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Impact of anatomic site of distant metastasis on survival in salivary gland cancers.

Head Neck 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Illinois Hospital and Health Sciences System, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Background: As exemplified in patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), metastatic salivary gland cancers display heterogenous behavior. Although anatomic site of metastasis has been suggested to be prognostic for survival in this population, this is not adequately characterized in the current literature.

Methods: Using the National Cancer Database (NCDB), patients with newly diagnosed metastatic salivary gland cancers with distant metastasis to a single organ were identified. Read More

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Detection of cancer metastasis: past, present and future.

Clin Exp Metastasis 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL, 33612, USA.

The clinical importance of metastatic spread of cancer has been recognized for centuries, and melanoma has loomed large in historical descriptions of metastases, as well as the numerous mechanistic theories espoused. The "fatal black tumor" described by Hippocrates in 5000 BC that was later termed "melanose" by Rene Laennec in 1804 was recognized to have the propensity to metastasize by William Norris in 1820. And while the prognosis of melanoma was uniformly acknowledged to be dire, Samuel Cooper described surgical removal as having the potential to improve prognosis. Read More

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Salivary glands in workers of Ruptitermes spp. (Blattaria, Isoptera, Termitidae, Apicotermitinae): a morphological and preoteomic approach.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Centro de Estudos de Insetos Sociais-CEIS, Instituto de Biociências, Univ Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Campus Rio Claro, Avenida 24A, 1515, Bela Vista, Rio Claro, SP, 13506-900, Brazil.

Salivary glands are omnipresent in termites and occur in all developmental stages and castes. They function to produce, store, and secrete compounds, ranging from a feeding function to defensive mechanisms. Here, we provide a complete morphological overview of the salivary glands in the soldierless species Ruptitermes reconditus and R. Read More

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CD9-positive cells in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland are important supplier for prolactin-producing cells in the anterior lobe.

Cell Tissue Res 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Laboratory of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Department of Health Sciences, Kyorin University, 5-4-1 Shimorenjaku, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8612, Japan.

A supply of hormone-producing cells from stem/progenitor cells is critical to sustain the endocrine activity of the pituitary gland. In the adenohypophysis composing the anterior and intermediate lobe (AL and IL, respectively), stem/progenitor cells expressing sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) and S100β are located in the marginal cell layer (MCL) facing Rathke's cleft (primary niche) and the parenchyma of the AL (secondary niche). Our previous studies using mice and rats indicated that the tetraspanin superfamily CD9 and CD81 are expressed in S100β/SOX2-positive cells of primary and secondary niches (named CD9/CD81/S100β/SOX2-positive cell), and the cells located in the AL-side niches exhibit plasticity and multipotency. Read More

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Treatment-resistant actinic keratoses are characterized by distinct clinical and histological features.

Ital J Dermatol Venerol 2021 Apr;156(2):213-219

Faculty of Health, University Witten-Herdecke, Witten, Germany.

Background: Actinic keratoses (AK) are generally treated to reduce the risk of progression into invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC). However, this risk of transformation is low, and rather than focusing on these lesions, current treatment studies report on complete clearance of AKs in an entire field. This study aimed to investigate treatment-resistant AKs (trAK) after field therapy compared to randomly chosen AKs prior to treatment. Read More

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Competing-risks nomograms for predicting cause-specific mortality in parotid-gland carcinoma: A population-based analysis.

Cancer Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Clinical Research, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Introduction: Parotid-gland carcinoma (PGC) is a relatively rare tumor that comprises a group of heterogeneous histologic subtypes. We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program database to apply a competing-risks analysis to PGC patients, and then established and validated predictive nomograms for PGC.

Methods: Specific screening criteria were applied to identify PGC patients and extract their clinical and other characteristics from the SEER database. Read More

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[Modern ideas about bulbourethral glands].

Urologiia 2021 May(2):128-134

V.I. Vernadsky Crimean Federal University, Simferopol, Republic of Crimea, Russia.

Bulbourethral glands are the accessory glands of the male reproductive system, the leading function of which is associated with ejaculation and includes both the neutralization of the acidic urine residues and environment of the female vagina, and friction reduction during the sexual intercourse. These glands play the role of immune barrier for urogenital infections, and also synthesize important autocrine and paracrine factors for the male urogenital system development. Glands pathologies usually have a subclinical course, however they can also lead to the functional disorders of the human urogenital system. Read More

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Effects of hatching enzymes on egg envelope digestion in the male-brooding seahorse.

Mol Reprod Dev 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Marine Bio-resources and Ecology (LMB), South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Innovation Academy of South China Sea Ecology and Environmental Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hatching enzymes on the egg envelope digestion during the hatching period in the male brooding seahorse. The complementary DNAs encoding two hatching-enzyme genes, high choriolytic enzyme (HCE) and low choriolytic enzyme (LCE), were cloned and functionally characterized from the lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus). The genomic-synteny analysis confirmed that teleosts shared LCE gene synteny. Read More

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A hypothetical role for autophagy during the day/night rhythm regulated melatonin synthesis in the rat pineal gland.

J Pineal Res 2021 May 6:e12742. Epub 2021 May 6.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Animal Reproduction and Germplasm Enhancement in Universities of Shandong, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao, 266109, China.

Melatonin is a highly conserved molecule that regulates day/night rhythms; it is associated with sleep improvement, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, anti-ageing effects, seasonal and circadian rhythms, and has been a hot topic of research for decades. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, a recent study describes a single-cell transcriptome atlas for the rat pineal gland. Based on a more comprehensive analysis of the retrieved data (Mays et al. Read More

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A Pro-Tumorigenic Effect of Heparanase 2 (Hpa2) in Thyroid Carcinoma Involves Its Localization to the Nuclear Membrane.

Front Oncol 2021 20;11:645524. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Carmel Medical Center, Haifa, Israel.

Activity of the endo-beta-glucuronidase heparanase, capable of cleaving heparan sulfate (HS), is most often elevated in many types of tumors, associating with increased tumor metastasis and decreased patients' survival. Heparanase is therefore considered to be a valid drug target, and heparanase inhibitors are being evaluated clinically in cancer patients. Heparanase 2 (Hpa2) is a close homolog of heparanase that gained very little attention, likely because it lacks HS-degrading activity typical of heparanase. Read More

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A Uniquely Challenging Case of Poorly Controlled Hyperthyroidism With a Coexisting Thyroglossal Cyst.

Cureus 2021 Apr 3;13(4):e14271. Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Internal Medicine, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Manama, BHR.

Hyperthyroidism is a common disease. Thyroglossal duct cysts are also a very common type of congenital anomalies. Their co-existence is, however, rare with only a few cases described in the literature of the same. Read More

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NR4A3 (NOR-1) Immunostaining Shows Better Performance than DOG1 Immunostaining in Acinic Cell Carcinoma of Salivary Gland: a Preliminary Study.

J Oral Maxillofac Res 2021 Jan-Mar;12(1):e4. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Diagnostic Sciences, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PennsylvaniaUnited States.

Objectives: Acinic cell carcinoma of salivary gland harbours recurrent and specific chromosomal rearrangement [t(4;9)(q13;q31)], resulting in the translocation of secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein gene cluster at 4q13 to nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group a member 3 at 9q31. This upregulates the transcription factor nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3, which can be detected by immunohistochemistry. The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the performance of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 immunostaining on whole-slide acinic cell carcinoma tissue, in comparison with discovered on GIST-1 immunostaining. Read More

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Derivation of Thyroid Follicular Cells From Pluripotent Stem Cells: Insights From Development and Implications for Regenerative Medicine.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:666565. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Regenerative Medicine, Boston University and Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States.

Stem cell-based therapies to reconstitute organ function hold great promise for future clinical applications to a variety of diseases. Hypothyroidism resulting from congenital lack of functional thyrocytes, surgical tissue removal, or gland ablation, represents a particularly attractive endocrine disease target that may be conceivably cured by transplantation of long-lived functional thyroid progenitors or mature follicular epithelial cells, provided a source of autologous cells can be generated and a variety of technical and biological challenges can be surmounted. Here we review the emerging literature indicating that thyroid follicular epithelial cells can now be engineered from the pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) of mice, normal humans, or patients with congenital hypothyroidism. Read More

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Unraveling the Complex Interplay Between Transcription Factors and Signaling Molecules in Thyroid Differentiation and Function, From Embryos to Adults.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 20;12:654569. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas "Alberto Sols", Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) y Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (UAM), Madrid, Spain.

Thyroid differentiation of progenitor cells occurs during embryonic development and in the adult thyroid gland, and the molecular bases of these complex and finely regulated processes are becoming ever more clear. In this , we describe the most recent advances in the study of transcription factors, signaling molecules and regulatory pathways controlling thyroid differentiation and development in the mammalian embryo. We also discuss the maintenance of the adult differentiated phenotype to ensure the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Read More

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Progesterone promotes immunomodulation and tumor development in the murine mammary gland.

J Immunother Cancer 2021 May;9(5)

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, Kansas, USA

Background: Clinical studies have linked usage of progestins (synthetic progesterone [P4]) to breast cancer risk. However, little is understood regarding the role of native P4, signaling through the progesterone receptor (PR), in breast tumor formation. Recently, we reported a link between PR and immune signaling pathways, showing that P4/PR can repress type I interferon signaling pathways. Read More

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Salivary gland cystadenocarcinoma: Rare neoplasm in buccal mucosa.

Oral Oncol 2021 May 3:105314. Epub 2021 May 3.

Clinical and Preventive Dentistry Department, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

A 72-year-old female was referred for diagnosis of a lesion located in the right buccal mucosa, with duration unknown. At intraoral examination, the lesion appeared as a well-delimited, mobile, and submucosal nodule. A benign mesenchymal neoplasm was the main hypothesis of diagnosis. Read More

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Angiosarcoma of the Adrenal Gland.

Lori A Erickson

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 May;96(5):1376-1378

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

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Dual thyroid ectopia with submental thyroid excision using Sistrunk procedure: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2021 Apr 27;82:105909. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Head and Neck Unit, Westmead Hospital, 166-174 Hawkesbury Road, Westmead, NSW 2145, Australia.

Introduction And Importance: Having two or more sites of simultaneous ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare phenomenon. Thyroid ectopia should be considered in congenital hypothyroidism where no eutopic thyroid gland is found.

Case Presentation: This case describes an incidental finding of dual ectopic thyroid tissue on computer tomography scan in an adult with known congenital hypothyroidism that was previously attributed to thyroid agenesis. Read More

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Septum submucosal glands exhibit aberrant morphology and reduced mucin production in chronic rhinosinusitis.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Program in Craniofacial Biology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA.

Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is characterized by significant accumulation and thickening of mucus in the sinonasal cavities. One contributor of aberrant mucus production and impaired mucociliary clearance (MCC) is altered function of the sinonasal submucosal glands (SMGs), yet contributions of SMGs to upper airway disease initiation and progression remain unknown. The objective of this study was to characterize the morphology and secretory cell identities of the nasal septum SMGs in both healthy and CRS adults. Read More

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Regulation of arsenic methylation: identification of the transcriptional region of the human AS3MT gene.

Cell Biol Toxicol 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Cellular Biology and Pharmacology, Florida International University, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

The human enzyme As(III) S-adenosylmethionine methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes arsenic biotransformations and is considered to contribute to arsenic-related diseases. AS3MT is expressed in various tissues and cell types including liver, brain, adrenal gland, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not in human keratinocytes, urothelial, or brain microvascular endothelial cells. This indicates that AS3MT expression is regulated in a tissue/cell type-specific manner, but the mechanism of transcriptional regulation of expression of the AS3MT gene is not known. Read More

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Tertiary hyperparathyroidism: a review.

Clin Ter 2021 May;172(3):241-246

Department of Surgical, Oncological and Oral Sciences, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

Abstract: Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (HPT III) occurs when an excess of parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted by parathyroid glands, usually after longstanding secondary hyperparathyroidism. Some authorities reserve the term for secondary hyperparathyroidism that persists after successful renal transplantation. Long-standing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with several metabolic disturbances that lead to increased secretion of PTH, including hyperphosphatemia, calcit-riol deficiency, and hypocalcaemia. Read More

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Prevalence, aetiology and risk factors of mastitis of dairy cows kept under extensive management system in west Wollega, western Oromia, Ethiopia.

Vet Med Sci 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Bedelle Regional Veterinary Laboratory Center, Bedelle, Ethiopia.

Introduction: Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland that could either be clinical or subclinical, and can be caused by infectious agents. It has different aetiological pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Escherichia coli that pose different economic and health impacts. In Ethiopia, previous studies on mastitis have been focused on semi-intensive and intensive dairy production system. Read More

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Neonatal suppurative parotitis: Case reports and literature review.

Pediatr Int 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics, NTT East Sapporo Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan.

Background: Neonatal suppurative parotitis is a rare disease, characterized mainly by unilateral parotid swelling with erythema and tenderness, and often purulent discharge from the Stensen's duct into the oral cavity. Only 44 cases were reported in the English literature between 1970 and 2013.

Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted using the terms acute, neonatal, newborn, suppurative, bacterial, purulent, parotitis, parotid swelling, and parotid abscess, limited to the English-language literature starting from 2011. Read More

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Enhanced anti-angiogenic activity of novel melatonin-like agents.

J Pineal Res 2021 May 5:e12739. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in cellular responses to hypoxia, including the transcriptional activation of several genes involved in tumor angiogenesis. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methopxytryptamine, is produced naturally by the pineal gland and has anti-angiogenic effects in cancer through its ability to modulate HIF-1α activity. However, the use of melatonin as a therapeutic is limited by its low oral bioavailability and short half-life. Read More

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Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Meibomian Gland Lipids.

Jianzhong Chen

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2306:157-170

Department of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The precorneal tear film keeps the eye surface moist and helps to maintain normal eye function. The outermost lipid layer of the tear film, which attenuates tear film evaporation, contains meibum secreted from the meibomian gland. Most meibum lipids are neutral, including wax esters (WEs), cholesteryl esters (CEs), and diesters (DEs), along with some polar lipids including free fatty acids (FFAs), O-acyl-ω-hydroxy fatty acids (OAHFAs), and trace phospholipids. Read More

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January 2021

Regulation of Body Size and Growth Control.

Genetics 2020 Oct;216(2):269-313

The control of body and organ growth is essential for the development of adults with proper size and proportions, which is important for survival and reproduction. In animals, adult body size is determined by the rate and duration of juvenile growth, which are influenced by the environment. In nutrient-scarce environments in which more time is needed for growth, the juvenile growth period can be extended by delaying maturation, whereas juvenile development is rapidly completed in nutrient-rich conditions. Read More

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October 2020

Polymorphism and Divergence of Novel Gene Expression Patterns in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetics 2020 Sep;216(1):79-93

One mechanism by which transcriptomes evolve is though tissue-specific gene expression. Cridland et al. measured gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster in five tissues: accessory gland, testis, larval salivary gland, head, and first. Read More

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September 2020

A New Role for Neuropeptide F Signaling in Controlling Developmental Timing and Body Size in Drosophila melanogaster.

Genetics 2020 Sep;216(1):135-144

Tasmanian School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania 7000, Australia.

As juvenile animals grow, their behavior, physiology, and development need to be matched to environmental conditions to ensure they survive to adulthood. However, we know little about how behavior and physiology are integrated with development to achieve this outcome. Neuropeptides are prime candidates for achieving this due to their well-known signaling functions in controlling many aspects of behavior, physiology, and development in response to environmental cues. Read More

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September 2020

Adrenal and Hepatic Venous Sampling in a Case of Aldosterone-Producing Adrenocortical Carcinoma with Hepatic Metastasis.

Case Rep Endocrinol 2021 14;2021:5584198. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Japanese Red Cross Musashino Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare and highly aggressive malignancy. ACCs often secrete adrenal steroid hormones including cortisol and androgens; however, aldosterone-producing ACC is very rare. Although adrenal production of aldosterone is assessed by adrenal venous sampling, the use of sampling from the relevant vein to assess aldosterone production from a tumor arising from ACC metastasis has not been previously reported. Read More

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