303 results match your criteria glia reside

Biomaterial-supported MSC transplantation enhances cell-cell communication for spinal cord injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Jan 7;12(1):36. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Suzhou Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Suzhou Municipal Hospital, Suzhou, 215000, Jiangsu Province, China.

The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system (CNS) and serves to connect the brain to the peripheral nervous system and peripheral tissues. The cell types that primarily comprise the spinal cord are neurons and several categories of glia, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Ependymal cells and small populations of endogenous stem cells, such as oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, also reside in the spinal cord. Read More

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January 2021

The Role of Gut Mucins in the Etiology of Depression.

Front Behav Neurosci 2020 5;14:592388. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Center for Brain Immunology and Glia, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States.

Major depressive disorders are global health problems that affect more than 6% of the U.S. population. Read More

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November 2020

High-resolution mouse subventricular zone stem-cell niche transcriptome reveals features of lineage, anatomy, and aging.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 12 23;117(49):31448-31458. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Cancer Biology and Genetics Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065;

Adult neural stem cells (NSC) serve as a reservoir for brain plasticity and origin for certain gliomas. Lineage tracing and genomic approaches have portrayed complex underlying heterogeneity within the major anatomical location for NSC, the subventricular zone (SVZ). To gain a comprehensive profile of NSC heterogeneity, we utilized a well-validated stem/progenitor-specific reporter transgene in concert with single-cell RNA sequencing to achieve unbiased analysis of SVZ cells from infancy to advanced age. Read More

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December 2020

Mechanosensory Signaling in Astrocytes.

J Neurosci 2020 12 29;40(49):9364-9371. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom

Mechanosensitivity is a well-known feature of astrocytes, however, its underlying mechanisms and functional significance remain unclear. There is evidence that astrocytes are acutely sensitive to decreases in cerebral perfusion pressure and may function as intracranial baroreceptors, tuned to monitor brain blood flow. This study investigated the mechanosensory signaling in brainstem astrocytes, as these cells reside alongside the cardiovascular control circuits and mediate increases in blood pressure and heart rate induced by falls in brain perfusion. Read More

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December 2020

Microstructure and resident cell-types of the feline optic nerve head resemble that of humans.

Exp Eye Res 2021 01 19;202:108315. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Ophthalmology & Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA; Surgical Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI, USA; McPherson Eye Research Institute, Madison, WI, USA. Electronic address:

The lamina cribrosa (LC) region of the optic nerve head (ONH) is considered a primary site for glaucomatous damage. In humans, biology of this region reflects complex interactions between retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons and other resident ONH cell-types including astrocytes, lamina cribrosa cells, microglia and oligodendrocytes, as well as ONH microvasculature and collagenous LC beams. However, species differences in the microanatomy of this region could profoundly impact efforts to model glaucoma pathobiology in a research setting. Read More

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January 2021

Spinal neuron-glia-immune interaction in cross-organ sensitization.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 12 21;319(6):G748-G760. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, Virginia.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), historically considered as regional gastrointestinal disorders with heightened colonic sensitivity, are increasingly recognized to have concurrent dysfunction of other visceral and somatic organs, such as urinary bladder hyperactivity, leg pain, and skin hypersensitivity. The interorgan sensory cross talk is, at large, termed "cross-organ sensitization." These organs, anatomically distant from one another, physiologically interlock through projecting their sensory information into dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and then the spinal cord for integrative processing. Read More

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December 2020

Neural control of gut homeostasis.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2020 12 7;319(6):G718-G732. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Inflammation Research Network-Snyder Institute for Chronic Diseases and Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

The gut-brain axis is a coordinated communication system that not only maintains homeostasis, but significantly influences higher cognitive functions and emotions, as well as neurological and behavioral disorders. Among the large populations of sensory and motor neurons that innervate the gut, insights into the function of primary afferent nociceptors, whose cell bodies reside in the dorsal root ganglia and nodose ganglia, have revealed their multiple crosstalk with several cell types within the gut wall, including epithelial, vascular, and immune cells. These bidirectional communications have immunoregulatory functions, control host response to pathogens, and modulate sensations associated with gastrointestinal disorders, through activation of immune cells and glia in the peripheral and central nervous system, respectively. Read More

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December 2020

Neuropeptides Modulate Local Astrocytes to Regulate Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells.

Neuron 2020 10 1;108(2):349-366.e6. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA; Neuroscience Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Neural stem cells (NSCs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) reside in a specialized local niche that supports their neurogenic proliferation to produce adult-born neurons throughout life. How local niche cells interact at the circuit level to ensure continuous neurogenesis from NSCs remains unknown. Here we report the role of endogenous neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK), released from dentate CCK interneurons, in regulating neurogenic niche cells and NSCs. Read More

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October 2020

Regeneration using endogenous neural stem cells following neonatal brain injury.

Hideo Jinnou

Pediatr Int 2021 Jan 11;63(1):13-21. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan.

Despite recent advancements in perinatal care, the incidence of neonatal brain injury has not decreased. No therapies are currently available to repair injured brain tissues. In the postnatal brain, neural stem cells reside in the ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and continuously generate new immature neurons (neuroblasts). Read More

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January 2021

Traumatic brain injury and hippocampal neurogenesis: Functional implications.

Exp Neurol 2020 09 3;331:113372. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

The Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX 77030, United States of America. Electronic address:

In the adult brain, self-renewing radial-glia like (RGL) progenitor cells have been shown to reside in the subventricular zone and the subgranular zone of the hippocampus. A large body of evidence shows that experiences such as learning, enriched environment and stress can alter proliferation and differentiation of RGL progenitor cells. The progenitor cells present in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus divide to give rise to newborn neurons that migrate to the dentate gyrus where they differentiate into adult granule neurons. Read More

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September 2020

Nanostructural Diversity of Synapses in the Mammalian Spinal Cord.

Sci Rep 2020 05 18;10(1):8189. Epub 2020 May 18.

School of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK.

Functionally distinct synapses exhibit diverse and complex organisation at molecular and nanoscale levels. Synaptic diversity may be dependent on developmental stage, anatomical locus and the neural circuit within which synapses reside. Furthermore, astrocytes, which align with pre and post-synaptic structures to form 'tripartite synapses', can modulate neural circuits and impact on synaptic organisation. Read More

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Indirect Role of AQP4b and AQP4d Isoforms in Dynamics of Astrocyte Volume and Orthogonal Arrays of Particles.

Cells 2020 03 17;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology-Molecular Cell Physiology, Institute of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Zaloška 4, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) plays a key role in the regulation of water homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). It is predominantly expressed in astrocytes lining blood-brain and blood-liquor boundaries. AQP4a (M1), AQP4c (M23), and AQP4e, present in the plasma membrane, participate in the cell volume regulation of astrocytes. Read More

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Adult Human Glioblastomas Harbor Radial Glia-like Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2020 02 30;14(2):338-350. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Neurosurgery, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA. Electronic address:

Radial glia (RG) cells are the first neural stem cells to appear during embryonic development. Adult human glioblastomas harbor a subpopulation of RG-like cells with typical RG morphology and markers. The cells exhibit the classic and unique mitotic behavior of normal RG in a cell-autonomous manner. Read More

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February 2020

Astrocytes monitor cerebral perfusion and control systemic circulation to maintain brain blood flow.

Nat Commun 2020 01 9;11(1):131. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Neuroscience, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology & Pharmacology, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Astrocytes provide neurons with essential metabolic and structural support, modulate neuronal circuit activity and may also function as versatile surveyors of brain milieu, tuned to sense conditions of potential metabolic insufficiency. Here we show that astrocytes detect falling cerebral perfusion pressure and activate CNS autonomic sympathetic control circuits to increase systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate with the purpose of maintaining brain blood flow and oxygen delivery. Studies conducted in experimental animals (laboratory rats) show that astrocytes respond to acute decreases in brain perfusion with elevations in intracellular [Ca]. Read More

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January 2020

Identification of a Unique Subretinal Microglia Type in Retinal Degeneration Using Single Cell RNA-Seq.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1185:181-186

Departments of Ophthalmology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

As the resident macrophages of central nervous system, microglia reside in the plexiform and nerve fiber layers of the retina. In degenerative diseases, monocyte-derived macrophages can be recruited to the retina, and histopathology shows abnormal accumulation of macrophages subretinally. However, due to lack of known markers, recruited cells and resident microglia are phenotypically indistinguishable, leaving a major knowledge gap about their potentially independent roles. Read More

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February 2020

Temporal Distribution Patterns of Alexa Fluor 647-Conjugated CeNPs in the Mouse Retina After a Single Intravitreal Injection.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1185:125-130

Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center and Dean McGee Eye Institute, Oklahoma City, OK, USA.

Intravitreal (IVT) injection of ophthalmic therapeutics is the most widely used drug delivery route to the posterior segment of the eye. We employed this method to deliver our inorganic, catalytic antioxidant, cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs), to rodent models of retinal degeneration. A single IVT of CeNPs delays disease progression. Read More

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February 2020

Curcumin Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Activated Neuroinflammation via Modulation of miR-199b-5p/IκB Kinase β (IKKβ)/Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) Pathway in Microglia.

Med Sci Monit 2019 Dec 21;25:9801-9810. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Yan'an University, Yan'an, Shaanxi, China (mainland).

BACKGROUND Microglia reside in the spinal cord plays a key role in the onset, progression of post-spinal cord injury (SCI) neuroinflammation. Curcumin has been shown to exhibit diverse anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of curcumin on the inflammatory response in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated microglia and its mechanism. Read More

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December 2019

Nongenetic optical modulation of neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal/glial differentiation.

Biomaterials 2019 12 8;225:119539. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education Department of Medical Genetics, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Shandong University Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China; Advanced Medical Research Institute, Shandong University Jinan, Shandong, 250012, China. Electronic address:

Photostimulation has been widely used in neuromodulation. However, existing optogenetics techniques require genetic alternation of the targeted cell or tissue. Here, we report that neural stem cells (NSCs) constitutionally express blue/red light-sensitive photoreceptors. Read More

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December 2019

Pathology of inflammatory diseases of the nervous system: Human disease versus animal models.

Hans Lassmann

Glia 2020 04 12;68(4):830-844. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Institut fur Hirnforschung, Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria.

Numerous recent studies have been performed to elucidate the function of microglia, macrophages, and astrocytes in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Regarding myeloid cells a core pattern of activation has been identified, starting with the activation of resident homeostatic microglia followed by recruitment of blood borne myeloid cells. An initial state of proinflammatory activation is at later stages followed by a shift toward an-anti-inflammatory and repair promoting phenotype. Read More

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Physiology of Microglia.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1175:129-148

Axe Neurosciences, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec, 2705, Boulevard Laurier, Québec, QC, G1V 4G2, Canada.

Microglia constitute the major immune cells that permanently reside in the central nervous system (CNS) alongside neurons and other glial cells. These resident immune cells are critical for proper brain development, actively maintain brain health throughout the lifespan and rapidly adapt their function to the physiological or pathophysiological needs of the organism. Cutting-edge fate mapping and imaging techniques applied to animal models enabled a revolution in our understanding of their roles during normal physiological conditions. Read More

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October 2019

Mitochondrial Complex I Function Is Essential for Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Proliferation and Differentiation.

Front Neurosci 2019 26;13:664. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBiS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío, CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Seville, Spain.

Neurogenesis in developing and adult mammalian brain is a tightly regulated process that relies on neural stem cell (NSC) activity. There is increasing evidence that mitochondrial metabolism affects NSC homeostasis and differentiation but the precise role of mitochondrial function in the neurogenic process requires further investigation. Here, we have analyzed how mitochondrial complex I (MCI) dysfunction affects NSC viability, proliferation and differentiation, as well as survival of the neural progeny. Read More

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Persistent Infection of the Brain Induced Neurodegeneration Associated with Activation of Complement and Microglia.

Infect Immun 2019 08 23;87(8). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA

, a common neurotropic parasite, is increasingly being linked to neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. However, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying these associations are not clear. can reside in the brain for extensive periods in the form of tissue cysts, and this process requires a continuous immune response to prevent the parasite's reactivation. Read More

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A tale of two cousins: Ependymal cells, quiescent neural stem cells and potential mechanisms driving their functional divergence.

FEBS J 2019 08 6;286(16):3110-3116. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Canada.

Recent work has suggested that stem cells exhibit far greater heterogeneity than initially thought. Indeed, their dynamic nature and shared traits with surrounding niche cells have made prospective identification of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) challenging. Refined fate mapping strategies and single-cell omics techniques have begun to clarify functionally distinct states within the adult NSC pool, the molecular signatures that govern these states, and the functional contributions/interactions with neighboring cells within the subventricular niche. Read More

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Loss of Shh signaling in the neocortex reveals heterogeneous cell recovery responses from distinct oligodendrocyte populations.

Dev Biol 2019 08 6;452(1):55-65. Epub 2019 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA; Cell Biology, Stem Cells and Development Graduate Program, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA; Program of Pediatric Stem Cell Biology, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA. Electronic address:

The majority of oligodendrocytes in the neocortex originate from neural progenitors that reside in the dorsal forebrain. We recently showed that Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling in these dorsal progenitors is required to produce normal numbers of neocortical oligodendrocytes during embryonic development. Conditional deletion of the Shh signaling effector, Smo, in dorsal progenitors caused a dramatic reduction in oligodendrocyte numbers in the embryonic neocortex. Read More

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Overexpression and activation of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor in the SIV/macaque model of HIV infection and neuroHIV.

Brain Pathol 2019 11 14;29(6):826-836. Epub 2019 May 14.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

In the present study, we investigated whether colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) is expressed on brain macrophages and microglia in the human and macaque brain and whether it is upregulated and activated after lentivirus infection in vivo and contributes to development of encephalitic lesions. We examined, using multi-label and semi-quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy, the protein expression level and cellular localization of CSF1R in brain tissues from uninfected controls and SIV-infected adult macaques with or without encephalitis and also from uninfected controls, HIV-infected encephalitic subjects and virally suppressed subjects. In the normal uninfected brain, CSF1R protein was detected only on microglia and brain macrophages but not on neurons, astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Read More

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November 2019

Effects of Curcumin on Microglial Cells.

Neurotox Res 2019 Jul 4;36(1):12-26. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Microglia are innate immune system cells which reside in the central nervous system (CNS). Resting microglia regulate the homeostasis of the CNS via phagocytic activity to clear pathogens and cell debris. Sometimes, however, to protect neurons and fight invading pathogens, resting microglia transform to an activated-form, producing inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, chemokines, iNOS/NO and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Read More

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Tissue regulatory T cells and neural repair.

Int Immunol 2019 05;31(6):361-369

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.

Inflammation and immune responses after tissue injury play pivotal roles in the pathology, resolution of inflammation, tissue recovery, fibrosis and remodeling. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the cells responsible for suppressing immune responses and can be activated in secondary lymphatic tissues, where they subsequently regulate effector T cell and dendritic cell activation. Recently, Tregs that reside in non-lymphoid tissues, called tissue Tregs, have been shown to exhibit tissue-specific functions that contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and repair. Read More

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Microglia are effector cells of CD47-SIRPα antiphagocytic axis disruption against glioblastoma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 01 2;116(3):997-1006. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Division of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Department of Neurosurgery, Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305;

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive malignant brain tumor with fatal outcome. Tumor-associated macrophages and microglia (TAMs) have been found to be major tumor-promoting immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Hence, modulation and reeducation of tumor-associated macrophages and microglia in GBM is considered a promising antitumor strategy. Read More

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January 2019

The LMTK-family of kinases: Emerging important players in cell physiology and disease pathogenesis.

Franz Wendler

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2018 Dec 29. Epub 2018 Dec 29.

University of Oxford, Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, Oxford, Oxfordshire OX13RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Lemur Tail (former tyrosine) Kinases (LMTKs) comprise a novel family of regulated serine/threonine specific kinases with three structurally and evolutionary related members. LMTKs exercise a confusing variety of cytosolic functions in cell signalling and membrane trafficking. Moreover, LMTK2 and LMTK3 also reside in the nucleus where they participate in gene transcription/regulation. Read More

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December 2018

Unique role for dentate gyrus microglia in neuroblast survival and in VEGF-induced activation.

Glia 2019 04 19;67(4):594-618. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research, Hadassah Medical School, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel.

Neurogenic roles of microglia (MG) are thought to include an active role in adult hippocampal neurogenesis in addition to their established roles in pruning surplus dendrites and clearing dead neuroblasts. However, identification of such a role and its delineation in the neurogenic cascade is yet to be established. Using diphtheria toxin-aided MG ablation, we show that MG reduction in the DG-the site where neuronal stem cells (NSCs) reside-is sufficient to impede overall hippocampal neurogenesis due to reduced survival of newly formed neuroblasts. Read More

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