576 results match your criteria gip receptor

Management of endocrine disease: Etiology and outcome of acromegaly in patients with a paradoxical GH response to glucose.

Eur J Endocrinol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

P Kamenicky, Endocrinology, Université Paris-Saclay, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

To gain more insight on the pathogenesis of somatotroph pituitary adenomas, recent studies have focused on a subgroup of patients with acromegaly displaying a paradoxical growth hormone (GH) response during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). The paradoxical rise of GH after oral glucose intake occurs in about one third of acromegaly patients and has been pathogenetically linked, by analogy to glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-dependent Cushing syndrome, to the ectopic expression of GIP receptor (GIPR) in somatotroph adenoma cells. GIPR-expressing adenomas are negative for activating GNAS gene mutations and display distinct cytogenetic and DNA methylation profiles, highlighting their unique molecular pathogenesis. Read More

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Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide modifies adipose plasticity and promotes beige adipogenesis of human omental adipose-derived stem cells.

FASEB J 2021 May;35(5):e21534

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

The adipocyte precursors (APs) located in white adipose tissue (WAT) are functionally significant in adipose plasticity and browning. Modifying adipogenesis or WAT browning targeted on APs is a promising mechanism for anti-obesity drug. We herein explored the in vitro actions and mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), a gut-derived peptide, in human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) isolated from omentum. Read More

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Chronic peptide-based GIP receptor inhibition exhibits modest glucose metabolic changes in mice when administered either alone or combined with GLP-1 agonism.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(3):e0249239. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Diabetes Research Group, School of Life Course Sciences, Faculty of Life Science and Medicine, King's College London, London, England, United Kingdom.

Combinatorial gut hormone therapy is one of the more promising strategies for identifying improved treatments for metabolic disease. Many approaches combine the established benefits of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonism with one or more additional molecules with the aim of improving metabolic outcomes. Recent attention has been drawn to the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) system due to compelling pre-clinical evidence describing the metabolic benefits of antagonising the GIP receptor (GIPR). Read More

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GIP Receptor Antagonist, SKL-14959 Indicated Alteration of the Lipids Metabolism to Catabolism by the Inhibition of Plasma LPL Activity, Resulting in the Suppression of Weight Gain on Diets-Induced Obesity Mice.

Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes 2021 9;14:1095-1105. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Biological Research Group Drug Discovery Laboratories, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Mie, Japan.

Introduction: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism via lipoprotein lipase (LPL). GIP receptor antagonist, SKL-14959, suppressed the weight gain in the diet-induced obesity model. However, the mechanism is not unclear. Read More

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GIPR Signaling in Immune Cells Maintains Metabolically Beneficial Type 2 Immune Responses in the White Fat From Obese Mice.

Front Immunol 2021 25;12:643144. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

The Research Center for Digestive Tract and Liver Diseases, Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Affiliated to Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) communicates information on energy availability from the gut to peripheral tissues. Disruption of its signaling in myeloid immune cells during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity impairs energy homeostasis due to the unrestrained metabolically deleterious actions of S100A8/A9 alarmin. White adipose tissue (WAT) type 2 immune cell networks are important for maintaining metabolic and energy homeostasis and limiting obesity-induced inflammation. Read More

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February 2021

GIP mediates the incretin effect and glucose tolerance by dual actions on α cells and β cells.

Sci Adv 2021 Mar 12;7(11). Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) communicates nutrient intake from the gut to islets, enabling optimal levels of insulin secretion via the GIP receptor (GIPR) on β cells. The GIPR is also expressed in α cells, and GIP stimulates glucagon secretion; however, the role of this action in the postprandial state is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that GIP potentiates amino acid-stimulated glucagon secretion, documenting a similar nutrient-dependent action to that described in β cells. Read More

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GIP receptor deletion in mice confers resistance to HFD-induced obesity via alterations in energy expenditure and adipose tissue lipid metabolism.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Anatomy and Physiology, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is best known as an incretin hormone that is secreted from K-cells of the proximal intestine, but evidence also implicates a role for GIP in regulating lipid metabolism and adiposity. It is well established that GIP receptor knockout (GIPR KO) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity; however, the factors mediating this effect remain unresolved. Accordingly, we aimed to elucidate the mechanisms leading to adiposity resistance in GIPR KO mice with a focus on whole-body energy balance and lipid metabolism in adipose tissues. Read More

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Spatiotemporal GLP-1 and GIP receptor signaling and trafficking/recycling dynamics induced by selected receptor mono- and dual-agonists.

Mol Metab 2021 Feb 6;49:101181. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Institute for Diabetes and Obesity, Helmholtz Diabetes Center, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany; German Center for Diabetes Research (DZD), Neuherberg, Germany; Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy, Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Eberhard Karls University Hospitals and Clinics, 72076 Tübingen, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: We assessed the spatiotemporal GLP-1 and GIP receptor signaling, trafficking, and recycling dynamics of GIPR mono-agonists, GLP-1R mono-agonists including semaglutide, and GLP-1/GIP dual-agonists MAR709 and tirzepatide.

Methods: Receptor G protein recruitment and internalization/trafficking dynamics were assessed using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based technology and live-cell HILO microscopy.

Results: Relative to native and acylated GLP-1 agonists, MAR709 and tirzepatide showed preserved maximal cAMP production despite partial Gα recruitment paralleled by diminished ligand-induced receptor internalization at both target receptors. Read More

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February 2021

Combined treatment with a gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor antagonist and a peptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor improves metabolic abnormalities in diabetic mice.

J Int Med Res 2021 Jan;49(1):300060520985664

Department of Endocrinology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an Shaanxi Province, China.

Objectives: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) receptor antagonism have therapeutic effects in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the effects of sitagliptin and Pro(GIP) in a mouse model of diabetes.

Methods: Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6J mice by a high-fat diet and intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. Read More

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January 2021

The novel GLP-1/GIP dual agonist DA3-CH is more effective than liraglutide in reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in diabetic rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 01 12;31(1):333-343. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Second Hospital, Neurology Department, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan 030001, Shanxi province, PR China; Research and Experimental Center, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou 450046, Henan province, PR China.

Background And Aims: Diabetes is one of the most important risk factors and comorbidities of ischemic stroke. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is considered to be the major injury mechanism of ischemic stroke with diabetes. Studies have found that incretin can inhibit ERS in ischemia-reperfusion injury of the liver and heart. Read More

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January 2021

Chronic treatment with anti-GIPR mAb alone and combined with DPP-4 inhibitor correct obesity, dyslipidemia and nephropathy in rodent animals.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 13;269:119038. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

The Second Clinical Medical College, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Binjiang District, Hangzhou City 310051, Zhejiang Province, PR China.

Objective: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) has been identified as a contributor to obesity, and GIPR knockout mice are protected against diet-induced obesity (DIO). Therefore, we developed the anti-GIPR antagonistic monoclonal antibody (mAb) alone and in combination with DPP-4 inhibitor as potential therapeutic strategy for treating obesity and dyslipidemia based on this genetic evidence.

Methods: Fully neutralized GIPR activity of GIPR-monoclonal antibody (mAb) was assessed by regulating the in vitro production of cAMP in the mouse GIPR stably expressing cells. Read More

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Glucagon-like peptide-1/glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide dual receptor agonist DA-CH5 is superior to exendin-4 in protecting neurons in the 6-hydroxydopamine rat Parkinson model.

Neural Regen Res 2021 Aug;16(8):1660-1670

Gerontology Institute, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China.

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have impaired insulin signaling in the brain. Incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), can re-sensitize insulin signaling. In a recent phase II clinical trial, the first GLP-1 mimic, exendin-4, has shown reliable curative effect in patients with PD. Read More

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Incretin Hormones and Type 2 Diabetes-Mechanistic Insights and Therapeutic Approaches.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Dec 16;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from the gut upon nutrient stimulation and regulate postprandial metabolism. These hormones are known as classical incretin hormones and are responsible for a major part of postprandial insulin release. The incretin effect is severely reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, but it was discovered that administration of GLP-1 agonists was capable of normalizing glucose control in these patients. Read More

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December 2020

Glucose-Dependent Insulinotropic Peptide in the High-Normal Range Is Associated With Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness.

Diabetes Care 2021 Jan 18;44(1):224-230. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Objective: While existing evidence supports beneficial cardiovascular effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), emerging studies suggest that glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and/or signaling via the GIP receptor may have untoward cardiovascular effects. Indeed, recent studies show that fasting physiological GIP levels are associated with total mortality and cardiovascular mortality, and it was suggested that GIP plays a role in pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. We investigated the associations between fasting and postchallenge GIP and GLP-1 concentrations and subclinical atherosclerosis as measured by mean intima-media thickness in the common carotid artery (IMTCCA) and maximal intima-media thickness in the carotid bifurcation (IMTBulb). Read More

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January 2021

GK-rats respond to gastric bypass surgery with improved glycemia despite unaffected insulin secretion and beta cell mass.

Peptides 2021 Feb 13;136:170445. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Neuroendocrine Cell Biology, Lund University Diabetes Centre, Malmö, Sweden. Electronic address:

Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and results in rapid remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), before significant weight loss occurs. The underlying mechanisms for T2D remission are not fully understood. To gain insight into these mechanisms we used RYGB-operated diabetic GK-rats and Wistar control rats. Read More

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February 2021

GIP receptor suppresses PAC1receptor-mediated neuronal differentiation via formation of a receptor heterocomplex.

J Neurochem 2020 Oct 20. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Centre of Reproduction, Development and Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau, China.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) receptor (PAC1R) is a class B Gprotein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is widely expressed in the human body and is involved in neuronal differentiation. As class B GPCRs are known to form heterocomplexes with family members, we hypothesized that PAC1R mediates neuronal differentiation through interaction with a class B GPCR. We used the BRET assay to identify potential interactions between PAC1R and 11 class B GPCRs. Read More

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October 2020

GIP(3-30)NH - a tool for the study of GIP physiology.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2020 12 11;55:31-40. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a gut hormone impacting glucose, lipid and bone metabolism through the GIP receptor (GIPR). The GIP system has key species differences complicating the translation of findings from rodent to human physiology. Furthermore, the effects of endogenous GIP in humans have been difficult to tease out due to the lack of a suitable GIPR antagonist. Read More

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December 2020

Chronic glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) agonism desensitizes adipocyte GIPR activity mimicking functional GIPR antagonism.

Nat Commun 2020 10 5;11(1):4981. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Amgen Research, Department of Cardiometabolic Disorders, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Dr, Thousand Oaks, CA, 91320, USA.

Antagonism or agonism of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor (GIPR) prevents weight gain and leads to dramatic weight loss in combination with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in preclinical models. Based on the genetic evidence supporting GIPR antagonism, we previously developed a mouse anti-murine GIPR antibody (muGIPR-Ab) that protected diet-induced obese (DIO) mice against body weight gain and improved multiple metabolic parameters. This work reconciles the similar preclinical body weight effects of GIPR antagonists and agonists in vivo, and here we show that chronic GIPR agonism desensitizes GIPR activity in primary adipocytes, both differentiated in vitro and adipose tissue in vivo, and functions like a GIPR antagonist. Read More

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October 2020

The Dual GLP-1/GIP Receptor Agonist DA4-JC Shows Superior Protective Properties Compared to the GLP-1 Analogue Liraglutide in the APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2020 Jan-Dec;35:1533317520953041

Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, 4396Lancaster University, United Kingdom.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. Here, we test a dual GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist (DA4-JC) that has a cell penetrating sequence added to enhance blood-brain barrier penetration. We show in a receptor activity study that DA4-JC has balanced activity on both GLP-1 and GIP receptors but not on GLP-2 or Glucagon receptors. Read More

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February 2021

The Effect of Cell Surface Expression and Linker Sequence on the Recruitment of Arrestin to the GIP Receptor.

Front Pharmacol 2020 13;11:1271. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

School of Pharmacy, Institute for Pharmacology and Toxicology, The Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor are important targets in the treatment of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. Originally identified for their role in desensitization, internalization and recycling of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), arrestins have since been shown to act as scaffolding proteins that allow GPCRs to signal in a G protein-independent manner. While GLP-1R has been reported to interact with arrestins, this aspect of cell signaling remains controversial for GIPR. Read More

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Dose-dependent efficacy of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor antagonist GIP(3-30)NH on GIP actions in humans.

Diabetes Obes Metab 2021 Jan 1;23(1):68-74. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark.

The glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) fragment GIP(3-30)NH is a selective, competitive GIP receptor antagonist, and doses of 800 to 1200 pmol/kg/min inhibit GIP-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion by >80% in humans. We evaluated the effects of GIP(3-30)NH across a wider dose range in eight healthy men undergoing six separate and randomized 10-mmol/L hyperglycaemic clamps (A-F) with concomitant intravenous infusion of GIP (1.5 pmol/kg/min; A-E) or saline (F). Read More

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January 2021

The role of endogenous GIP and GLP-1 in postprandial bone homeostasis.

Bone 2020 11 27;140:115553. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Center for Clinical Metabolic Research, Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Hellerup, Denmark; Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Steno Diabetes Center Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark. Electronic address:

The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are well known for their insulinotropic effects and they are thought to affect bone homeostasis as mediators in the so-called entero-osseous axis. We examined the contributions of endogenous GIP and GLP-1, respectively, to postprandial bone homeostasis, in healthy subjects in two randomized and double-blind crossover studies. We included healthy men who received either four oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) (n = 18, median age 27 (range 20-70), BMI 27. Read More

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November 2020

Tirzepatide is an imbalanced and biased dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist.

JCI Insight 2020 09 3;5(17). Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Diabetes and Complications, and.

Tirzepatide (LY3298176) is a dual GIP and GLP-1 receptor agonist under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Early phase trials in T2DM indicate that tirzepatide improves clinical outcomes beyond those achieved by a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist. Therefore, we hypothesized that the integrated potency and signaling properties of tirzepatide provide a unique pharmacological profile tailored for improving broad metabolic control. Read More

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September 2020

A Novel Anti-inflammatory Phenotype Transformed by Repetitive Low-dose Lipopolysaccharide in Primary Peritoneal Tissue-resident Macrophages.

Anticancer Res 2020 Aug;40(8):4457-4464

Control of Innate Immunity, Technology Research Association, Kagawa, Japan

Background/aim: Our previous studies suggested that oral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) regulates the progression of various diseases via transformation of tissue-resident macrophages (MΦ). Recently, we characterized microglia transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-microglia) in vitro, and this response was similar to that observed in response to oral administration of LPS in vivo. Here, we examined the characteristics of peritoneal tissue-resident MΦ (pMΦ) transformed by repetitive low-dose LPS treatment (REPELL-pMΦ). Read More

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The role of GLP-1/GIP receptor agonists in Alzheimer's disease.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 06;29(6):661-668

Department of Geriatrics, Second Affiliated Hospital of the Harbin Medical University, China.

Background: New glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues developed in recent years have a long half-life and offer further prospects for clinical application. At present, the neuroprotection of GLP-1 analogues in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has just begun to be explored.

Objectives: To investigate how glucagon-like peptide-1 (liraglutide) plays a protective role in AD by regulating tau activation and BACE1 expression. Read More

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Gut Hormone GIP Induces Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in the Hypothalamus.

Endocrinology 2020 09;161(9)

Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

The hypothalamus plays a critical role in controlling energy balance. High-fat diet (HFD) feeding increases the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators and decreases insulin actions in the hypothalamus. Here, we show that a gut-derived hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), whose levels are elevated during diet-induced obesity, promotes and mediates hypothalamic inflammation and insulin resistance during HFD-induced obesity. Read More

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September 2020

Rapid selection of a novel GLP-1/GIP dual receptor agonist with prolonged glycemic control and weight loss in rodent animals.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 26;257:118025. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Shaan'xi Province TB Prevention and Treatment Hospital, Shaanxi 710100, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) co-agonists have emerged as treatment options for reversing diabetes and obesity. Here, we screened the high potency receptor-biased GLP-1R agonists via a newly designed high-throughput GLP-1R extracellular domain (ECD)-based system and demonstrated its in vitro and in vivo therapeutic characters.

Methods: Twelve 9-mer peptides (named XEL1-XEL12) which were screened from a large phage-displayed peptide library were fused to the N-terminus of GIP (3-30) to generate another twelve fusion peptides, termed XEL13-24. Read More

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September 2020

A novel thrombin-based triagonist with diabetes-protective and weight-lowering potential.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 26;256:117853. Epub 2020 May 26.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, PR China.

Aims: To investigate the diabetes-protective effect and weight-lowering potential of a novel long-acting triagonist at three metabolically related hormone receptors including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon receptors.

Main Methods: Triagonist were designed in an iterative manner from native GLP-1, GIP and Glucogan. Main peptide chain (termed TG peptides) and subsequently modified LTG peptides were synthesized via solid phase synthesis. Read More

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September 2020

GIP as a Therapeutic Target in Diabetes and Obesity: Insight From Incretin Co-agonists.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 08;105(8)

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The 2 hormones responsible for the amplification of insulin secretion after oral as opposed to intravenous nutrient administration are the gut peptides, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP). However, whereas GLP-1 also inhibits appetite and food intake and improves glucose regulation in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), GIP seems to be devoid of these activities, although the 2 hormones as well as their receptors are highly related. In fact, numerous studies have suggested that GIP may promote obesity. Read More

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Neuroprotection of GLP-1/GIP receptor agonist via inhibition of mitochondrial stress by AKT/JNK pathway in a Parkinson's disease model.

Life Sci 2020 Sep 20;256:117824. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Emergency, Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital, Guiyang 550004, PR China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor and glucose dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) receptor dual agonist DA-JC4 on alleviating Parkinson's disease (PD) and unveil related cellular mechanisms.

Methods: Rotenone was injected to generate a rat PD model, on which the effect of DA-JC4 on motor functions was evaluated by rotational behavioral assay and open field test. The survival of dopaminergic neurons was analyzed, in addition to assays for mitochondrial stress and quantification of neurotransmitter levels using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Read More

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September 2020