52 results match your criteria glua1 enhancement

Secreted Amyloid Precursor Protein-Alpha Enhances LTP Through the Synthesis and Trafficking of Ca-Permeable AMPA Receptors.

Front Mol Neurosci 2021 1;14:660208. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Anatomy, Brain Health Research Centre, Brain Research New Zealand - Rangahau Roro Aotearoa, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Regulation of AMPA receptor expression by neuronal activity and neuromodulators is critical to the expression of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory. In particular, Ca-permeable AMPARs (CP-AMPAR) play a unique role in these processes due to their transient, activity-regulated expression at synapses. Secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), a metabolite of the parent amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been previously shown to enhance hippocampal LTP as well as memory formation in both normal animals and in Alzheimer's disease models. Read More

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Iridoids from Gardeniae fructus ameliorates depression by enhancing synaptic plasticity via AMPA receptor-mTOR signaling.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Mar 8;268:113665. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

School of Chinese Medicine & School of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Gardeniae fructus is a traditional Chinese herb which exerts antidepressant effect. However, its effective constituent and potential mechanism are still unknown.

Aim Of The Study: To examine whether iridoids, a type of monoterpenoids from Gardeniae fructus (IGF), exerts antidepressant effect by enhancing synaptic plasticity via AMPA receptor-mTOR signaling. Read More

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Restoration of Cingulate Long-Term Depression by Enhancing Non-apoptotic Caspase 3 Alleviates Peripheral Pain Hypersensitivity.

Cell Rep 2020 11;33(6):108369

Department of Neurobiology and Department of Anesthesiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; NHC and CAMS Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, MOE Frontier Science Center for Brain Research and Brain-Machine Integration, School of Brain Science and Brain Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address:

Nerve injury in somatosensory pathways may lead to neuropathic pain, which affects the life quality of ∼8% of people. Long-term enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission along somatosensory pathways contributes to neuropathic pain. Caspase 3 (Casp3) plays a non-apoptotic role in the hippocampus and regulates internalization of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) subunits. Read More

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November 2020

Synaptic RTP801 contributes to motor-learning dysfunction in Huntington's disease.

Cell Death Dis 2020 07 30;11(7):569. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Biomedicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, 08036, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

RTP801/REDD1 is a stress-responsive protein that mediates mutant huntingtin (mhtt) toxicity in cellular models and is up regulated in Huntington's disease (HD) patients' putamen. Here, we investigated whether RTP801 is involved in motor impairment in HD by affecting striatal synaptic plasticity. To explore this hypothesis, ectopic mhtt was over expressed in cultured rat primary neurons. Read More

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Transient ischemia-reperfusion induces cortical hyperactivity and AMPAR trafficking in the somatosensory cortex.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 03 9;12(5):4299-4321. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

Brain ischemia results from cardiac arrest, stroke or head trauma. The structural basis of rescuing the synaptic impairment and cortical dysfunctions induced in the stage of ischemic-reperfusion can occur if therapeutic interventions are applied in time, but the functional basis for this resilience remains elusive. Here, we explore the changes in cortical activity and a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunit in spine (sGluA1) after transient ischemia-reperfusion for 28 days. Read More

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Pi4KIIα Regulates Unconditioned Stimulus-Retrieval-Induced Fear Memory Reconsolidation through Endosomal Trafficking of AMPA Receptors.

iScience 2020 Mar 8;23(3):100895. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

National Institute on Drug Dependence and Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Dependence, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191, China. Electronic address:

Targeting memory reconsolidation is an effective intervention for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Disrupting unconditioned stimulus (US)-retrieval-induced fear memory reconsolidation has become an effective therapeutic approach to attenuate fear memory, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we report that US-retrieval-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (Pi4KIIα) promotes early endosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, leading to the enhancement of synaptic efficacy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons. Read More

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Subunit-Specific Augmentation of AMPA Receptor Ubiquitination by Phorbol Ester.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 Oct 12;40(7):1213-1222. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Clem Jones Centre for Ageing Dementia Research, Queensland Brain Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

Excitatory neurotransmission relies on the precise targeting of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors to the neuronal plasma membrane. Activity-dependent ubiquitination of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits sorts internalised receptors to late endosomes for degradation, which ultimately determines the number of AMPARs on neuronal membrane. Our recent study has demonstrated a functional cross-talk between the phosphorylation and ubiquitination of the GluA1 subunit in mammalian central neurons. Read More

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October 2020

Enhancing Plasticity Mechanisms in the Mouse Motor Cortex by Anodal Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation: The Contribution of Nitric Oxide Signaling.

Cereb Cortex 2020 05;30(5):2972-2985

Istituto di Fisiologia Umana, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Roma 00168, Italy.

Consistent body of evidence shows that transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) facilitates motor learning and promotes recovery after stroke. However, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms behind tDCS effects needs to be deepened for a more rational use of this technique in clinical settings. Here we characterized the effects of anodal tDCS of M1, focusing on its impact on glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity. Read More

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PKC and Ras are Involved in M1 Muscarinic Receptor-Mediated Modulation of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit.

Cell Mol Neurobiol 2020 May 13;40(4):547-554. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai, 200025, China.

M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M1 mAChRs) have long been an attractive target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. M1 mAChR agonists show desirably preclinical activities; however, most have not gone further into late clinical trials due to ineffectiveness or side effects. Thus, to understand the signaling pathways involved in M1 mAChR-mediated memory improvement may be important for design of biased agonists with on-target therapeutic effects. Read More

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α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid Receptor Plasticity Sustains Severe, Fatal Status Epilepticus.

Ann Neurol 2020 01 20;87(1):84-96. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.

Objective: Generalized convulsive status epilepticus is associated with high mortality. We tested whether α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor plasticity plays a role in sustaining seizures, seizure generalization, and mortality observed during focal onset status epilepticus. We also determined whether modified AMPA receptors generated during status epilepticus could be targeted with a drug. Read More

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January 2020

Chronic exercise buffers the cognitive dysfunction and decreases the susceptibility to seizures in PTZ-treated rats.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 09 1;98(Pt A):173-187. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department of Neurology, Jinan Central Hospital, Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250013, China. Electronic address:

Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder posing a severe burden to our society. Cognitive deficits are very common comorbidities of epilepsy. It is known that enhanced cognition has been demonstrated as an indicator for successful treatment of epilepsy. Read More

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September 2019

M1 Muscarinic Receptor Activation Rescues β-Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Impairment through AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit.

Neuroscience 2019 06 11;408:239-247. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025, China. Electronic address:

M1 muscarinic receptors have long been identified as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our previous study has shown that M1 receptors promote membrane insertion and synaptic delivery of AMPA receptor GluA1 subunit. In this study, we sought to determine whether activation of M1 receptor would rescue the cognitive impairment in AD model mice through modulation of GluA1 subunit. Read More

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M1 muscarinic receptors regulate the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 a signaling pathway linking cAMP-PKA and PI3K-Akt.

FASEB J 2019 05 22;33(5):6622-6631. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Institute of Interdisciplinary Integrative Biomedical Research, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors are highly expressed in key areas that control cognition, such as the cortex and hippocampus, representing one potential therapeutic target for cognitive dysfunctions of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. We have reported that M1 receptors facilitate cognition by promoting membrane insertion of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor AMPA receptor subunit 1 (GluA1) through phosphorylation at Ser845. However, the signaling pathway is still unclear. Read More

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Shank and Zinc Mediate an AMPA Receptor Subunit Switch in Developing Neurons.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 9;11:405. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Department of Neurology & Neurological Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States.

During development, pyramidal neurons undergo dynamic regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit composition and density to help drive synaptic plasticity and maturation. These normal developmental changes in AMPARs are particularly vulnerable to risk factors for Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), which include loss or mutations of synaptic proteins and environmental insults, such as dietary zinc deficiency. Here, we show how Shank2 and Shank3 mediate a zinc-dependent regulation of AMPAR function and subunit switch from GluA2-lacking to GluA2-containing AMPARs. Read More

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November 2018

Visualization of Exo- and Endocytosis of AMPA Receptors During Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity Around Postsynaptic-Like Membrane Formed on Glass Surface.

Tomoo Hirano

Front Cell Neurosci 2018 21;12:442. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Regulation of exo- and endocytosis of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) plays a critical role in the expression of synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) at excitatory central synapses. Enhanced AMPAR exocytosis or endocytosis has been suggested to contribute to LTP or LTD, respectively. However, several unsettled fundamental questions have remained about AMPAR exo- and endocytosis in the basal condition and during synaptic plasticity: (1) Does the size of each exo- or endocytosis event, and/or do the frequencies of these events change during LTP or LTD? If they change, what are the time courses of the respective changes? (2) Where does the exo- or endocytosis preferentially occur in each condition: inside or in the vicinity of postsynaptic membrane, or in the extrasynaptic membrane? (3) Do different types of AMPAR, such as GluA1 homo-tetramer, GluA1/2 hetero-tetramer and GluA2/3 hetero-tetramer, show distinct exo- and endocytosis changes? To address these questions, we developed new methods to observe individual events of AMPAR exo- or endocytosis with a high signal to noise (SN) ratio in a culture preparation using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Read More

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November 2018

Mechanisms of CPT1C-Dependent AMPAR Trafficking Enhancement.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 8;11:275. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Laboratori de Neurofisiologia, Departament de Biomedicina, Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut, Institut de Neurociències, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

In neurons, AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function depends essentially on their constituent components:the ion channel forming subunits and ion channel associated proteins. On the other hand, AMPAR trafficking is tightly regulated by a vast number of intracellular neuronal proteins that bind to AMPAR subunits. It has been recently shown that the interaction between the GluA1 subunit of AMPARs and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1C (CPT1C), a novel protein partner of AMPARs, is important in modulating surface expression of these ionotropic glutamate receptors. Read More

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Hippocampal amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid GluA1 (AMPA GluA1) receptor subunit involves in learning and memory improvement following treatment with Centella asiatica extract in adolescent rats.

Brain Behav 2018 09 14;8(9):e01093. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Center for Neuroscience Services and Research(P3Neuro), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Jalan Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Introduction: Centella asiatica is an herbal plant that contains phytochemicals that are widely believed to have positive effects on cognitive function. The adolescent stage is a critical development period for the maturation of brain processes that encompass changes in physical and psychological systems. However, the effect of C. Read More

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September 2018

Suppression of AMPA Receptor Exocytosis Contributes to Hippocampal LTD.

J Neurosci 2018 06 21;38(24):5523-5537. Epub 2018 May 21.

Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

The decrease in number of AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) at excitatory synapses causes LTD, a cellular basis of learning and memory. The number of postsynaptic AMPARs is regulated by the balance of exocytosis and endocytosis, and enhanced endocytosis of AMPAR has been suggested to underlie the LTD expression. However, it remains unclear how endocytosis and exocytosis of AMPAR change during LTD. Read More

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Retigabine ameliorates acute stress-induced impairment of spatial memory retrieval through regulating USP2 signaling pathways in hippocampal CA1 area.

Neuropharmacology 2018 06 1;135:151-162. Epub 2018 Mar 1.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, 450052, China; Henan Key Laboratory of Precision Clinical Pharmacy, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Acute stress could trigger maladaptive changes associated with stress-related cognitive and emotional deficits. Dysfunction of ion channel or receptor in the hippocampal area has been linked to the cognitive deficits induced by stress. It is known that Kv7 channel openers, including FDA-approved drug retigabine, show cognitive protective efficacy. Read More

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Glutamate receptor GluA1 subunit is implicated in capsaicin induced modulation of amygdala LTP but not LTD.

Learn Mem 2018 01 15;25(1):1-7. Epub 2017 Dec 15.

Institute of Neurophysiology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, CCM, CCO, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Capsaicin has been shown to modulate synaptic plasticity in various brain regions including the amygdala. Whereas in the lateral amygdala the modulatory effect of capsaicin on long-term potentiation (LA-LTP) is mediated by TRPV1 channels, we have recently shown that capsaicin-induced enhancement of long term depression (LA-LTD) is mediated by TRPM1 receptors. However, the underlying mechanism by which capsaicin modulates synaptic plasticity is poorly understood. Read More

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January 2018

Anxiolytic effect of CPEB1 knockdown on the amygdala of a mouse model of inflammatory pain.

Brain Res Bull 2018 03 11;137:156-165. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China. Electronic address:

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety, stress, and fear attached to various sources. However, their pathogenesis is complicated and has not been fully elucidated. The amygdala is a vital brain region that regulates anxiety and mental disorders. Read More

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Inactivation of NMDA Receptors in the Ventral Tegmental Area during Cocaine Self-Administration Prevents GluA1 Upregulation but with Paradoxical Increases in Cocaine-Seeking Behavior.

J Neurosci 2018 01 1;38(3):575-585. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas 75390,

Cocaine self-administration increases expression of GluA1 subunits in ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons, which subsequently enhance the motivation for cocaine. This increase in GluA1 may be dependent on concomitant NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation during self-administration, similar to cocaine-induced long-term potentiation in the VTA. In this study, we used viral-mediated expression of a dominant-negative GluN1 subunit (HSV-dnGluN1) in VTA neurons to study the effect of transient NMDAR inactivation on the GluA1 increases induced by chronic cocaine self-administration in male rats. Read More

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January 2018

Altered AMPA receptor expression plays an important role in inducing bidirectional synaptic plasticity during contextual fear memory reconsolidation.

Neurobiol Learn Mem 2017 Mar 27;139:98-108. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, 4306 Walker Building, Auburn University, AL 36849, United States.

Retrieval of a memory appears to render it unstable until the memory is once again re-stabilized or reconsolidated. Although the occurrence and consequences of reconsolidation have received much attention in recent years, the specific mechanisms that underlie the process of reconsolidation have not been fully described. Here, we present the first electrophysiological model of the synaptic plasticity changes underlying the different stages of reconsolidation of a conditioned fear memory. Read More

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Essential roles of AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation and presynaptic HCN channels in fast-acting antidepressant responses of ketamine.

Sci Signal 2016 12 13;9(458):ra123. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

Department of Physiology, Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, 1135 Lincoln Drive, Carbondale, IL 62901, USA.

Although the molecular mechanism is not clear, the clinically tested drug ketamine has rapid antidepressant action that does not require the multiple weeks of treatment needed for other antidepressant drugs to have an effect. We showed that ketamine potentiated Schaffer collateral-CA1 cell excitatory synaptic transmission in hippocampal slice preparations from rodents and enhanced the phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit on Ser of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor in the hippocampal area CA1. These effects persisted when γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were pharmacologically blocked. Read More

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December 2016

Cross-regulation of Phosphodiesterase 1 and Phosphodiesterase 2 Activities Controls Dopamine-mediated Striatal α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptor Trafficking.

J Biol Chem 2016 10 7;291(44):23257-23267. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

From the Department of Pharmacological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York 10029

Dopamine, a key striatal neuromodulator, increases synaptic strength by promoting surface insertion and/or retention of AMPA receptors (AMPARs). This process is mediated by the phosphorylation of the GluA1 subunit of AMPAR by cyclic nucleotide-dependent kinases, making cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) potential regulators of synaptic strength. In this study, we examined the role of phosphodiesterase 2 (PDE2), a medium spiny neuron-enriched and cGMP-activated PDE, in AMPAR trafficking. Read More

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October 2016

Integrated regulation of AMPA glutamate receptor phosphorylation in the striatum by dopamine and acetylcholine.

Neuropharmacology 2017 01 7;112(Pt A):57-65. Epub 2016 Apr 7.

Department of Basic Medical Science, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA; Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO 64108, USA; Beijing Institute of Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

Dopamine (DA) and acetylcholine (ACh) signals converge onto protein kinase A (PKA) in medium spiny neurons of the striatum to control cellular and synaptic activities of these neurons, although underlying molecular mechanisms are less clear. Here we measured phosphorylation of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) at a PKA site (S845) as an indicator of AMPAR responses in adult rat brains in vivo to explore how DA and ACh interact to modulate AMPARs. We found that subtype-selective activation of DA D1 receptors (D1Rs), D2 receptors (D2Rs), or muscarinic M4 receptors (M4Rs) induced specific patterns of GluA1 S845 responses in the striatum. Read More

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January 2017

The rapid antidepressant and anxiolytic-like effects of YY-21 involve enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of mTOR signaling in the mPFC.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2016 07 19;26(7):1087-98. Epub 2016 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Receptor Research, Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

Although antidepressants have been widely prescribed to treat patients with major depressive disease (MDD), there is little disagreement over the need for improved antidepressant therapeutics as the typical treatments have a slow therapeutic onset and moderate efficacy. In the present study, we assessed a novel compound, YY-21, from timosaponin B-III derived from sarsasapogenin of Anemarrhenae Rhizoma. From the initial results, we found that YY-21 obviously increased presynaptic glutamate release and enhanced long-term synaptic activity within 10min as determined by excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) and field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) slices, respectively. Read More

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Acute Footshock Stress Induces Time-Dependent Modifications of AMPA/NMDA Protein Expression and AMPA Phosphorylation.

Neural Plast 2016 4;2016:7267865. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Biology and Genetic Division, Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.

Clinical studies on patients with stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders reported functional and morphological changes in brain areas where glutamatergic transmission is predominant, including frontal and prefrontal areas. In line with this evidence, several preclinical works suggest that glutamate receptors are targets of both rapid and long-lasting effects of stress. Here we found that acute footshock- (FS-) stress, although inducing no transcriptional and RNA editing alterations of ionotropic AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor subunits, rapidly and transiently modulates their protein expression, phosphorylation, and localization at postsynaptic spines in prefrontal and frontal cortex. Read More

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December 2016

The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

J Neurosci 2016 Jan;36(3):701-13

Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, California 94143-0663

Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Read More

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January 2016

Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

Pflugers Arch 2016 Apr 23;468(4):679-91. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Institute of Zoology, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 9, 30-387, Krakow, Poland.

It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. Read More

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