether alterations in hepatic glucocorticoid signaling are associated with disturbances of glucose and lipid metabolism in animal model of PCOS. Read More

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