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Repellent activity of acetylcarvacrol and its effects on salivary gland morphology in unfed Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Jun 4;12(5):101760. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Health Sciences, Federal University of Lavras (UFLA), Av. Dr. Sylvio, Menicucci, 1001 Lavras, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.), commonly known as brown dog tick, is a widely distributed tick species that is substantially important for human and veterinary medicine. Read More

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Microanatomical and secretory characterization of the salivary gland of the (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae), a main vector of Chagas disease.

Open Biol 2021 Jun 16;11(6):210028. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Instituto René Rachou, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Minas Gerais, Av. Augusto de Lima, 1715, CEP 30190-002, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

is the principal vector of , the aetiological agent of Chagas disease in American countries. This insect is haematophagous during all life cycles and, to antagonize its haemostatic, inflammatory and immune systems, it secretes saliva while feeding on the vertebrate host's blood. Here, we investigated characteristic changes of the salivary glands (SG) that occur during insect development. Read More

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Development of the Accessory Nidamental Gland and Associated Bacterial Community in the Hawaiian Bobtail Squid, .

Biol Bull 2021 Jun 22;240(3):205-218. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

AbstractThe Hawaiian bobtail squid, , has a female reproductive organ called the accessory nidamental gland that contains a symbiotic bacterial consortium. These bacteria are deposited from the accessory nidamental gland into the squid's egg cases, where the consortium prevents microbial fouling. The symbiont community is environmentally transmitted and conserved across host populations, yet little is known about how the organ develops and is colonized by bacteria. Read More

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Reduced uterine tissue damage during infection in TREM-1,3 deficient mice.

Infect Immun 2021 Jun 14:IAI0007221. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, U.S.A.

Genital infections with can lead to uterine and oviduct tissue damage in the female reproductive tract. Neutrophils are strongly associated with tissue damage during chlamydial infection, while an adaptive CD4 T cell response is necessary to combat infection. Activation of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) on neutrophils has previously been shown to induce and/or enhance degranulation synergistically with TLR-signaling. Read More

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Active airflow of the paranasal sinuses in extinct crocodyliforms: Evidence from a natural cast of the thalattosuchian Dakosaurus andiniensis.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

CONICET, División Paleontología Vertebrados, Museo de La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina.

The evolution of Thalattosuchia documents the unique shift among Crocodylomorpha from aquatic continental/coastal habitats to a fully pelagic lifestyle. This transition was coupled with deep modification of their skeletons, such as hydrofoil forelimbs, hypocercal tail, and loss of osteoderms. The natural snout casts of the rhacheosaurin Cricosaurus araucanensis showed that it also included changes in the internal anatomy of the snout like the enlargement of nasal glands (probably for salt excretion) and the rearrangement of the paranasal sinus system, including the internalization of the antorbital sinus. Read More

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A Comparative Review of the Cell Biology, Biochemistry, and Genetics of Lactose Synthesis.

J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Lactose is the primary carbohydrate in the milk of most mammals and is unique in that it is only synthesized by epithelial cells in the mammary glands. Lactose is also essential for the development and nutrition of infants. Across species, the concentration of lactose in milk holds a strong positive correlation with overall milk volume. Read More

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Endocrine Dysfunction in Patients with Myotonic Dystrophy.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.

Myotonic dystrophy is a dominantly inherited multisystem disorder that results from increased CTG repeats in the 3' region of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene (DMPK). The mutant DMPK mRNA remains nuclear, and sequesters RNA-binding proteins including regulators of mRNA splicing. Myotonic dystrophy is characterized by a highly variable phenotype that includes muscle weakness and myotonia, and may affect the function of many Endocrine glands. Read More

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The prevalence of dry eye in a very old population.

Acta Ophthalmol 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Medical Faculty Mannheim of the Ruprecht-Karls-University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany.

Purpose: To assess the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) and Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) in a very old population.

Methods: The Ural Very Old Study (UVOS), a population-based cohort study performed in rural and urban Bashkortostan/Russia, included 1526 (81.1%) out of 1882 eligible individuals aged 85+ years. Read More

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Expressions of CXCL12, CXCL10 and CCL18 in Warthin tumors characterized pathologically by having a lymphoid stroma with germinal centers.

Histol Histopathol 2021 Jun 14:18352. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Pathology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan.

The Warthin tumor is a benign neoplasm of the salivary glands, histologically, the tumor has an oncocytic epithelial component forming uniform rows of cells surrounded by cystic spaces associated with a lymphoid stroma often showing the presence of germinal centers. The lymphoid stroma is a representative microscopic finding. If this lymphocytic accumulation is active, some sort of transmitter should exist between the Warthin tumor cells and lymphocytes. Read More

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Establishment and long-term culture of mouse mammary stem cell organoids and breast tumor organoids.

STAR Protoc 2021 Jun 29;2(2):100577. Epub 2021 May 29.

Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461, USA.

Mammary stem cells (MaSCs) contribute to mammary epithelium development and homeostasis. They have been proposed as cells of origin for breast cancer. Here, we describe an organoid culture protocol for expansion of MaSCs from mouse tissues. Read More

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Benign malignant pancreatic lesions: Molecular insights to an ongoing debate.

World J Gastrointest Surg 2021 May;13(5):406-418

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Albany Medical Center, Albany, NY 12208, United States.

Several benign conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, and paraduodenal pancreatitis can present as mass lesions and may mimic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinically and radiologically. Thorough histologic examination with attention to certain morphologic features can assist in deciphering neoplastic from reactive, however small biopsies often remain a challenge. Variable histologic patterns in conventional PDAC may also confound the diagnosis of PDAC. Read More

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Duplication of the Pituitary Gland (DPG)-Plus Syndrome Associated With Midline Anomalies and Precocious Puberty: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:685888. Epub 2021 May 26.

Pediatric Clinic, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.

Duplication of the pituitary gland (DPG)-plus syndrome is a very rare developmental disorder with few cases described in the literature and characterized by multiple midline and central nervous system malformations. The hypothalamus and hypophysis involvement may be clinically associated with endocrine abnormalities. A 5. Read More

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Anhedonic Type Behavior and Anxiety Profile of Wistar-UIS Rats Subjected to Chronic Social Isolation.

Front Behav Neurosci 2021 28;15:663761. Epub 2021 May 28.

Neurosciences and Behavior, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana Sectional Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia.

Chronic Social Isolation (CSI) is a model of prolonged stress employed in a variety of studies to induce depression and anxious behavior in rats. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of CSI on male Wistar rats in terms of "anhedonic-type" behavior in the Sucrose Preference Test (SPT) and anxiogenic profile in the elevated-plus-maze (EPM) test, as well as evaluating the effect of resocialization upon sucrose consumption. A total of 24 adolescent male Wistar rats were evaluated. Read More

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Synchronous incidental double parathyroid adenomas and papillary thyroid carcinoma: A case report with literature review.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):954-963

Fellow, Breast and Endocrine Surgery, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The association between parathyroid and thyroid diseases is not uncommon; however, the concurrent presence of parathyroid adenoma and thyroid cancer is rare. Awareness of this situation will enable clinicians to consider possible parathyroid pathology in patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The presence of parathyroid adenoma leading to primary hyperparathyroidism and the coexistence of thyroid papillary cancer is rare. Read More

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Treatment of sialorrhea with botulinum toxin A injection in children.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jun;24(6):847-852

Department of Pediatric Pulmonology, Meram Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the effectivity and safety of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) to reduce sialorrhea in children with hypersalivation due to neurological diseases.

Methods: Patients who had a complaint of severe sialorrhea were included in the study. Drooling severity of the patients was evaluated using the classification of Thomas-Stonell and Greenberg. Read More

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Cystic Parathyroid Adenomas: An Enigmatic Entity and Role of Tc-99 m Sestamibi Scintigraphy.

Endocr Pract 2021 Jun 13;27(6):614-620. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Sector 12, Chandigarh 160012, India.

Objective: Functional cystic lesion of the parathyroid gland is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). They have been postulated to arise from the hemorrhage and cystic degeneration in the parathyroid adenoma (PA). We intended to analyze their scintigraphic and histopathological findings since available literature is sparse. Read More

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Second Report of Fusion in Pediatric Spindle Cell Sarcoma With Infantile Fibrosarcoma-Like Morphology Suggesting Fusion Is a Recurrent Event.

Pediatr Dev Pathol 2021 Jun 13:10935266211012186. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Division of Molecular Pathology, Translational Genomics Research Institute, Phoenix, Arizona.

Infantile/congenital fibrosarcoma (IFS) is the most common soft tissue tumor in children less than one year of age. The most common anatomic site of IFS is in the extremities or trunk, and rarely in the abdomen or retroperitoneum. Approximately 70-90% of cases are characterized by a distinct t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation resulting in an gene fusion. Read More

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Discovery of new Salivary gland - An enigma?

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Rishikesh, 249203, India.

Regardless of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, discovering a new salivary gland turned into all the rage among the medical fraternity. The significance of the disclosure has been correlated with its clinical relevance in radiotherapy of oropharyngeal carcinoma. However, there are views against this new revelation, owing to the lack of substantial evidence. Read More

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Clinical and Genetic Findings in 28 American Cocker Spaniels with Aural Ceruminous Gland Hyperplasia and Ectasia.

J Comp Pathol 2021 May 22;185:30-44. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Finland.

American Cocker Spaniels (ACSs) develop aural ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia more often than dogs of other breeds. Data on the cause and development of these breed characteristic histopathological changes are lacking. We performed video-otoscopic examinations and dermatological work-up on 28 ACSs, obtained aural biopsies from each dog and assessed the statistical associations between the presence of ceruminous gland hyperplasia and ectasia and disease history, clinical or microbiological findings and underlying cause of otitis externa (OE). Read More

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Dysfunctional mitochondria as critical players in the inflammation of autoimmune diseases: Potential role in Sjögren's syndrome.

Autoimmun Rev 2021 Jun 9;20(8):102867. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Programa de Biología Celular y Molecular, Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

Relevant reviews highlight the association between dysfunctional mitochondria and inflammation, but few studies address the contribution of mitochondria and mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites (MERCs) to cellular homeostasis and inflammatory signaling. The present review outlines the important role of mitochondria in cellular homeostasis and how dysfunctional mitochondrion can release and misplace mitochondrial components (cardiolipin, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and mitochondrial formylated peptides) through multiple mechanisms. These components can act as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and induce an inflammatory response via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Read More

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Low reproducibility of equivocal categories of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology makes the associated risk of malignancy specific to the diagnostic center.

Endocrine 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Morphometry of Endocrine Glands, Chair of Endocrinology, Medical University of Lodz, 251 Pomorska Str, 92-213, Lodz, Poland.

Purpose: Equivocal categories (III, IV, V) of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (BSRTC) are characterized by high variability of the estimated risk of malignancy. The aim of the study was to analyze the reproducibility of classification of nodules into an equivocal category and the frequency of malignancy (FoM) observed in such categories.

Methods: Five experienced cytopathologists from three centers (A, B, C) independently performed reclassification of smears obtained from 213 thyroid nodules with equivocal routine cytology and known results of the postoperative histopathological examination. Read More

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Treatment of juvenile recurrent parotitis with irrigation therapy without anesthesia.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jun 12. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Philipps-University, Marburg, 35043, Baldingerstraße, Germany.

Purpose: No standardized treatment regimen exists for juvenile recurrent parotitis (JRP). The investigators hypothesized that irrigation with saline only without local anesthesia will be an effective and beneficial option.

Methods: Using a retrospective study design, a series of children with typical symptoms of JRP who were treated with at least one irrigation therapy were evaluated. Read More

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The effects of systemic aromatase inhibitors on meibomian glands and corneal structure.

Eye (Lond) 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Private Practice, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: To evaluate the ocular surface, meibomian glands and corneal structural changes using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) in patients receiving aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy due to the breast cancer.

Methods: This prospective observational study included 13 patients undergoing AI therapy. The patients were evaluated before the treatment, at 3- and 6-month timepoints of AI therapy. Read More

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Management of Salivary Gland Injury.

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Division of Maxillofacial Oncology and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, John Peter Smith Health Network, 1500 South Main Street, Fort Worth, TX 76104, USA.

Although a rare sequala of soft tissue injury, salivary gland trauma may result in significant morbidity. Salivary gland injury can involve the major as well as the minor glands. Because of the proximity of adjacent vital structures, a thorough history and physical examination are mandatory during patient evaluation. Read More

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Analysis of clinical outcomes of oropharyngeal colostrum administration in very low-birth-weight preterm newborns.

Nutrition 2021 Apr 28;90:111292. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Nutrition Institute Josué de Castro, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Colostrum is the first secretion produced by the mammary glands and is present through the seventh day after birth. Colostrum has important immunomodulatory components and protective factors that contribute to the protection and development of newborns. The oropharyngeal administration of colostrum (OAC) has been proposed as a potential nutritional option for very low-birth-weight (VLBW) newborns (<1500 g). Read More

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Antioxidant activity of Far Eastern bivalves in their natural habitat.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 7;169:105383. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, National Scientific Center of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (NSCMB FEB RAS), Vladivostok, Russia.

The activities of the key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione reductase (GR) as well as levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and integral antioxidant activity (IAA), were studied in the digestive glands and gills of 14 bivalve species. Species and tissue differences of the antioxidant (AO) systems of the investigated mollusks were discussed in connection with their physiological and biochemical peculiarities. This article describes the role of the AO system of mollusks in adaptation to natural habitat conditions and shows the relationship of AO activity with the maximum habitat depth (MHD) and maximum lifespan (MLS) of these species. Read More

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Aedes aegypti SNAP and a calcium transporter ATPase influence dengue virus dissemination.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 11;15(6):e0009442. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America.

Dengue virus (DENV) is a flavivirus that causes marked human morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is transmitted to humans by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Habitat expansion of Aedes, mainly due to climate change and increasing overlap between urban and wild habitats, places nearly half of the world's population at risk for DENV infection. After a bloodmeal from a DENV-infected host, the virus enters the mosquito midgut. Read More

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18F-Choline PET/CT, MRI, and Software-Based Image Fusion Analysis in Patients With Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

Clin Nucl Med 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

From the Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Kepler University Hospital Linz GmbH Medical Faculty, Johannes Kepler University Linz Central Radiology Institute Department of General Surgery, Kepler University Hospital Linz GmbH, Linz Department of Nuclear Medicine, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of 18F-choline PET and MRI in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Furthermore, the additional value of software-based PET/MRI scan fusion was analyzed.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective study includes 42 patients (38 women) with an age between 32. Read More

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Mammary Lobular Carcinoma-Like Salivary Gland Carcinoma: Report of a Rare Case.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Pathology, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, USA.

Salivary and mammary glands are both exocrine organs sharing multiple tumorigenic processes. To the best of our knowledge, salivary gland tumors mimicking invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast have not yet been described. Herein, we report a case of a 62-year-old male who presented with progressive facial paralysis. Read More

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WFUMB position paper. Incidental findings of the salivary glands.

Med Ultrason 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department Allgemeine Innere Medizin (DAIM) Kliniken Hirslanden Beau Site, Salem und Permanence, Bern, Switzerland.

A salivary incidentaloma (SI) stands for any focal salivary lesion, independent of size, discovered by any imaging method including ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), multimodal positron emis-sion tomography (PET) combined with CT or MRI, or X-ray imaging, performed for another reason, in the absence of known salivary glands' disease. The article presents a detailed analysis of salivary gland diseases with the emphasis on neoplasms. It describes frequency of SIs found on imaging, their prevalence, epidemiology and clinical significance. Read More

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