34 results match your criteria gird pitchers


Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit on pitching biomechanics and muscle activity.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

School & Graduate Institute of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

To characterize the scapular pitching biomechanics in symptomatic GIRD pitchers (SG) compared to asymptomatic GIRD (ASG) and healthy pitchers. The scapular kinematics and associated muscle activities during pitching were recorded in 33 high school pitchers. Compared to healthy, GIRD pitchers had less scapular posterior tilt in each pitching event (average difference, AD = 14. Read More

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October 2021

Shoulder Range of Motion Deficits in Youth Throwers Presenting With Elbow Pain.

Sports Health 2021 Aug 20:19417381211036387. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Andrews Institute for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Gulf Breeze, Florida.

Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) and total arc of motion difference (TAMD) have been associated with elbow injuries in throwing athletes.

Hypothesis: Youth pitchers with elbow pain will have greater GIRD and TAMD compared with youth pitchers without elbow pain.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Read More

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The Relationship between the Glenohumeral Joint Internal Rotation Deficit and the Trunk Compensation Movement in Baseball Pitchers.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Mar 5;57(3). Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Graduate Institute of Sports Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan 333325, Taiwan.

Background And Objectives: Glenohumeral joint internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is commonly observed in the dominant arm of baseball pitchers and is limited by horizontal adduction motions. We inferred that when pitchers' generation of internal shoulder rotation and horizontal adduction activity is limited, they may generate compensation movements in other body parts. This study aims to investigate whether pitchers with GIRD generates trunk compensation during pitching where pitching targets were on the lower corner of their non-dominant side. Read More

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Chronic Adaptations of the Posterior Rotator Cuff in Professional Pitchers.

Am J Sports Med 2021 03 16;49(4):892-898. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Rothman Orthopaedic Institute, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Because of the large forces and high frequency of throwing, the upper extremity experiences repetitive stresses that lead to acute and chronic adaptations. While the importance of pennation angle and muscle thickness as predictors of muscle force production has been shown in other populations and other joints, there has been little research done that examines these variables in the shoulders of baseball players.

Purpose: (1) To examine the chronic effect pitching has on the rotator cuff muscle architecture (pennation angle and muscle thickness) in healthy professional baseball pitchers, and (2) to examine the correlation between muscle architecture and clinical measures of strength and range of motion (ROM). Read More

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The potential impact from glenohumeral internal rotation deficit to the knee kinematics in baseball pitchers: A case-control study.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Jan;100(3):e24066

Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Taoyuan General Hospital Ministry of Health and Welfare, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

Abstract: A recent study suggested that baseball pitchers with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) may tend to use trunk rotation as compensation to adjust ball placement, which may lead to subsequent counter movement at the knee of the leading leg.This study aims to investigate the kinematic characteristics of the counter movements between the femur and the tibia (knee torsion), from the landing of the leading leg until the follow-through phase, during throwing between pitchers with and without GIRD at the dominant arm.This is a case-control study. Read More

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January 2021

The Effect of Straight-Line Long-Toss Versus Ultra-Long-Toss Throwing on Passive Glenohumeral Range of Motion Recovery After Pitching.

Sports Health 2021 May-Jun;13(3):237-244. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Background: Repetitive throwing in baseball pitchers can lead to pathologic changes in shoulder anatomy, range of motion (notably glenohumeral internal rotation deficit), and subsequent injury; however, the ideal strengthening, recovery, and maintenance protocol of the throwing shoulder in baseball remains unclear. Two strategies for throwing shoulder recovery from pitching are straight-line long-toss (SLT) throwing and ultra-long-toss (ULT) throwing, although neither is preferentially supported by empirical data.

Hypothesis: ULT will be more effective in returning baseline internal rotation as compared with SLT in collegiate pitchers after a pitching session. Read More

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Comparison of the Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping and Sleeper Stretching on the Shoulder Rotation Range of Motion, Manual Muscle Strength, and Sub-Acromial Space in Pitchers with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jan 23;57(2). Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Athletic Training and Health, National Taiwan Sports University, Taoyuan 333325, Taiwan.

Background And Objectives: Sleeper stretching (SS) can improve the shoulder's range of motion (ROM) for pitchers with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD). However, no evidence has proven the effect of Kinesio taping (KT) on shoulder strength and ROM. Therefore, this study compared the effects of SS and KT on shoulder rotation ROM, muscle strength, and sub-acromial distance in pitchers with GIRD. Read More

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January 2021

Relationship between glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and shoulder conditions in professional baseball pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Sep 5;30(9):2073-2081. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.

Background: Previous studies have reported that glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) may increase the risk of throwing-shoulder injuries. The purpose of this study was to analyze the conditions of the throwing shoulder in professional baseball pitchers with GIRD by comparing with those in pitchers without GIRD.

Methods: In total, 26 male professional baseball pitchers participated in this study. Read More

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September 2021

Effect of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on Shoulder in Baseball Pitchers during Fastball Pitching.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 6;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Sport Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

Previous studies have reported that pitchers with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) may increase the risk of shoulder injury. However, limited information is available regarding the specific effects of GIRD in baseball pitching. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether baseball pitchers with GIRD change their pitching mechanism. Read More

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November 2020

Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in non-pitcher overhead athletic athletes: case series analysis of ten athletes.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) 2020 Oct 8;58:138-142. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopaedic & Traumatology, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia.

Background: The glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) is diagnosed when there is a loss of 20° of internal rotation compared to the contralateral shoulder. This condition has already been well described in a group of throwing athletes, i.e. Read More

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October 2020

The relationship between shoulder range of motion and elbow stress in college pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 7;30(3):504-511. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.

Hypothesis: College pitchers with increased external rotation gain (ERG) produce increased medial elbow torque (elbow stress) whereas those with reduced total rotational range of motion (ROM) have reduced medial elbow torque during pitching.

Methods: Pitchers were recruited from 3 college baseball teams. Players with prior injury or on pitching restrictions because of pain were excluded. Read More

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ELECTROMYOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS TEST IN A BASEBALL PITCHER WITH A SLAP LESION: A CASE REPORT.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2020 May;15(3):471-477

Japan Town Medical Group, San Jose, CA, USA.

Background And Purpose: The return to play percentage of baseball pitchers who have undergone isolated superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) repair has been reported to be less than 60%. Scapular dyskinesis (SD), characterized by scapular prominence during dynamic scapulohumeral movements, may be used to assist in diagnosing a baseball pitcher with shoulder pathology including a SLAP lesion. The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of the SD test to assess the scapular muscles and report EMG findings in a college baseball pitcher diagnosed with a Type 2 posterior SLAP lesion. Read More

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Do anatomic changes found in the throwing arm after a season of pitching resolve with off-season rest? A dynamic ultrasound study.

JSES Open Access 2019 Dec 15;3(4):338-343. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA.

Hypothesis: Our hypothesis was that seasonal adaptive changes in the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), ulnohumeral joint space (UHJS), and glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) of the pitching extremity would subsequently resolve with off-season rest.

Methods: Eleven collegiate pitchers underwent preseason, postseason, and off-season evaluations including physical examination; dynamic ultrasound imaging of the UCL and UHJS; and the short version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH) questionnaire. Ultrasound images were evaluated by 2 fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists. Read More

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December 2019

SHOULDER RANGE OF MOTION CHARACTERISTICS IN DIVISION III COLLEGIATE SOFTBALL AND BASEBALL PLAYERS.

Int J Sports Phys Ther 2019 Sep;14(5):770-784

Department of Physical Therapy, Utica College, NY, USA.

Background: Adaptive changes may occur to the throwing shoulder of overhead athletes that can influence range-of-motion (ROM). Shoulder ROM characteristics of Division III softball (SB) and baseball (BB) players are unique.

Hypothesis/purpose: To report the passive ROM characteristics of Division III SB and BB players and identify similarities and differences between these two populations. Read More

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September 2019

Relationship Between Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit and Medial Elbow Torque in High School Baseball Pitchers.

Am J Sports Med 2019 10 9;47(12):2821-2826. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: Alterations in throwing mechanics have been identified as a risk factor for overuse injuries in baseball players. Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) has been found to adversely affect throwing mechanics, but the effect of GIRD on medial elbow torque is unclear.

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between GIRD and medial elbow torque in high school-aged baseball pitchers. Read More

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October 2019

The differences of humeral torsion angle and the glenohumeral rotation angles between young right-handed and left-handed pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2019 Apr 27;28(4):678-684. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Science, Nagoya, Japan; Department of Sports and Fitness, Faculty of Wellness, Shigakkan University, Obu, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: The differences between young right-handed and left-handed baseball players are not well known. This study compared the range of the shoulder motion and humeral torsion angle (HTA) between right-handed and left-handed young baseball pitchers.

Methods: A total of 65 young baseball pitchers (age, 9-12 years; 46 right-handed throwers, R group; and 19 left-handed throwers, L group) were analyzed. Read More

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Differentiation of bony and soft-tissue adaptations of the shoulder in professional baseball pitchers.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Aug 2;27(8):1491-1496. Epub 2018 May 2.

Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Baseball pitching places tremendous forces on the arm, which may lead to structural tissue adaptations that are represented by changes in rotational range of motion (ROM). These adaptations often include both bony and soft tissue; however, the contribution of each tissue to the change in motion is not always clinically attainable. The purposes of this study were to determine the adaptations of ROM, bone, and soft tissue bilaterally and to examine the correlation between clinical ROM and humeral retroversion (HR)-corrected ROM. Read More

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Effects of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit on baseball pitching among pitchers of different ages.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2018 Apr 11;27(4):599-605. Epub 2017 Dec 11.

Department of Sports Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; Department of Medical Research, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Previous studies have reported that glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) may increase the risk of shoulder injury. However, the effects of GIRD on baseball pitching among pitchers of different age groups are still unclear.

Methods: The study participants were 24 high school and 24 university pitchers. Read More

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Sleeper stretch accelerates recovery of glenohumeral internal rotation after pitching.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2016 Dec 10;25(12):1925-1929. Epub 2016 Oct 10.

Department of Kinesiology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The natural time course for recovery of glenohumeral internal rotation (IR) loss after a throwing episode is unknown. In addition, the effect of the sleeper stretch on the time course for recovery of motion after a throwing episode has never been investigated. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to (1) to determine the natural time course for spontaneous recovery of IR after a throwing episode and (2) to evaluate the effect of the sleeper stretch on the time course for recovery of IR after a throwing episode. Read More

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December 2016

Trends in the Presentation, Management, and Outcomes of Little League Shoulder.

Am J Sports Med 2016 Jun 16;44(6):1431-8. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: With rising participation in youth sports such as baseball, proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, or Little League shoulder (LLS), is being seen with increasing frequency. However, there remains a paucity of literature regarding the causes, natural history, or treatment outcomes of LLS.

Purpose: To analyze the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic features of a population of LLS patients, with an emphasis on identifying underlying risk factors for the development and recurrence of LLS after nonoperative treatment. Read More

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Relation between glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and valgus laxity of the elbow in high school baseball pitchers.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Mar 8;57(3):260-266. Epub 2016 Mar 8.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Gunma University, Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.

Background: There are few literatures describing the association between glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) and valgus laxity of the elbow on the throwing side of high school pitchers with and without a history of elbow symptom.

Methods: The passive range of motion of glenohumeral internal and external rotation on bilateral side shoulders was measured in 75 high-school baseball pitchers during the preseason. Using ultrasonography, the width of the ulnohumeral joint of the elbow was measured at 30° of flexion, both at rest and with valgus stress in the pitching side. Read More

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The Relationship Between Glenohumeral Internal Rotational Deficits, Total Range of Motion, and Shoulder Strength in Professional Baseball Pitchers.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2015 Dec;23(12):789-96

Introduction: Although the lack of internal rotation (IR) and total range of motion (TRM) has been identified as a significant contributing factor of shoulder injuries, our goal was to determine whether a relationship exists between glenohumeral internal rotational deficits (GIRD), TRM, and shoulder strength in professional baseball pitchers. Our hypothesis was that GIRD with TRM differences within 5° will not lead to decreased shoulder strength; however, a shoulder with >5° of TRM difference with GIRD will lead to decreased shoulder strength.

Methods: The study was conducted over a 4-year period and included 193 major and minor league pitchers. Read More

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December 2015

Humeral Retrotorsion in Pitchers With GIRD: Letter to the Editor.

Authors:
John D Kelly

Am J Sports Med 2015 Jul;43(7):NP19

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA

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Acute changes in glenohumeral range-of-motion following in-season minor league pitching starts.

Phys Sportsmed 2015 Nov 22;43(4):360-5. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

b 2 Wake Forest Baptist Health - Orthopaedic Surgery , Winston Salem, NC, USA.

Background: Asymmetric glenohumeral range-of-motion (ROM) between the throwing and non-throwing arms of overhead athletes has been well described in the literature. Thresholds of internal rotation (IR) loss have been associated with throwing arm injury in baseball players. Acute changes in shoulder ROM following an individual pitching appearance remain poorly understood. Read More

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November 2015

Professional Pitchers With Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit (GIRD) Display Greater Humeral Retrotorsion Than Pitchers Without GIRD.

Am J Sports Med 2015 Jun 25;43(6):1448-54. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Proaxis Therapy, Greenville, South Carolina, USA South Carolina Center for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Science, Greenville, South Carolina, USA

Background: Dominant shoulder glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) has been associated with pitching arm injuries. The relationship of humeral torsion on development of GIRD is not clear.

Hypothesis: Pitchers displaying GIRD will display greater humeral retrotorsion when compared with those without GIRD. Read More

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Deficits in glenohumeral passive range of motion increase risk of elbow injury in professional baseball pitchers: a prospective study.

Am J Sports Med 2014 Sep 18;42(9):2075-81. Epub 2014 Jun 18.

American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, Alabama, USA.

Background: Injuries to the elbow joint in baseball pitchers appear common. There appears to be a correlation between shoulder range of motion and elbow injuries.

Purpose: To prospectively determine whether decreased ROM of the throwing shoulder is correlated with the onset of elbow injuries in professional baseball pitchers. Read More

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September 2014

Return to play after treatment of superior labral tears in professional baseball players.

Am J Sports Med 2014 May 27;42(5):1155-60. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

David M. Lintner, Houston Methodist Orthopedics and Sports Medicine, Houston Methodist Hospital, Smith Tower, 6550 Fannin Street, Suite 2600, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Background: The published return-to-play (RTP) rates for athletes who have undergone surgical repair of superior labrum anterior-posterior (SLAP) tears vary widely and are generally accepted to be lower in the subset of competitive throwers. The efficacy of nonsurgical treatment for this group is unknown.

Hypothesis: Nonsurgical treatment of SLAP tears in professional baseball players leads to RTP before consideration of surgical treatment. Read More

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Shoulder range of motion deficits in baseball players with an ulnar collateral ligament tear.

Am J Sports Med 2012 Nov 26;40(11):2597-603. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

Texas Health Ben Hogan Sports Medicine, Fort Worth, USA.

Background: Shoulder range of motion (ROM) deficits are associated with elbow injury in baseball players.

Purpose: To compare the ROM characteristics of baseball players with a diagnosed ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tear with those of a group of age-, activity-, and position-matched healthy controls.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Read More

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November 2012

Changes in passive range of motion and development of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD) in the professional pitching shoulder between spring training in two consecutive years.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2012 Nov 24;21(11):1605-12. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Proaxis Therapy, Greenville, SC, USA.

Background: Pitching causes increased mechanical stress to the arm and is thought to result in alterations in range of motion (ROM) as a result of osseous and soft tissue adaptations. Understanding the factors that contribute to alterations in ROM will allow for improved understanding of the pitching shoulder. This study examined humeral torsion (HT) and shoulder mobility over 2 consecutive years. Read More

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November 2012